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List of loanwords in Tagalog

The Tagalog language has developed a unique vocabulary since its inception from its Austronesian roots. According to lexographer Jose Villa Panganiban, "of the 30,000 root words in the Tagalog language, there are close to 4,000 from Spanish, 3,200 from Malay, 1,500 from English, 1,500 from both Hokkien (Min Nan) and Yue Chinese dialects, 300 from Tamil and Sanskrit, 200 from Arabic, and a few hundred altogether from other languages".[citation needed] Some linguists[who?] claim that borrowings from Malay and Chamorro cannot be ascertained at this time, as words from the Old Austronesian language and those from Malay and Chamorro are still ambiguous and too similar to be distinguished.

Contents

SpanishEdit

The Filipino language incorporated Spanish loanwords as a result of 400 years of contact with the Spanish language. In their review of a Pilipino-English dictionary, Llamzon and Thorpe (1972) point out that 33% of word roots are of Spanish origin.[1] An example is the sentence below in which Spanish–derived words are in italics (original in parentheses):

Tagalog: "Puwede (Puede) ba akong umupo sa silya (silla) sa tabi ng bintana (ventana) habang nasa biyahe (viaje) tayo sa eroplano (aeroplano)?"
Translation in English: ("May I sit on the chair near the window during our voyage in the aeroplane?")

The adoption of the Abakada alphabet in 1940[2] changed the spelling of most of the Spanish loanwords present in the Filipino language. The loanwords derived from the Spanish language have their original spellings indigenized according to the rules of the Abakada alphabet. Examples include alkalde (from Sp. alcalde), anyos (from Sp. años), basura (from Sp. basura), bintana (from Sp. ventana), demokrasya (from Sp. democracia), estudyante (from Sp. estudiante), heneral (from Sp. general), panyo (from Sp. paño), pato (from Sp. pato), prinsesa (from Sp. princesa), sinturon (from Sp. cinturón) and telebisyon (from Sp. televisión).[3][4]

Other loanwords derived from the Spanish language underwent spelling and pronunciation changes. Vowel changes can be observed to some of the Spanish words upon adoption into the Filipino language. For example, an /i/ to /a/ vowel shift can be observed in the Filipino word paminta, which came from the Spanish word pimienta.[5] A rare vowel change from /e/ to /u/ can be observed in the words unano (from Sp. enano) and umpisa (from Sp. empezar). Other words derived from Spanish underwent vowel deletion upon adoption into the Filipino language, such as the words pusta (from Sp. apuesta), umento (from Sp. aumento), tarantado (from Sp. atarantado), kursonada (from Sp. corazonada), Pasko (from Sp. Pascua) and labi (from Sp. labio).[6] Consonant shifts can also be observed to some of the Spanish words upon their adoption into the Filipino language. The [r] to [l] consonant shift can be observed in the following words: alma (from Sp. armar) asukal (from Sp. azúcar), balbas (from Sp. barba), multo (from Sp. muerto), kasal (from Sp. casar), kumpisal (from Sp. confesar), almusal (from Sp. almorzar), dasal (from Sp. rezar) and nunal (from Sp. lunar). The loss of the /l/ phoneme can be observed in the Filipino word kutson derived from the Spanish colchón.

Others have morphed like 'ku(ha)nin' (Sp.: 'coja' + Tag.: '–nin'), which has inconspicuously developed into another pure Tagalog–sounding word. Another one is maamong kordero (from Sp. amo & cordero). Combined together, it conveys the description of a meek, tame, harmless human with Tagalog adjective prefix and suffix added. The compound word batya't palo–palo, a must word in the laundry business where many Spanish words proliferate. The words were taken from the Spanish batea for "washing tub" and palo for "stick" or "beater", something a typical Filipino might think had no Spanish provenance at all. Others are umpisa (empieza), pulubi (pobre), pader (pared).

Some have acquired an entirely new meaning, such as kursonada (corazonada, originally meaning '"hunch"), which means "object of desire"; sospechoso is the "suspicious person" and not the "suspect" as in the original; imbyerna (invierno) once meant 'winter' but is now a word for "bummer"; insekto ("insecto"), which still means "insect" but also refers to a "pesty clownish person"; or even sige (sigue), a Spanish word for "continue" or "follow", which is now widely understood to mean "all right" or "go ahead".

Others use Spanish prefixes and/or suffixes, combined from Tagalog or other languages, without which the word can not be completed and convey its meaning. For example, pakialamero (from Tag. pakialam, "to meddle" and the Sp. suffix –ero, masculine subject); same as majongero ("mahjong", a Chinese word and the Sp. suffix –ero). Daisysiete is a corruption and portmanteau of the English "daisy" and the Spanish diecisiete ("seventeen"), now meaning a sweet and sexually desirable underaged (below 18, hence the number) female. Bastusing katawán (Sp.: basto & Tag.: katawan) is an example of a two-word term for a bombshell body

Even after the Spanish era, Tagalog is still being influenced by Spanish as new words are coined, albeit along its own terms, viz., alaskadór ("Alaska" + Sp. suffix '–ador'); barkada (from Sp.: barca,"boat" to "clique"); bérde ("verde"="green", nuanced to "toilet humour" or "blue joke"); which are not readily understood in Spain or any Latin American country. In a strange twist, even if Filipinos have a chance to Tagalized words using foreign words, currently English—their most accessible influence—they coin words in a uniquely Hispanizing way i.e. "boksingero" (from Eng. "boxing") instead of using the Spanish "boxeador". Or "basketbolista" (from Eng. "basketball"), instead of borrowing from Spanish "baloncesto" to make it say "baloncestista" or "baloncestador" (although basketball "básquetbol" in many Latin American countries).

Here are the examples of Spanish–derived Tagalog words in the following format: Word (Etymology – Original Definition/s if different from Nuanced Definition. = Derivative Definition if Compound Words) – Nuanced Definition. Shared Definition precedes Nuanced Definition if both exist.

Tagalog Spanish Meaning Native equivalent(s)
Abante Avante Ahead; Forward Pasulóng
Ahedres Ajedrez Chess
Ahente Agente Agent Kinatawán
Ahensya Agéncia Agency Sangáy, Sukursal
Alemanya Alemania Germany
Ambisyoso Ambicioso Ambitious Mapaglunggatì
Angklá Ancla Anchor
Aparadór Aparador Closet
Arina Harina Flour Galapóng (rice flour), Gawgáw (cornstarch)
Arko Arco Arch
Armas Armas Arms (Weapon) Sandata
Asoge Asogue Mercury (Hg)
Asupre Azufre Sulfur Sangyawa
Abiso Aviso Warning Babalâ
Atenas Atenas Athens
Balato Barato Cheap
Balyena Ballena Whale
Baryo Barrio Village Nayon, Barangay
Bentilador Ventilador Electric fan
Bintana Ventana Window Durungawan
Bisikleta Bicicleta Bicycle
Biyolohiya Biología Biology Haynayan (contraction of buhay "life" and hanayan "ordering of")
Bodega Bodega Storehouse Kamalig, Pintungan
Britanya Britania Britain
Departamento Departamento Department Kagawarán
Diperensya Diferencia Difference Pagkakaibá
Direktor Director Director Tagapangasiwa
Diyós Dios God Bathalâ (via Sanskrit), Panginoón ("Lord") or Maykapal ("Creator")
Edukasyón Educación Education Pag-aaral
Ekolohiya Ecologia Ecology
Ekonomiya Economia Economy
Eksena Escena Scene Tagpô
Estados Unidos Estados Unidos United States
Espanya/España España Spain
Espanyol/Español Español Spanish
Eskuwela/Eskwela Escuela School Paaralán
Estadístika Estadística Statistics
Estudyante Estudiante Student Mag-aarál
Estúpido Estúpido Stupid
Garahe Garaje Garage Taguán (lit. "hiding place")
Golpemano Golpe-mano Work cooperatively
Gwapo/Guwapo/Guapo Guapo Handsome Makisig
Giyera Guerra War Digmaan
Hustisya Justicia Justice Katarungan [1]
Hapón Japón Japan
Haponés Japonés Japanese
Hotél/Otél Hotel Hotel
Idrolika/Idrawlika Hidráulica Hydraulics Danumsigwasan
Indonés Indones Indonesian
Inglatera Inglaterra England
Ingles/Inggles Inglés English
Intindé/Intindi Entiende Understand Unawà
Kalye Calle Street Daán, Lansangan
Kapasidad Capacidad Capacity Kakayahán
Kabayo Caballo Horse
Karne Carne Meat Lamán ("flesh")
Koléhiyo Colegio College Dalubhasaan
Konstitusyón Constitución Constitution Saligang Batás (lit. "basic/foundational law")
Kotse/Awto Coche/Auto Car/Auto Sasakyán (lit. the more general "vehicle")
Kroasya Croácia Croatia
Kultura Cultura Culture Kalinangan
Kumusta ¿Cómo estás? How are you? (general greeting) Gaano ka ngayón?, Ano'ng balità? (lit. "What is the news?")
Kwento/Kuwento Cuento Story Salitâ (lit. "word"), Salaysáy ("narrative"), Kathâ ("tale", often fictional)
Lingguwistika/Linggwistika Lingüística Linguistics Dalubwikaan (dalubhasà "expert" + wikà "language" + -an "the activity of")
Litrato Retrato Picture, Photograph Larawan (lit. more general "picture" or "image"), Talaksán
Lugar Lugar Place Pook
Luhò Lujo Luxury Karangyaan
Matemátika Matemática Mathematics Sipnayan (contraction of isip "thought" and hanayan "ordering of")
Mantikà Manteca Oil Langís
Memorya Memoria Memory Alaala
Militar Militar Military
Monarkiya Monarquía Monarchy Kaharián (lit. "kingdom; via Malay Karajahan/Kerajaan)
Motorsiklo Motocicleta Motorcycle
Mundo Múndo World Daigdíg, Sanlibutan
Nasyonalista Nacionalista Nationalist Makabayan, Makabansâ
Numero Número Number Bilang
Olanda Holanda Netherlands
Operasyón Operación Operation Pagpápatakbó, Pagkakatistís, Nasalarangan
Ordinansa Ordenanza Ordinance Kautusán, Kabatasan
Ordinaryo Ordinario Ordinary Karaniwan
Oras Horas Time, Hour Panahón ("time")
Ospitál Hospital Hospital [Bahay]-pagamutan ("Treatment house"; latter may also stand alone to mean "clinic")
Pamilya Familia Family Angkán (often used in the sense of "clan")
Pelikula/Penikula Película Movie, Film
Pilipinas Filipinas Philippines
Pistá/Piyesta Fiesta Feast Kaarawán (lit. "anniversary"; colloquially used mostly for "birthday" from the longer "Kaarawán ng kapanganakan")
Probinsiya/Probinsya Provincia Province Lalawigan
Presidente Presidente President Pangulo
Pulís/Pulisya Policía Police
Pwede/Puwede Puede Can Kaya, Maaarì (denotes permission. i.e., more like "may") also Nais, pronounced Nha-ees (not to be confused with the Spanish word of country, Pais.)
Pwersa/Puwersa Fuerza Force Lakás ("strength"), Bika, Hukbô ("army", "host"), isig
Radyo Radio Radio
Realidad Realidad Reality Katotohanan
Reló Reloj Wristwatch
Repúblika República Republic
Reyna Reina Queen Hara (both for pre-Colonial queens regnant and consort)
Sabón Jabón Soap
Sapatos Zapatos Shoes
Senyales Señales Signs Tanda
Silya Silla Chair Upuan (lit. more general "seat"), Salumpuwít (contraction of Salóng "catcher" and puwít "buttocks/backside")
Sinseridad Sinceridad Sincerity Taos-Puso
Siyensiya Ciencia Science Aghám (via Sanskrit "Agama")
Siyudad Ciudad City Lungsod
Sundalo Soldado Soldier Kawal
Suspetsa Sospechar Suspect Pinaghíhinalaan
Swerte/Suwerte Suerte Luck Mapalad
Syampu Champu Shampoo
Tableta Tableta Tablet
Tarheta Tarjeta Card
Tasa Taza Mug
Telebisyón Televisión Television
Termodinamika Termodinamica Thermodynamics Initsigan
Teklado Teclado Keyboard Tipaan (usu. for computers)
Tsino Chino Chinese Intsík (mildly derogatory)
Tsarera Charera Teapot
Tsinelas Chinelas Slippers
Tsismis Chismes Gossip Satsát (also "chatter")
Teknolohiya Tecnología Technology
Yelo Hielo Ice
Yero Hierro Iron (the element or material) Bakal
Yeso Yeso Chalk Tisa
Yodo Yodo/Iodo Iodine

Note that the first syllable of loanwords from Spanish that start with /aw/ are also sometimes pronounced and spelled /o/ (e.g. 'otonomiya' rather than 'awtonomiya') due to the predominance of pronunciation of lonwords from English.

EnglishEdit

English has been used in everyday Tagalog conversation. This kind of conversation is called Taglish. English words borrowed by Tagalog are mostly modern and technical terms, but English words are also used for short usage (many Tagalog words translated from English are very long) or to avoid literal translation and repetition of the same particular Tagalog word. English makes the second largest vocabulary of Tagalog after Spanish. In written language, English words in a Tagalog sentence are written as they are, but they are sometimes written in Tagalog phonetic spelling. Here are some examples:

Tagalog English Traditional Word(s)
Awtomobil Automobile Sasakyan
Awdiyo Audio Tunog
Basketbol Basketball
Biskwit Biscuit
Bidyo Video
Bolpen Ballpoint pen
Breyses Braces
Byu View Tanaw
Biswal Visual Paningin, Nakikita
Direk Director Tagapangasiwa
Doktor Doctor
Drayber Driver Tsuper
Dyip Jeep
Ekonomiks Economics
Haiskul High School Mataas na Paaralan
Indibidwal Individual Bawat isa
Interbyu Interview Pakikipanayam
Iskor Score
Iskrin Screen
Ispiker Speaker Mananalumpati
Isports Sports Laro
Istampid Stampede Pagpapanakbuhan
Kabinet Cabinet
Katsup/Ketsap Ketchup
Keyk Cake
Nars Nurse Sisiwa
Kompyuter Computer
Perpyum Perfume Pabango
Sayt Site
Selpown/Selpon Cellphone/Mobile Phone
Telebisyon Television/TV
Titser Teacher Guro
Traysikel Tricycle
Trey Tray
Websayt Website Pook-sapot

Note that Filipinos do a lot of code-switching. Which means, using English terms and phrases in the middle of a speech/conversation done in Tagalog.

Example 1:

English: "My birthplace is in Manila, Philippines. It is very hot but still quite nice over there."

Tagalog: "Ang pinanganakán ko ay sa Maynila, Pilipinas. Ang init-init doón, ngunit maganda naman."

Code-switched: ''Ang birthplace ko ay sa Manila, sa Philippines. Sobrang hot doón pero maganda."

Example 2:

English: "I am going to school now. The driver will arrive soon and I will not be late for my Biology class."

Tagalog/Filipino: "Papások na akó sa eskuwela. Malápit nang dumating ang magmamaneho kayâ hindî akó mahuhulí sa klase sa Biyolohiya."

Pure Tagalog: "Papások na akó sa paaralan. Malápit nang dumating ang magpapatakbo ng sasakyan kayâ hindi akó mahuhulí sa aral ng haynayan." (no loanwords as much as possible, rarely used in actual conversation)

Code-switched: "Papások na akó sa school. Malápit na ang driver kayâ hindi ako male-late sa Biology class ko." (colloquial, often used)

Filipinos politicians and celebrities are known for code-switching. A severe, oft-ridiculed form of code-switching is Konyo English.

Malay and IndonesianEdit

Tagalog is an Austronesian language and so is closely related to Malay dialects in Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia. Because of the close relationship, there are many cognates between the two languages stretching back many millennia. Many cognates were re-borrowed into the language when Old Malay became the official language of trade and documentation during the pre-colonial era of Philippine history, as evidenced by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription of 900 AD and accounts of Pigafetta at the time of the Spanish arrival in the country five centuries later. This is a small sample of the thousands of cognates between Tagalog and Malay:

Tagalog word Malay word (M)/Indonesian Word (I) Meaning
Ako Aku I (first person)
Anak Anak Child
Anim Enam Six
Apat Empat Four
Araw Hari Day
Bobo Bodoh Stupid
Bahagì Bahagian (M)
Bagi (I)
Portion, Part
Bahay Balai House
Balík Balik Return
Balimbing Belimbing Starfruit, Perfidious, Disloyal (owing to the fruit's ability to land on any side)
Balita Berita News
Balot Balut To wrap
Bangkay Bangkai Corpse, Carcass
Bangis Bengis Fierce, Ferocious
Bangon Bangun To awaken/rouse
Bansa Bangsa Nation
Bato Batu Stone
Bawang Bawang putih Garlic
Bayad Bayar Pay
Bibig Bibir Mouth
Bili Beli Buy
Bukas/Buka Buka Open (v.)
Bunso Bongsu (M)
Bungsu (I)
Youngest child
Buntis Bunting
Hamil (I)
Pregnant
Buwan Bulan Moon, Month
Buwaya Buaya Crocodile
Daan Jalan Street, Road, Way
Dalamhatì Dalam + hati Grief
Dahon Daun Leaf
Dingding Dinding Wall
Durian Durian Durian
Ganap Genap Exact, Complete
Gulay Gulai Vegetables
Gulong Gulung To roll, Vehicle Tire
Gunting Gunting Scissors
Halaga Harga Price
Hangin Angin Wind
Harapan Hadapan In front, The front of
Hirám Pinjam To borrow
Ikaw Kau You
Itik Itik Duck
Itim Hitam Black
Kahoy Kayu Wood
Kalapati Merpati Pigeon
Kambing Kambing Goat
Kami Kami We (excludes addressee)
Kanan Kanan Right
Kangkong Kangkung Water Spinach
Kapag Kapan When, If
Karayom Jarum Needle
Kawali Kuali Frying pan, Wok
Kawani Kerani
Pramuniaga/i (I)
Clerk
Kita Kita We (Dual first person pronoun)
Ko Ku mine/my
Kuting Kucing Kitten
Kuta Kota Fortress
Kulang Kurang Less, Lacking
Kulong Kurung Jailed, Caged
Laban Lawan Oppose (v.), Opposition (n.)
Lagok Teguk Gulp
Lalakì Lelaki, Laki–laki Male
Lamok Nyamuk insect
Landas Landasan
Lintasan (I)
Track (n.)
Langka Nangka Jackfruit
Langit Langit Sky, Heaven
Lasa Rasa Taste, Flavour
Libo Ribu Thousand
Lima Lima Five
Linggo Minggu Sunday
Luma Lama Old
Luwalhatì Luar + hati Glory
Mahal Mahal Expensive, Highly treasured
Maharlika Merdeka/Meherdeka Free men
Mangga Mangga Mango
Mangkok Mangkuk Bowl
Mukha Muka Face
Mula Mula From
Mura Murah Cheap, Young
Pako Paku Nail
Palayok Periuk Cooking pot
Pangulo Penghulu President
Paso Pasu Flowerpot
Pasok Masuk Enter
Payong Payung Umbrella
Pili Pilih Choose
Pinggan Pinggan
Piring (I)
Plate
Pinto Pintu Door
Pulo Pulau Island
Puno Penuh Full
Puti Putih White
Rambutan Rambutan Rambutan
Sabon Sabun Soap
Sakit Sakit Illness (n.), painful (adj.)
Saksí Saksi Witness
Salamin Cermin Mirror, Glass, Eyeglasses
Sama Sama Together/To join
Samantala Sementara Meanwhile,
Sampalataya Percaya To believe (v.) Belief (n.)
Sampu Sepuluh Ten
Sandata Senjata Weapon
Sarap Sedap Delicious
Sandok Senduk
Sendok (I)
Ladle
Silaw Silau Dazzled
Sinta Cinta Love (possessive)
Siyasat Siasat Investigate
Sukat Sukat Measure
Sulat Surat Letter (n.), Write (v.)
Taas Atas Top, Height
Tae Tai Excrement
Takot; Takót Takut Fear (n.); Afraid (adj.)
Tali Tali String, Rope (n.)
Tamis Manis Sweet
Tanggal Tanggal To remove, To take off
Tanghali Tengah + hari Noon
Tangis Tangis Cry (n.)
Taon Tahun Year
Tawad Tawar To bargain, To forgive (v.), discount (n.)
Talong Terong Eggplant/Aubergine
Tulak Tolak Push, Shove
Tulong Tolong Help (n., v.)
Tusok Tusuk Pierce, Prick, Stab
Tuwa/Tawa Tawa laughter
Uban Uban Grey hair
Ulan Hujan Rain (n.)
Utak Otak Brain
Utang Hutang Debt

SanskritEdit

The question has been raised about the origin of some words in the various dialects of the Philippines and their possible connection to ancient Buddhist and Hindu culture in the region.[7][8]

Tagalog Sanskrit Meaning
Agham Agama Science
Asawa Swami Spouse
Bathalà Bathara Supreme Being
Balita Vartta News
Budhi Bodhi Conscience
Katha Gatha Fabrication, Tall Story
Diwata Devata Fairy, Goddess, Nymph
Diwa Deva Spirit, Soul
Dukha Dukkha Poverty
Gadya Gaja Elephant
Guro Guru Mentor, Teacher
Laho Rahu Eclipse
Maharlika Mahardikka Nobility
Mahalaga Maharga Important
Mukha Mukha Face
Pana Bana Arrow
Saksí Saksi Witness
Sampalataya Sampratyaya Faith
Saranggola Layang gula (via Malay)gaffa Kite
Sutla Sutra Silk
Tala Tara Star

TamilEdit

Tagalog Tamil Meaning
Ano என்ன (Enna) What
Bagay வகை (Vakai) Thing
Dito இதோ (Itho) Here
Kamay கை (Kai) Hand
Kas காசு (Kāsu) Cash, Money (via English)
Kuta கோட்டை (Kottai) Fort
Mangga மாங்காய் (Māngāi) Mango
Malunggay முருங்கை (Murungai) Moringa
Masaya மகிழ்ச்சியா (Makilcciyā) Happy
Patungan பெட்டகம் (Pettagham) Place to store things
Pudya பூஜை (Pūjai) Pooja
Puto பிட்டு (Puttu) Rice cake
Sadya சதி (Sathi) Intentional
Tatay தந்தை (Tantai) Daddy

ArabicEdit

Tagalog Arabic Meaning
Alam Alham Knowledge, Understanding
Hiya Hayaa To feel shame, Blush
Hukom Hukum Judge
Salamat Slamah Thanks

PersianEdit

Tagalog Persian Meaning
Alak Araq Liquor

ChineseEdit

While several kingdoms existed in the area of what is now Luzon (in reference to the Luzon Empire or Kingdom of Tondo), diplomatic ties were established with the Ming Dynasty. Contact also reached as far as the Sultan of Sulu. As a result, many Chinese words were adopted:

Tagalog Min Nan, Yue and Mandarin Meaning
Apo 阿公/A–kong (H) Grandchild
Ate 阿姊/A–chí (H) Eldest sister
Bakya 木屐/ba̍k-kia̍h (H) Native wooden sandals
Baktaw 墨斗/ (H) Carpenter's ink marker
Batsoy 肉水/bah-chúi (H) Pork in soup
Bihon 米粉/bí-hún (H) Rice vermicelli
Bimpo 面布/ (H) Face towel
Betsin/Vetsin 味精/bī-cheng (H) Monosodium glutamate
Tsaa 茶/Chá Tea
Daw/Raw 道/Tao (M) God, Way
Ditse 二姊/Dī–chí (H) Second eldest sister
Gising 叫醒/ (H) To wake up
Hikaw 耳鉤/hī–kau (H) Earrings
Hukbo 服務/ (H) Army
Hwepe 火把/ (H) Torch
Jusi 富絲/hù-si (H) Cloth made from pineapple fibre
Impo 阿媽/A–má (H) Grandmother
Ingkong 阿公/A–kong (H) Grandfather
Kusot 鋸屑/ (H) Sawdust
Kuya 哥哥/ko–ko (C)/keh–ya (H) Eldest brother
Lawin 老鷹/lǎoyīng (M) Kite, Hawk
Lauriat 鬧熱/lāu-dia̍t (H) Lauriat
Lithaw 犁頭/ (H) Plow
Lumpiâ 潤餅/jūn-piáⁿ (H) Fried or fresh spring rolls.
Mami 肉麵/bah-mī (H) Meat and noodles in soup (Bam-i is also the name of another noodle dish)
Pati (H) Including
Pansít 便ê食/piān-ê-si̍t (H) Noodles with sauce
Petsay 白菜/pe̍h-chhài (H) Chinese cabbage
Pesa 白煠/pe̍h-jsa̍h (H) Plain boiled (often fish)
Pinse 硼砂/ (M)/ (H) Borax
Puthaw 斧頭/ (H) Ax
Santse 三姊/San–chí (H) Third eldest sister
Sitsit (H) Psst!
Siyansi 煎匙/chian-sî (H) Spoon-like metal spatula
Siopao/Siyopaw 燒包/sio-pau (H) Meat-filled steamed bun
Sotanghon 苏冬粉/so-tang-hun (H) Cellophane noodles
Suahe 沙蝦/ (H) Greasyback shrimp
Suki 主客/chu–khe (H) Regular customer/usual store
Sungki 伸齒/chhun-khí (H) Malocclusion
Susi 鎖匙/só–sî (H) Key
Tanglaw 燈籠/deng-long (M) Light
Tinghoy 燈火/ (H) Oil lamp
Tiho 等好/ (H) Gold bar (Chinese-Filipino colloquialism)
Tikoy 甜粿/Tih–ke (H) Chinese New Year's cake
Tingi (H) Selling at retail/per piece
Tokwa 豆干/tāu-koaⁿ (H) Tofu
Totso 豆油醋魚/tāu–iû-chhò͘-hî (H) Sautéed fish
Toyo 豆油/tāu–iû (H) Soy sauce
Tausi 豆豉/tāu-si (H) Beans fermented/in brine
Tingsim 燈心/ (H)/ (M) Lamp wick
Tuwabak 大目魚/ (H) Big-eyed herring
Ubak 烏墨/ (H) Black ink
Wansoy/Yansoy 芫荽/ (H)/ (M) Cilantro

JapaneseEdit

During the era of several kingdoms in Luzon and the Visayas, trade was established with other Southeast- and East Asian countries, especially Japan and China.[9]

Tagalog Japanese Meaning
Dorobo 泥棒 / dorobou Thief, Robber
Haba 幅 / haba Length, Breadth
Jack-en-poy じゃんけんぽん / jankenpon Rock-paper-scissors
Kampay/Tagay 乾杯 / kanpai Cheers!
Karaoke カラオケ / karaoke A form of musical entertainment, usually social in nature in Filipino culture.
Katol 蚊取線香 / katori-senkō Mosquito coil
Tansan 炭酸 / tansan Originally "soda" in Japanese, but changed to "bottle cap" in Tagalog
Toto おとうと / otōto A younger brother or child

NahuatlEdit

Tagalog gained Nahuatl words through Spanish from the galleon trade with Mexico during the Hispanic era:

Tagalog Nahuatl Spanish Meaning in English
Atsuwete Achiotl Achiote Annatto seeds
Kamatsile Cuanhmochitl Guamáchili Sweet tamarind or Manila tamarind
Kamote Camotli Camote Sweet potato
Pitaka Petlacalli Petaca Coin purse
Sayote Chayotli Chayote A Mexican squash
Singkamas Xicamatl Jicama A sweet root crop (water chestnut)
Sukil Xochitl Suchil A flower
Tatay Tatl Tatay Father
Tiyangge Tianquiztli Tianguis Seasonal markets
Tsokolate Xocolatl Chocolate Chocolate
Tsonggo Chango Chango Monkey
Sapote Tzapotl Chico sapote Sapodilla, now called Chico or Tsiko. However the word Zapote remained in the minds of Filipinos as a place i.e. Zapote, Cavite
Sili Chilli Chile Chili pepper

[citation needed]

Basque, Catalan, and PortugueseEdit

Basque, Catalan, and Portuguese settlers also contributed to the Tagalog language.

Tagalog Loanword Original Language Meaning in Tagalog Meaning in Original Language
Ensaymada Ensaïmada Catalan A type of pastry A type of pastry
Itsura Itxura (Hispanised as hechura) Basque Form, shape, appearance Form, shape
Yaya Aia Old Portuguese Nanny Governess, nursemaid

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Thompson, Roger M. (2003). Filipino, English and Taglish - Language switching from multiple perspectives. 
  2. ^ "Ebolusyon ng Alpabetong Filipino". Retrieved 2010-06-22. 
  3. ^ Forastieri Braschi, Eduardo; Cardona, Julia; López Morales, Humberto. Estudios de lingüística hispánica : homenaje a María Vaquero. 
  4. ^ Quilis, Antonio; Casado-Fresnillo, Celia. La lengua española en Filipinas. Historia. Situación actual. El chabacano. Antología de textos. 
  5. ^ Forastieri Braschi, Eduardo; Cardona, Julia; López Morales, Humberto. Estudios de lingüística hispánica : homenaje a María Vaquero. 
  6. ^ Forastieri Braschi, Eduardo; Cardona, Julia; López Morales, Humberto. Estudios de lingüística hispánica : homenaje a María Vaquero. 
  7. ^ "Indian Origins of Filipino Customs". Vedic Empire. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  8. ^ "The Indian in the Filipino - INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos". Globalnation.inquirer.net. Archived from the original on 2015-06-21. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  9. ^ "Ancient Japanese pottery in Boljoon town | Inquirer News". Newsinfo.inquirer.net. 2011-05-30. Retrieved 2012-08-28. 

External linksEdit