Charles Alexander, Duke of Württemberg
Charles Alexander of Württemberg (24 January 1684 – 12 March 1737) was a Württemberg noble from 1698 who governed the Kingdom of Serbia as regent from 1720 until 1733, when he assumed the position of Duke of Württemberg, which he held until his death.
|Duke of Württemberg|
|Reign||31 October 1733 –|
12 March 1737
|Successor||Charles II Eugene|
|Born||24 January 1684|
|Died||12 March 1737 (aged 52)|
|Spouse||Maria Augusta of Thurn and Taxis|
|Father||Frederick Charles, Duke of Württemberg-Winnental|
|Mother||Margravine Eleonore Juliane of Brandenburg-Ansbach|
|Religion||Roman Catholicism (previously Lutheranism)|
Born in Stuttgart, he was the eldest son of Frederick Charles, Duke of Württemberg-Winnental, and Margravine Eleonore Juliane of Brandenburg-Ansbach.
He succeeded his father as Duke of Württemberg-Winnental in 1698. As a successful army-commander in service of the Holy Roman Emperor, he had converted to Roman Catholicism in 1712. He was militarily successful under Prince Eugene of Savoy in the Spanish War of Succession as well as in the war against the Turks. In 1719 he was appointed imperial governor of Belgrade.
In 1720 Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI appointed him governor of the Kingdom of Serbia in Belgrade. While in this post he married Princess Marie Auguste of Thurn and Taxis (1706–56) in 1727; they had 4 children.
After 13 years of autocratically ruling over Serbia, in 1733 Charles Alexander inherited the Duchy of Württemberg from his cousin, Eberhard Louis. As Duke of Württemberg he moved the court back from Ludwigsburg to the nearby capital of Stuttgart. He ruled over the Duchy until his sudden death in 1737, and was succeeded by his nine-year-old son, Charles Eugene.
During his reign, he employed as his financier the ill-fated Joseph Süss Oppenheimer, who was executed in 1738 for abuse of office during the reign of the duke.
He married Princess Marie Auguste of Thurn and Taxis (1706–56) in 1727; they had 6 children:
- Karl Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (1728–1793), married Princess Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie of Brandenburg-Bayreuth; no issue.
- Eugen Louis (1729)
- Louis Eugene, Duke of Württemberg (1731–1795), married Countess Sophie Albertine of Beichlingen; had issue.
- Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg (1732–1797), married Princess Friederike Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt; had issue.
- Alexander Eugen (1733–1734)
- Auguste Elisabeth (1734–1787), married Prince Karl Anselm, 4th Prince of Thurn and Taxis; had issue.
In literature and filmEdit
Although the story of Duke Karl Alexander and Joseph Süß Oppenheimer constituted a relatively obscure episode in German history, it became the subject of a number of literary and dramatic treatments over the course of more than a century; the earliest of these having been Wilhelm Hauff's 1827 novella, titled Jud Süß. The most successful literary adaptation was Lion Feuchtwanger's 1925 novel titled Jud Süß based on a play that he had written in 1916 but subsequently withdrew.
Ashley Dukes and Paul Kornfeld also wrote dramatic adaptations of the Feuchtwanger novel. In 1934, Lothar Mendes directed "Jew Süss", a film adaptation of the novel. The role of Karl Alexander was played by Frank Vosper.
Although inspired by the historical details of Süß's life, Hauff's novella, Feuchtwanger's novel, and Harlan's film only loosely correspond to the historical sources available at the Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg.
|Ancestors of Charles Alexander, Duke of Württemberg|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Duke Karl Alexander of Württemberg.|
- "Encyclopædia Britannica (mentioned as "Charles Alexander")". Archived from the original on 26 May 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
- Magill, Frank Northen (1985). Magill's survey of cinema, foreign language films. Salem Press. ISBN 978-0-89356-247-2.
- Haines, B.; Parker, S. (2010). AESTHETICS AND POLITICS IN MODERN GERMAN CULTURE. Peter Lang. pp. 42–44. ISBN 978-3-03911-355-2.
Charles Alexander, Duke of WürttembergBorn: 24 January 1684 Died: 12 March 1737
territory governed by General Joseph O'Dwuyer
| imperial regent of Kingdom of Serbia
Charles Christoph of Schmettau
| Duke of Württemberg-Stuttgart
Charles II Eugene