List of mayors of New York City
The Mayor of New York City is the chief executive of the Government of New York City, as stipulated by New York City's charter. The current officeholder, the 109th in the sequence of regular mayors, is Bill de Blasio, a member of the Democratic Party.
During the Dutch colonial period from 1624 to 1664, New Amsterdam was governed by the Director of New Netherland. Following the 1664 creation of the British Province of New York, newly renamed New York City was run by the British military governor, Richard Nicolls. The office of Mayor of New York was established in 1665. Holders were appointed by colonial governors, beginning with Thomas Willett. The position remained appointed until 1777. That year, during the American Revolution, a Council of Appointment was formed by the State of New York. In 1821 the New York City Council – then known as the Common Council – began appointing mayors.
Since 1834, mayors have been elected by direct popular vote. Before 1898, the city included little beyond the island of Manhattan. The 1898 consolidation created the city as it is today with five boroughs: Manhattan, the Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. The longest-serving mayors have been Fiorello H. La Guardia (1934–1945), Robert F. Wagner Jr. (1954–1965), Ed Koch (1978–1989) and Michael Bloomberg (2002–2013), each of whom was in office for twelve years (three successive four-year terms). The shortest terms in office since 1834 have been those of acting mayors: Thomas Coman (five weeks from Monday, November 30, 1868, to Monday, January 4, 1869) and Samuel B. H. Vance (one month from November 30 to December 31, 1874), in addition to the purely nominal single day that William T. Collins served in 1925.
Every mayor was white until the election of David Dinkins (1990–1993), to date the city's only African American to hold the office. New York has not had a Hispanic or Latino mayor, with the possible exception of John Purroy Mitchel (1914–1917), who was of Spanish descent and whose grandfather was born in Venezuela. New York's mayors have been religiously diverse; the city has had Protestant, Jewish and Catholic mayors. No woman has ever served as mayor of New York City.
Before 1680, mayors served one-year terms. As of 1680, they served two-year terms. Exceptions are noted thus (*). A dagger (†) indicates mayoralties cut short by death in office. [When the same man served more than one continuous term, his name is lightly shaded purely for clarity, but the tints have no other significance.]
|No.||Name||Starting year of office||Ending year of office|
|1||Thomas Willett (1st term)||1665||1666|
|2||Thomas Delavall (1st term)||1666||1667|
|3||Thomas Willett (2nd term)||1667||1668|
|4||Cornelius Van Steenwyk (1st term)||1668||1671|
|5||Thomas Delavall (2nd term)||1671||1672|
|7||John Lawrence (1st term)||1673||1675|
|9||Nicholas De Mayer||1676||1677|
|10||Stephanus Van Cortlandt (1st term)||1677||1678|
|11||Thomas Delavall (3rd term)||1678||1679|
|14||Cornelius Van Steenwyk (2nd term)||1682||1684|
|15||Gabriel Minvielle (*)||1684||1685|
|16||Nicholas Bayard (*)||1685||1686|
|17||Stephanus Van Cortlandt (2nd term)||1686||1688|
|18||Peter Delanoy 1||1689||1691|
|19||John Lawrence (2nd term *)||1691||1691|
|20||Abraham de Peyster||1691||1694|
|23||Johannes de Peyster||1698||1699|
|25||Isaac De Reimer||1700||1701|
|30||Jacobus Van Cortlandt (1st term)||1710||1711|
|33||Jacobus Van Cortlandt (2nd term)||1719||1720|
|36||Robert Lurting †||1726||1735|
|38||John Cruger †||1739||1744|
|40||Edward Holland †||1747||1757|
|41||John Cruger Jr.||1757||1766|
- Peter Delanoy was the first and only directly-elected mayor of New York until 1834. Appointed mayors resumed in the wake of Leisler's Rebellion.
† died in office
The mayor continued to be selected by the Government of New York's Council of Appointment until 1821, when Stephen Allen became the first mayor appointed by a local Common Council. Under the Charter of 1834, mayors were elected annually by direct popular vote. Starting in 1849, mayors were elected to serve two-year terms.
|#||Mayor||Term start||Term end||Terms|
|44||James Duane||January 1, 1784||1789||5||None|
|47||DeWitt Clinton (1st term)||1803||1807||4||Democratic-Republican|
|49||DeWitt Clinton (2nd term)||1808||1810||2||Democratic-Republican|
|50||Jacob Radcliff (1st term)||1810||1811||1||Federalist|
|51||DeWitt Clinton (3rd term)||1811||1815||4||Democratic-Republican|
|53||Jacob Radcliff (2nd term)||February 13, 1815||1818||3||Federalist|
|54||Cadwallader D. Colden||1818||1821||3||Federalist|
|56||William Paulding Jr. (1st term)||1825||1826||1||Democratic-Republican|
|57||Philip Hone||1826||1827||1||National Republican|
|58||William Paulding Jr. (2nd term)||1827||1829||2||Democratic-Republican|
|63||Isaac L. Varian||1839||1841||2||Democratic|
|64||Robert H. Morris||1841||1844||3||Democratic|
|65||James Harper||1844||1845||1||American Republican|
|66||William F. Havemeyer (1st term)||1845||1846||1||Democratic|
|67||Andrew H. Mickle||1846||1847||1||Democratic|
|68||William V. Brady||1847||1848||1||Whig|
|69||William F. Havemeyer (2nd term)||1848||1849||1||Democratic|
|70||Caleb S. Woodhull||1849||1851||1||Whig|
|72||Jacob A. Westervelt||1853||1855||1||Democratic|
|73||Fernando Wood (1st term)||1855||1858||2||Democratic|
|74||Daniel F. Tiemann||1858||1860||1||Independent Party|
|75||Fernando Wood (2nd term)||1860||1862||1||Democratic|
|77||Charles G. Gunther||1864||1866||1||Democratic|
|78||John T. Hoffman1||1866||November 30, 1868||less than 1||Democratic|
|Acting||Thomas Coman 1||November 30, 1868||January 4, 1869||5 weeks||Democratic|
|79||Abraham Oakey Hall 2||January 4, 1869||December 31, 1872||1||Democratic|
|80||William F. Havemeyer 3(3rd term) †||January 1, 1873||November 30, 1874||less than 1||Republican|
|Acting||Samuel B. H. Vance 3||November 30, 1874||December 31, 1874||1 month||Republican|
|81||William H. Wickham||January 1, 1875||December 31, 1876||1||Democratic (Reform)|
|82||Smith Ely Jr.||1877||1878||1||Democratic|
|83||Edward Cooper||1879||1880||1||Democratic (Reform)|
|84||William R. Grace (1st term)||1881||1882||1||Democratic (Reform)|
|86||William R. Grace (2nd term)||1885||1886||2||None|
|88||Hugh J. Grant||1889||1892||2||Democratic|
|89||Thomas F. Gilroy||1893||1894||1||Democratic|
|90||William L. Strong 4||January 1, 1895||December 31, 1897||1
- John T. Hoffman resigned after his election as Governor of New York state but before the end of his mayoral term. Thomas Coman, President of the Board of Aldermen, completed Hoffman's term as acting mayor until his elected successor, A. Oakey Hall, took office.
- When Hall temporarily retired during the Tweed investigation, the Acting Mayor of New York City was John Cochrane, the President of the New York City Council.
- William F. Havemeyer died during his last term of office. Samuel B. H. Vance, President of the Board of Aldermen, completed Havemeyer's term as acting mayor until his elected successor, William H. Wickham, took office.
- William L. Strong served an additional year in office because New York City mayoral elections were changed to be held in odd-numbered years due to the impending consolidation of New York City.
† died in office
The 1898–1901 term was for four years. The City Charter was changed to make the mayor's term a two-year one beginning in 1902, but after two such terms was changed back to resume four-year terms in 1906. George B. McClellan Jr. thus served one two-year term from 1904 to 1905, during which he was elected to a four-year term from 1906 to 1909.
The party of the mayor reflects party registration, as opposed to the party lines run under during the general election.
|#||Portrait||Name||Term in office||Length of service||Party affiliation||Previous office|
|91||Robert A. Van Wyck1
(1849–1918; aged 69)
|January 1, 1898
December 31, 1901
|4 years||Democratic||Chief Justice of the City Court of New York|
|92||Seth Low 2
(1850–1916; aged 66)
|January 1, 1902
December 31, 1903
|2 years||Republican||11th President of Columbia University|
|93||George B. McClellan Jr.
(1865–1940; aged 75)
|January 1, 1904
December 31, 1909
|6 years||Democratic||U.S. Representative for New York|
|94||William Jay Gaynor 3 †
(1849–1913; aged 64)
|January 1, 1910
September 10, 1913
|3 years, 253 days||Democratic||Judge of the New York Supreme Court|
|Acting3||Ardolph L. Kline||September 10, 1913
December 31, 1913
|113 days||Republican||President of the Board of Aldermen|
|95||John P. Mitchel
(1879–1918; aged 38)
|January 1, 1914
December 31, 1917
|4 years||Republican||U.S. Customs Collector of the Port of New York;|
President of the Board of Aldermen
|96||John F. Hylan 4,
(1868–1936; aged 67)
|January 1, 1918
December 30, 1925
|8 years||Democratic||County Judge in Brooklyn|
|Acting4||William T. Collins||December 31, 1925||1 day||Democratic||President of the Board of Aldermen|
|97||Jimmy Walker 5
(1881–1946; aged 65)
|January 1, 1926
September 1, 1932
|6 years, 244 days
(6 years, 8 months)
|Democratic||New York State Senator|
|Acting5||Joseph V. McKee||September 1, 1932
December 31, 1932
|Democratic||President of the Board of Aldermen|
|98||John P. O'Brien
(1873–1951; aged 78)
|January 1, 1933
December 31, 1933
|1 year||Democratic||Surrogate of New York County|
|99||Fiorello H. La Guardia
(1882–1947; aged 64)
|January 1, 1934
December 31, 1945
|12 years||Republican||U.S. Representative for New York|
|100||William O'Dwyer 6
(1890–1964; aged 74)
|January 1, 1946
August 31, 1950
|4 years, 243 days
(4 years, 8 months)
|Democratic||Brooklyn District Attorney|
|Acting 7||Vincent R. Impellitteri 6
(1900–1987; aged 86)
|August 31, 1950
November 14, 1950
(as acting mayor)
|President of the City Council|
|101||November 14, 1950
December 31, 1953
|3 years, 48 days||Experience Party
(as elected mayor)
|102||Robert F. Wagner Jr.
(1910–1991; aged 80)
|January 1, 1954
December 31, 1965
|12 years||Democratic||17th Borough President of Manhattan|
(1921–2000; aged 79)
|January 1, 1966
December 31, 1973
|8 years||Republican||U.S. Representative for New York|
(1906–2001; aged 94)
|January 1, 1974
December 31, 1977
|4 years||Democratic||38th New York City Comptroller|
(1924–2013; aged 88)
|January 1, 1978
December 31, 1989
|12 years||Democratic||U.S. Representative for New York|
(born 1927; age 92)
|January 1, 1990
December 31, 1993
|4 years||Democratic||23rd Borough President of Manhattan|
(born 1944; age 76)
|January 1, 1994
December 31, 2001
|8 years||Republican||United States Attorney for|
the Southern District of New York
(born 1942; age 78)
|January 1, 2002
December 31, 2013
|12 years||Republican 8||CEO of Bloomberg L.P.|
|109||Bill de Blasio
(born 1961; age 59)
|January 1, 2014
|6 years||Democratic||3rd New York City Public Advocate|
- Randolph Gugghenheimer I (born 1846) served as acting mayor in 1900 while Robert A. Van Wyck was away.
- Seth Low previously served as Mayor of the City of Brooklyn from 1882 to 1885.
- William Jay Gaynor died September 10, 1913. Ardolph L. Kline, the unelected President of the Board of Aldermen, succeeded as acting mayor upon Gaynor's death, but then sought re-election as an alderman (successfully) rather than election as mayor. Kline has thus been the only mayor since 1834 never to win a citywide election (having been appointed Vice President of the Board of Aldermen by his colleagues and then succeeding to the presidency mid-term, rather than winning it by popular election at large).
- John Hylan and Police Commissioner Richard Enright resigned December 30, 1925 to ensure that they received their city pensions, which they may not have been entitled to keep had they stayed in office for one more day. William T. Collins became acting Mayor for one day, prior to the inauguration of Jimmy Walker
- Jimmy Walker resigned September 1, 1932 and went to Europe, amid allegations of corruption in his administration. Joseph V. McKee, as President of the Board of Aldermen, became acting mayor in Walker's place, but was then defeated in a special election by John P. O'Brien.
- William O'Dwyer resigned August 31, 1950, during a police corruption scandal, after which he was appointed Ambassador to Mexico by President Harry S. Truman.
- Vincent R. Impellitteri, President of the New York City Council, became acting mayor when O'Dwyer resigned on August 31, 1950, and was then elected to the office in a special election held on November 7, 1950. He was inaugurated on November 14.
- Michael R. Bloomberg was a lifelong Democrat before registering as a Republican in 2001 and running for mayor. He then registered as an Independent in 2007, and re-registered as a Democrat in 2018 after saying he would consider a run for the presidency in 2020.
† died in office
- Lincoln, Charles Z. (1906). The Constitutional History of New York: From the Beginning of the Colonial Period to the Year 1905, Showing the Origin, Development, and Judicial Construction of the Constitution – Volume 2. Rochester, N.Y.: The Lawyers Co-operative Publishing Company. p. 6. Retrieved December 26, 2016.
- Mollenkopf, John (2014) "The Rise of Immigrant Influence in New York City Politics" in New York and Amsterdam: Immigration and the New Urban Landscape (Foner, Nancy et al. eds.) New York:New York University Press, p.210
- Roberts, Sam (May 7, 2013) Candidate Hoping to Be First Hispanic Mayor May Be 100 Years Too Late, The New York Times
- Roberts, Sam (May 10, 2005) Today's Loneliest Political Minority? It's Probably the White Protestant, The New York Times: "New York's early mayors were mostly Protestant, but in the last 100 years the city has elected few Protestant mayors."
- Binder, Frederick and Reimers, David (1995) All the Nations Under Heaven: An Ethnic and Racial History of New York City New York: Columbia University Press. p.243: "In 1963 Abe Beame became the first Jew to be elected mayor of New York City. In 1977 Ed Koch became the second Jewish mayor when he won election to the first of three terms."
- Collins, Glen (May 15, 2008) Persecuted to Powerful: Exhibiting a History of New York's Catholics, The New York Times: "William R. Grace, who was elected in 1880 as the first Catholic mayor of New York City..."
- Weatherford, Doris (2012) Women in American Politics: History and Milestones, Vol. 1. CQ Press p.262
- "The Green Book: Mayors of the City of New York" Archived March 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine on the official NYC website. When a former mayor serves again after a break in office, a new number is assigned to his resumed service. However, the six acting mayoralties are unnumbered.
- Burrows, Edwin G. & Wallace, Mike (1999). Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-195-11634-8. pp.99–100
- Caldwell, John; Rogue, Oswaldo Rodriguez; Johnson, Dale T. (March 1, 1994). American Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 1. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 256.
- Mooney, James E. "Tiemann, Daniel F(awcett)" in Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010). The Encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 1314–15. ISBN 978-0-300-11465-2.
- Burrows, Edwin G. & Wallace, Mike (1999). Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 850–51. ISBN 0-195-11634-8.
- Trager, James (2003), The New York Chronology, New York: HarperCollins, p. 113, ISBN 0-06-074062-0
- Staff (November 17, 1868). "Local Intelligence — Board of Aldermen — Resignation of the Mayor". The New York Times. p. 2. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
- Staff (January 5, 1869). "Municipal Affairs — Organization of the Common Council — The Mayor's Message — The City Budget for 1869 — Comparison of Taxation in 1868 and 1869". The New York Times. p. 2. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
- Staff (November 7, 1897). "Robert A. Van Wyck". The New York Times Magazine. p. 2. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
- Staff (December 31, 1925). "Hylan And Enright Out With Pensions; Last-Hour Shifts In Police Department; Walker Fills Important City Posts — Collins Mayor for a Day — Leach is the Active Head of the Police Force for the Last Day of 1925 — Hylan to Get $4,205 A Year — Retirement Voted by Board of Estimate, He Quits to Assure Pension — Enright to Draw $5,000 — Approval of His Retirement as Commissioner One of Hylan's Last Official Acts". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- Staff (November 7, 1917). "How Hylan Reached The Mayor's Chair — Came Here from the Farm and First Worked as a Tracklayer — To School After Marriage — Long Active in Civic Affairs in Brooklyn — Mayoralty Said to Have Been His Ambition". The New York Times. p. 5. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
- Staff (November 10, 1932). "O'Brien Will Stay on Bench Till Jan. 1 — Mayor-Elect Says, However, He Will Devote Spare Time to Study of City's Problems — Renews Economy Pledge — Silent on Protest Vote — McKee Among Thousands Who Send Congratulatory Messages". The New York Times. p. 5. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
- Staff (November 5, 1933). "List of Candidates Who Will Be on Ballots in Municipal Election Nov. 7". The New York Times. p. N2. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- "Acting Mayor Boomed Long Branch Property by Buying Drexel Cottage". The New York Times. August 20, 1900. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
- "Randolph Gugghenheimer". Jewish Encyclopedia.
Guggenheimer acted as mayor of New York city during the absence of the incumbent.
- Wise, Justin (October 10, 2018). "Bloomberg re-registers as Democrat". The Hill. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- Media related to Mayors of New York City at Wikimedia Commons