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List of loanwords in Tagalog

The Tagalog language has developed a unique vocabulary since its inception from its Austronesian roots. According to lexographer Jose Villa Panganiban, "of the 30,000 root words in the Tagalog language, there are close to 4,000 from Spanish, 3,200 from Malay, 1,500 from English, 1,500 from both Hokkien (Min Nan) and Yue Chinese dialects, 300 from Tamil and Sanskrit, 200 from Arabic, and a few hundred altogether from other languages".[citation needed] Some linguists[who?] claim that borrowings from Malay and Chamorro cannot be ascertained at this time, as words from the Old Austronesian language and those from Malay and Chamorro are still ambiguous and too similar to be distinguished.

Contents

SpanishEdit

The Filipino language incorporated Spanish loanwords as a result of 333 years of contact with the Spanish language. In their review of a Pilipino-English dictionary, Llamzon and Thorpe (1972) point out that 33% of word roots are of Spanish origin.[1] An example is the sentence below in which Spanish–derived words are in italics (original in parentheses):

Tagalog: "Puwede (Puede) ba akong umupo sa silya (silla) sa tabi ng bintana (ventana) habang nasa biyahe (viaje) tayo sa eroplano (aeroplano)?"
Translation in English: ("May I sit on the chair near the window during our voyage in the aeroplane?")

The adoption of the Abakada alphabet in 1940[2] changed the spelling of most of the Spanish loanwords present in the Filipino language. The loanwords derived from the Spanish language have their original spellings indigenized according to the rules of the Abakada alphabet. Examples include alkalde (from Sp. alcalde), bakuna (from Sp. vacuna), banyo (from Sp. baño), biktima (from Sp. víctima), bintana (from Sp. ventana), bisita (from Sp. visita), biyahe (from Sp. viaje), braso (from Sp. brazo), demokrasya (from Sp. democracia), diyaryo (from Sp. diario), estudyante (from Sp. estudiante), heneral (from Sp. general), hustisya (from Sp. justicia), kama (from Sp. cama), kambyo (from Sp. palanca de cambios), kutsara (from Sp. cuchara), lababo (from Sp. lavabo), mensahe (from Sp. mensaje), mikrobyo (from Sp. microbio), panyo (from Sp. paño), pila (from Sp. fila), presyo (from Sp. precio), prinsesa (from Sp. princesa), reseta (from Sp. receta médica), reyna (from Sp. reina), serbisyo (from Sp. servicio), sinturon (from Sp. cinturón), teklado (from Sp. teclado), telebisyon (from Sp. televisión), trabaho (from Sp. trabajo), tuwalya (from Sp. toalla) and yelo (from Sp. hielo).[3][4][5]

Other loanwords derived from the Spanish language underwent spelling and pronunciation changes. Vowel changes can be observed to some of the Spanish words upon adoption into the Filipino language. For example, an /i/ to /a/ vowel shift can be observed in the Filipino word paminta, which came from the Spanish word pimienta.[3] A rare vowel change from /e/ to /u/ can be observed in the words unano (from Sp. enano) and umpisa (from Sp. empezar). Other words derived from Spanish underwent vowel deletion upon adoption into the Filipino language, such as the words pusta (from Sp. apostar), umento (from Sp. aumento), tarantado (from Sp. atarantado), kursonada (from Sp. corazonada), Pasko (from Sp. Pascua) and labi (from Sp. labio).[3] Consonant shifts can also be observed to some of the Spanish words upon their adoption into the Filipino language. The [r] to [l] consonant shift can be observed in the following words: alma (from Sp. armar) asukal (from Sp. azúcar), balbas (from Sp. barba), multo (from Sp. muerto), kasal (from Sp. casar), kumpisal (from Sp. confesar), almusal (from Sp. almorzar), litrato (from Sp. retrato), dasal (from Sp. rezar), pasyal (from Sp. pasear) and nunal (from Sp. lunar). The loss of the /l/ phoneme can be observed in the Filipino word kutson derived from the Spanish colchón. Some Spanish-derived words have also undergone consonant or syllable deletion upon introduction to Tagalog like in the case of limos (from Sp. limosna), masyado (from Sp. demasiado), posas (from Sp. esposas) and sindi (from Sp. third-person singular present tense conjugation of the verb encender).[4]

The Spanish digraph [ll] is pronounced by the Spaniards as [j] during the Renaissance era and this reflected on the pronunciation and the spelling of Spanish-derived loanwords in Tagalog introduced before the 19th century, where the digraph [ll] becomes [y] in Tagalog.[6] Such is the case of the words barya (from Sp. barilla), kabayo (from Sp. caballo), kutamaya (from. Sp. cota de malla), lauya (a stew of meat and vegetables, from Sp. la olla), sibuyas (from Sp. cebollas) and tabliya or tablea (from Sp. tablilla de chocolate). Spanish loanwords in which the digraph [ll] is pronounced as <lj> in Tagalog were probably introduced (or reintroduced) during the 19th century by educated Peninsulares.[6] Examples include kalye (from Sp. calle), kutsilyo (from Sp. cuchillo), makinilya (from Sp. maquinilla de escribir), sepilyo (from Sp. cepillo de dientes), silya (from Sp. silla) and sigarilyo (from Sp. cigarrillo).[6]

Others have morphed like 'ku(ha)nin' (Sp.: 'coja' + Tag.: '–nin'), which has inconspicuously developed into another pure Tagalog–sounding word. Another one is maamong kordero (from Sp. amo & cordero). Combined together, it conveys the description of a meek, tame, harmless human with Tagalog adjective prefix and suffix added. The compound word batya't palo–palo, a must word in the laundry business where many Spanish words proliferate. The words were taken from the Spanish batea for "washing tub" and palo for "stick" or "beater", something a typical Filipino might think had no Spanish provenance at all. Others are umpisa (empieza), pulubi (pobre), pader (pared).

Some have acquired an entirely new meaning, such as kursonada (corazonada, originally meaning '"hunch"), which means "object of desire"; sospechoso is the "suspicious person" and not the "suspect" as in the original; imbyerna (invierno) once meant 'winter' but is now a word for "bummer"; insekto ("insecto"), which still means "insect" but also refers to a "pesty clownish person"; or even sige (sigue), a Spanish word for "continue" or "follow", which is now widely understood to mean "all right" or "go ahead".

Others use Spanish prefixes and/or suffixes, combined from Tagalog or other languages, without which the word can not be completed and convey its meaning. For example, pakialamero (from Tag. pakialam, "to meddle" and the Sp. suffix –ero, masculine subject); same as majongero ("mahjong", a Chinese word and the Sp. suffix –ero). Daisysiete is a corruption and portmanteau of the English "daisy" and the Spanish diecisiete ("seventeen"), now meaning a sweet and sexually desirable underaged (below 18, hence the number) female. Bastusing katawán (Sp.: basto & Tag.: katawan) is an example of a two-word term for a bombshell body

Even after the Spanish era, Tagalog is still being influenced by Spanish as new words are coined, albeit along its own terms, viz., alaskadór ("Alaska" + Sp. suffix '–ador'); barkada (from Sp.: barca,"boat" to "clique"); bérde ("verde"="green", nuanced to "toilet humour" or "blue joke"); which are not readily understood in Spain or any Latin American country. In a strange twist, even if Filipinos have a chance to Tagalized words using foreign words, currently English—their most accessible influence—they coin words in a uniquely Hispanizing way i.e. "boksingero" (from Eng. "boxing") instead of using the Spanish "boxeador". Or "basketbolista" (from Eng. "basketball"), instead of borrowing from Spanish "baloncesto" to make it say "baloncestista" or "baloncestador" (although basketball "básquetbol" in many Latin American countries).

Here are some examples of Spanish–derived Tagalog words in the following format: Word (Etymology – Original Definition/s if different from Nuanced Definition. = Derivative Definition if Compound Words) – Nuanced Definition. Shared Definition precedes Nuanced Definition if both exist.

Tagalog Spanish Meaning Native equivalent(s)
Abante Avante Ahead; Forward Pasulóng
Abiso Aviso Warning Babalâ
Ahedres Ajedrez Chess
Ahensya Agéncia Agency Sangáy, Sukursal
Ahente Agente Agent Kinatawán
Alemanya Alemania Germany
Ambisyoso Ambicioso Ambitious Mapaghangad
Angklá Ancla Anchor Sinipete
Antena Antena Antenna
Aparadór Aparador Closet
Arina Harina Flour
Arko Arco Arch
Armas Armas Arms (Weapon) Sandata
Asno Asno Donkey
Asoge Asogue Mercury (Hg)
Asul Azul Blue Bughaw
Asupre Azufre Sulfur Sangyawa
Atenas Atenas Athens
Baka Vaca Cow
Balyena Ballena Whale Tandayag
Baryo Barrio Village Baranggay, Bukid, Nayon
Basura Basura Garbage/Trash/Waste Kalat, Dumi
Bentilador Ventilador Electric fan
Bintana Ventana Window Durungawan, Dungawan
Bibliya Biblia Bible
Bisikleta Bicicleta Bicycle
Biyolohiya Biología Biology
Busina Bocina Car horn
Bodega Bodega Storehouse Kamalig, Pintungan
Britanya Britania Britain
Bulkan Volcán Volcano
Departamento Departamento Department Kagawarán
Diperensya Diferencia Difference Pagkakaibá
Direktor Director Director Tagapangasiwa
Diyós Dios God Bathalâ (via Sanskrit), Panginoón ("Lord") or Maykapal ("Creator")
Ebanghelyo Evangelio Gospel
Edukasyón Educación Education Pag-aaral
Ekolohiya Ecologia Ecology
Ekonomiya Economia Economy
Eksena Escena Scene Tagpô
Ensalada Ensalada Salad
Estados Unidos Estados Unidos United States
Espanya España Spain
Espanyol Español Spanish
Eskuwela/Eskwela Escuela School Paaralán
Estadístika Estadística Statistics
Estudyante Estudiante Student Mag-aarál
Estúpido Estúpido Stupid Tanga
Garahe Garaje Garage Taguán (lit. "hiding place")
Golpemano Golpe-mano Work cooperatively Pakikipagtulungan
Gwapo/Guwapo Guapo Handsome Makisig, Magandang Lalaki
Giyera Guerra War Digmaan
Hustisya Justicia Justice Katarungan [1]
Hapón Japón Japan
Haponés Japonés Japanese
Hepe Jefe Chief of police
Industriya Industria Industry
Inggles Inglés English
Inglatera Inglaterra England
Intindí Entiende Understand Unawà
Kalye Calle Street Daán, Lansangan
Kapasidad Capacidad Capacity Kakayahán
Kabalyero Caballero Knight
Kabayo Caballo Horse
Kandidato Candidato Candidate
Karne Carne Meat Lamán ("flesh")
Kerosina Querosina Kerosene
Keso Queso Cheese
Koléhiyo Colegio College Dalubhasaan
Konstitusyón Constitución Constitution Saligang Batás (lit. "basic/foundational law")
Kordero Cordero Lamb
Kotse/Awto Coche/Auto Car/Auto Sasakyán (lit. the more general "vehicle")
Kultura Cultura Culture Kalinangan
Kumusta ¿Cómo está? How is/are? (pronoun used as an interrogative substitute for an adjective of quality)
Kwento/Kuwento Cuento Story Salaysáy ("narrative"), Kathâ ("tale", often fictional)
Linggwistika Lingüística Linguistics
Litrato Retrato Picture, Photograph Larawan (lit. more general "picture" or "image")
Lugar Lugar Place Pook
Luhò Lujo Luxury Rangya, Karangyaan
Matemátika Matemática Mathematics
Matemátiko Matemático Mathematician
Mantika Manteca Cooking oil
Mansanas Manzana Apple (Malus domestica)
Memorya Memoria Memory Alaala, Gunita
Militar Militar Military Hukbo (via Chinese), Sandatahan (via Sanskrit)
Monarkiya Monarquía Monarchy Kaharián (lit. "kingdom; via Malay Karajahan/Kerajaan)
Motorsiklo Motocicleta Motorcycle
Mundo Múndo World Daigdíg, Sanlibutan
Musika Música Music Tugtugin
Nasyonalista Nacionalista Nationalist Makabayan, Makabansâ
Negosyo Negocio Business Pangangalakal
Numero Número Number Bilang
Oksiheno Oxígeno Oxygen
Olanda Holanda Netherlands
Ordinaryo Ordinario Ordinary Karaniwan
Oras Horas Time, Hour Panahón ("time")
Ospitál Hospital Hospital Pagamútan
Otél Hotel Hotel
Pamilya Familia Family
Pelikula/Penikula Película Movie, Film
Pilipinas Filipinas Philippines
Piso Peso Philippine Peso
Pistá/Piyesta Fiesta Feast Kaarawán (lit. "anniversary"; colloquially used mostly for "birthday" from the longer "Kaarawán ng kapanganakan"), Pagdiriwang (Celeberation)
Probinsiya/Probinsya Provincia Province Lalawigan
Presidente Presidente President Pangulo
Pulisya Policía Police
Pwede/Puwede Puede Can, Could, May, Might Kaya, Maaarì (denotes permission. i.e., more like "may")
Pwersa/Puwersa Fuerza Force Lakás (also translated as "strength", "energy", "vigor", etc.)
Radyo Radio Radio
Realidad Realidad Reality Katunayan
Reló, Relos, Rilos Reloj Clock (or any instrument used to track time) Orasán
Repúblika República Republic
Reyna Reina Queen
Sabón Jabón Soap
Sapatos Zapatos Shoes Panyapak (lit. more general "footwear")
Sardinas Sardinas Sardines (the Tagalog word refers to any fish belonging to the family Clupeidae)
Sebo Sebo Sebum, Tallow, Hard Fat Taba
Senyales Señales Signs Tanda
Serbesa Cerveza Beer
Sereso Cerezo Cherry
Silya Silla Chair Upuan (lit. more general "seat")
Siyensiya Ciencia Science Aghám (via Sanskrit "Agama")
Siyudad Ciudad City Lungsod
Sundalo Soldado Soldier Kawal
Swerte/Suwerte Suerte Good fortune, good luck Mapalad
Tableta Tableta Tablet
Tarheta Tarjeta Card
Tasa Taza Mug
Tela Tela Cloth, Fabric
Telebisyón Televisión Television
Teklado Teclado Keyboard Tipaan (usu. for computers)
Trigo Trigo Wheat
Tsino Chino Chinese Intsík (mildly derogatory)
Tsinelas Chinelas Slippers Bakya (via Chinese) (although bakya only refers to wooden slippers while tsinelas refers to the slippers made of non-wood materials, usually rubber)
Tsismis Chismes Gossip Satsát (also "chatter")
Teknolohiya Tecnología Technology
Unibersidad Universidad University Pamantasan
Welga Huelga Industrial strike
Yelo Hielo Ice
Yero Hierro Iron (the element or material) Bakal
Yeso Yeso Chalk Tisa
Yodo Yodo Iodine

Note that the first syllable of loanwords from Spanish that start with /aw/ are also sometimes pronounced and spelled /o/ (e.g. 'otonomiya' rather than 'awtonomiya') due to the predominance of pronunciation of loanwords from English.

EnglishEdit

English has been used in everyday Tagalog conversation. This kind of conversation is called Taglish. English words borrowed by Tagalog are mostly modern and technical terms, but English words are also used for short usage (many Tagalog words translated from English are very long) or to avoid literal translation and repetition of the same particular Tagalog word. English makes the second largest vocabulary of Tagalog after Spanish. In written language, English words in a Tagalog sentence are written as they are, but they are sometimes written in Tagalog phonetic spelling. Here are some examples:

Tagalog English Traditional Word(s)
Adik Addict (drug addict) Durugista
Adyenda Agenda
Bag Bag
Bakwit Evacuate Lumikas
Barbikyu Barbecue
Basketbol Basketball
Beysbol Baseball
Bilyar Billiard
Biskwit Biscuit
Bodabíl Vaudeville
Boksing Boxing
Bolpen Ballpoint pen
Drayber Driver Tsuper
Dyaket Jacket
Dyakpat Jackpot
Dyip/Dyipni Jeep/Jeepney
Gradweyt Graduate
Helikopter Helicopter
Interbyu Interview Panayam, Entrebista
Internet Internet
Iskor Score
Iskrin Screen
Iskuter Scooter
Iskuwater Squatter
Ispayral Spiral Balisungsong
Ispiker Speaker Tagapagsalita, Tagatalumpati, Mananalumpati
Isponsor Sponsor Tagatangkilik
Isport Sport Palaro, Paligsahan (also translates as "contest" or "tournament")
Isprey Spray
Istandard Standard Pamantayan
Kabinet Cabinet Aparador
Kambas Canvass
Karot Carrot Asinorya, Asanorya
Kemikál Chemical
Ketsap Ketchup
Keyk Cake
Kompyuter Computer
Lobat[7] Low battery
Miskol[7] Missed call
Miting Meeting Pulong
Nars Nurse
Plastik Plastic
Pulis Police
Rali Rally
Tenis Tennis
Titser Teacher Guro, Maestro, Maestra
Traysikel Tricycle Trisiklo
Trey Tray

Malay and IndonesianEdit

Tagalog is an Austronesian language and so is closely related to Malay dialects in Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia. Because of the close relationship, there are many cognates between the two languages stretching back many millennia. Many cognates were re-borrowed into the language when Old Malay became the official language of trade and documentation during the pre-colonial era of Philippine history, as evidenced by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription of 900 AD and accounts of Pigafetta at the time of the Spanish arrival in the country five centuries later. This is a small sample of the thousands of cognates between Tagalog and Malay:

Tagalog word Malay word (M)/Indonesian Word (I) Meaning
Ako Aku I (first person)
Anak Anak Child
Anim Enam Six
Apat Empat Four
Araw Hari Day
Bobo Bodoh Stupid
Bahagì Bahagian (M)
Bagi (I)
Portion, Part
Bahay Balai House
Balík Balik Return
Balimbing Belimbing Starfruit, Perfidious, Disloyal (owing to the fruit's ability to land on any side)
Balita Berita News
Balot Balut To wrap
Bangkay Bangkai Corpse, Carcass
Bangis Bengis Fierce, Ferocious
Bangon Bangun To awaken/rouse
Bansa Bangsa Nation
Bato Batu Stone
Bawang Bawang putih Garlic
Bayad Bayar Pay
Bibig Bibir Mouth
Bili Beli Buy
Bukas/Buka Buka Open (v.)
Bunso Bongsu (M)
Bungsu (I)
Youngest child
Buntis Bunting
Hamil (I)
Pregnant
Buwan Bulan Moon, Month
Buwaya Buaya Crocodile
Daan Jalan Street, Road, Way
Dalamhatì Dalam + hati Grief
Dahon Daun Leaf
Dingding Dinding Wall
Durian Durian Durian
Ganap Genap Exact, Complete
Gulay Gulai Vegetables
Gulong Gulung To roll, Vehicle Tire
Gunting Gunting Scissors
Halaga Harga Price
Hangin Angin Wind
Harapan Hadapan In front, The front of
Hirám Pinjam To borrow
Ikaw Kau You
Itik Itik Duck
Itim Hitam Black
Kahoy Kayu Wood
Kalapati Merpati Pigeon
Kambing Kambing Goat
Kami Kami We (excludes addressee)
Kanan Kanan Right
Kangkong Kangkung Water Spinach
Kapag Kapan When, If
Karayom Jarum Needle
Kawali Kuali Frying pan, Wok
Kawani Kerani
Pramuniaga/i (I)
Clerk
Kita Kita We (Dual first person pronoun)
Ko Ku mine/my
Kuko Kuku (finger/toe)nail
Kulang Kurang Less, Lacking
Kulong Kurung Jailed, Caged
Laban Lawan Oppose (v.), Opposition (n.)
Lagok Teguk Gulp
Lalakì Lelaki, Laki–laki Male
Lamok Nyamuk insect
Landas Landasan
Lintasan (I)
Track (n.)
Langka Nangka Jackfruit
Langit Langit Sky, Heaven
Laot Laut Sea
Lasa Rasa Taste, Flavour
Libo Ribu Thousand
Lima Lima Five
Linggo Minggu Sunday/Week
Luma Lama Old
Luwalhatì Luar + hati Glory
Mahal Mahal Expensive, Highly treasured
Maharlika Merdeka/Meherdeka Free men
Mangga Mangga Mango
Mangkok Mangkuk Bowl
Mata Mata Eye
Mukha Muka Face
Mula Mula From
Mura Murah Cheap, Young
Pako Paku Nail
Palayok Periuk Cooking pot
Pangulo Penghulu President
Paso Pasu Flowerpot
Pasok Masuk Enter
Payong Payung Umbrella
Pili Pilih Choose
Pinggan Pinggan
Piring (I)
Plate
Pinto Pintu Door
Pulo Pulau Island
Puno Penuh Full
Puti Putih White
Rambutan Rambutan Rambutan
Sabon Sabun Soap
Sakit Sakit Illness (n.), painful (adj.)
Saksí Saksi Witness
Salamin Cermin Mirror, Glass, Eyeglasses
Sama Sama Together/To join
Samantala Sementara Meanwhile,
Sampu Sepuluh Ten
Sandata Senjata Weapon
Sarap Sedap Delicious
Sandok Senduk
Sendok (I)
Ladle
Silaw Silau Dazzled
Sinta Cinta Love (possessive)
Siyasat Siasat Investigate
Sukat Sukat Measure
Sulat Surat Letter (n.), Write (v.)
Sumpa Sumpahan (M)
Sumpah (I)
Oath, curse
Taas Atas Top, Height
Tae Tai Excrement
Takot; Takót Takut Fear (n.); Afraid (adj.)
Tali Tali String, Rope (n.)
Tamis Manis Sweet
Tanggal Tanggal To remove, To take off
Tanghali Tengah + hari Noon
Tangis Tangis Cry (n.)
Taon Tahun Year
Tawad Tawar To bargain, To forgive (v.), discount (n.)
Talong Terong Eggplant/Aubergine
Tulak Tolak Push, Shove
Tulong Tolong Help (n., v.)
Tusok Tusuk Pierce, Prick, Stab
Tuwa/Tawa Tawa laughter
Uban Uban Grey hair
Ulan Hujan Rain (n.)
Utak Otak Brain
Utang Hutang Debt

SanskritEdit

As in most Austronesian languages, the Sanskrit vocabulary incorporated into Tagalog are mostly borrowed indirectly via Malay or Javanese.[8] Examples include:

Tagalog Sanskrit Meaning in Tagalog
Agham Āgama (आगम) Science
Asal Ācāra (आचार) Behaviour; Character
Bagyo Vāyu (वायु) Typhoon
Bahala Bhara (भार) To manage; to take care of; to take charge
Balita Vārtā (वार्ता) News
Bansa Vaṃśa (वंश) Country
Banyaga Vaṇijaka (वणिजक) Foreigner
Basa Vaca (वच) To read
Bathalà Batthara (भट्टार) Supreme Being; God
Budhi Bodhi (बोधि) Conscience
Dala Dhara (धर) To carry; to bring
Dawa[6] Yava (यव) Panicum miliaceum
Daya Dvaya (द्वय) Cheating; Deception
Dila Lidha (लीढ) Tongue
Diwa Jīva (जीव) Spirit; Soul
Diwata Devata (देवता) Fairy, Goddess, Nymph
Dukha Dukkha (दुःख) Poverty
Dusa Doṣa (दोष) Suffering
Dusta Dūṣita (दूषित) Ignominiously insulted
Gadya Gaja (गज) Elephant
Guro Guru (गुरु) Mentor; Teacher
Halaga Argha (अर्घ) Price; Value
Halata Arthaya (अर्थय) Noticeable; Perceptible; Obvious
Kasubha Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ) Carthamus tinctorius
Kastuli Kastūrī (कस्तूरी) Abelmoschus moschatus
Katha Kathā (कथा) Literary composition; Fiction; Invention
Kalapati; Palapati Pārāpataḥ (पारापत) Pigeon
Kuta Kota (कोट) Fort
Ladya Raja (राज) Raja
Laho Rāhu (राहु) To vanish
Lasa Rasa (रस) Taste
Lathala Yantrālaya (यन्त्रालय) To print
Likha Lekhā (लेखा) To create
Lisa Likṣā (लिक्षा) Egg of a louse
Maharlika Maharddhika (महर्द्धिक) Nobility; Prehispanic Tagalog social class composed of freedmen
Mukha Mukha (मुख) Face
Mula Mula (मूल) From; since; origin
Mutya Mutya (मुत्य) Amulet; Charm; Jewel; Pearl
Palibhasa Paribhasa (परिभाषा) Irony; Sarcasm; Criticism
Pana Bana (बाण) Arrow
Parusa Pūruṣaghna (पूरुषघ्न) Punishment
Patola Patola (पटोल) Luffa acutangula
Saksí Sākṣin (साक्षिन्) Witness
Salita Carita (चरित) To speak; to talk; word
Samantala Samantara (समान्तर) Meanwhile
Sampalataya Sampratyaya (सम्प्रत्यय) Faith
Sigla Sīghra (शीघ्र) Enthusiasm; Vitality
Suka Cukra (चुक्र) Vinegar
Sutla Sūtra (सूत्र) Silk
Tala Tāra (तार) Star
Tingga Tivra (तीव्र) Tin
Tsampaka Campaka (चम्पक) Magnolia champaca
Tumbaga Uḍumbara (उडुम्बर) Copper and gold alloy

TamilEdit

Examples:

Tagalog Tamil Meaning
Bagay[citation needed] வகை (Vakai) Thing
Dito[citation needed] இதோ (Itho) Here
Kamay[citation needed] கை (Kai) Hand
Mangga[citation needed] மாங்காய் (Māngāi) Mango
Malunggay[citation needed] முருங்கை (Murungai) Moringa
Masaya[citation needed] மகிழ்ச்சியா (Makilcciyā) Happy
Patungan[citation needed] பெட்டகம் (Pettagham) Place to store things
Pudya[citation needed] பூஜை (Pūjai) Pooja
Puto[citation needed] பிட்டு (Puttu) Rice cake
Sadya[citation needed] சதி (Sathi) Intentional

ArabicEdit

Examples:

Tagalog Arabic Meaning
Alam Alham Knowledge, Understanding
Hiya Hayaa To feel shame, Blush
Hukom Hukum Judge
Salamat Slamah Thanks

PersianEdit

Example:

Tagalog Persian Meaning
Alak Araq Liquor

ChineseEdit

A number of polities in the area of what is now Luzon, notably the two largest Pasig River delta settlements, Maynila and Tondo, established diplomatic ties with the Ming Dynasty. Contact also reached as far as the Sultan of Sulu. As a result, many Chinese words were adopted. examples:

Tagalog Min Nan, Yue and Mandarin Meaning
Ate 阿姊/A–chí (H) Eldest sister
Bakya 木屐/ba̍k-kia̍h (H) Native wooden sandals
Baktaw 墨斗/ (H) Carpenter's ink marker
Batsoy 肉水/bah-chúi (H) Pork in soup
Bihon 米粉/bí-hún (H) Rice vermicelli
Bimpo 面布/ (H) Face towel
Betsin/Vetsin 味精/bī-cheng (H) Monosodium glutamate
Tsaa 茶/Chá Tea
Daw/Raw 道/Tao (M) God, Way
Ditse 二姊/Dī–chí (H) Second eldest sister
Gising 叫醒/ (H) To wake up
Hikaw 耳鉤/hī–kau (H) Earrings
Hukbo 服務/ (H) Army
Hwepe 火把/ (H) Torch
Jusi 富絲/hù-si (H) Cloth made from pineapple fibre
Impo 阿媽/A–má (H) Grandmother
Ingkong 阿公/A–kong (H) Grandfather
Kusot 鋸屑/ (H) Sawdust
Kuya 哥哥/ko–ko (C)/keh–ya (H) Eldest brother
Lawin 老鷹/lǎoyīng (M) Kite, Hawk
Lauriat 鬧熱/lāu-dia̍t (H) Lauriat
Lithaw 犁頭/ (H) Plow
Lumpiâ 潤餅/jūn-piáⁿ (H) Fried or fresh spring rolls.
Mami 肉麵/bah-mī (H) Meat and noodles in soup (Bam-i is also the name of another noodle dish)
Pati (H) Including
Pansít 便ê食/piān-ê-si̍t (H) Noodles with sauce
Petsay 白菜/pe̍h-chhài (H) Chinese cabbage
Pesa 白煠/pe̍h-jsa̍h (H) Plain boiled (often fish)
Pinse 硼砂/ (M)/ (H) Borax
Puthaw 斧頭/ (H) Ax
Santse 三姊/San–chí (H) Third eldest sister
Sitsit (H) Psst!
Siyansi 煎匙/chian-sî (H) Spoon-like metal spatula
Siopao/Siyopaw 燒包/sio-pau (H) Meat-filled steamed bun
Sotanghon 苏冬粉/so-tang-hun (H) Cellophane noodles
Suahe 沙蝦/ (H) Greasyback shrimp
Suki 主客/chu–khe (H) Regular customer/usual store
Sungki 伸齒/chhun-khí (H) Malocclusion
Susi 鎖匙/só–sî (H) Key
Tanglaw 燈籠/deng-long (M) Light
Tinghoy 燈火/ (H) Oil lamp
Tiho 等好/ (H) Gold bar (Chinese-Filipino colloquialism)
Tikoy 甜粿/Tih–ke (H) Chinese New Year's cake
Tingi (H) Selling at retail/per piece
Tokwa 豆干/tāu-koaⁿ (H) Tofu
Totso 豆油醋魚/tāu–iû-chhò͘-hî (H) Sautéed fish
Toyo 豆油/tāu–iû (H) Soy sauce
Tausi 豆豉/tāu-si (H) Beans fermented/in brine
Tuwabak 大目魚/ (H) Big-eyed herring
Ubak 烏墨/ (H) Black ink
Wansoy/Yansoy 芫荽/ (H)/ (M) Cilantro

JapaneseEdit

During the era of several kingdoms in Luzon and the Visayas, trade was established with other Southeast- and East Asian countries, especially Japan and China.[9]

Here are some examples:

Tagalog Japanese Meaning
Dahan Dahan[citation needed] だんだん / dan dan[citation needed] Slowly
Haba[citation needed] 幅 / haba[citation needed] Length, Breadth
Jack-en-poy じゃんけんぽん / jankenpon Rock-paper-scissors
Kampay/Tagay 乾杯 / kanpai Cheers!
Karaoke カラオケ / karaoke A form of musical entertainment, usually social in nature in Filipino culture.
Katol 蚊取線香 / katori-senkō Mosquito coil
Tansan 炭酸 / tansan Originally "soda" in Japanese, but changed to "bottle cap" in Tagalog
Toto[citation needed] おとうと / otōto[citation needed] A younger brother or child
Karate 空手/ karate Karate

NahuatlEdit

Tagalog gained Nahuatl words through Spanish from the Galleon trade with Mexico during the Hispanic era.[10]

Here are some examples:

Tagalog Word Nahuatl Root Word Spanish Word Meaning and Further Comments
Abokado Ahuacatl Aguacate Persea americana
Akapulko, Kapurko Acatl ("cane") + poloa ("large") + co ("place") Acapulco Senna alata
Alpasotis, Pasotis Epatl + Tzotl Epazote Chenopodium ambrosioides
Atsuete, Atsuwete, Atswete Achiotl Achiote Bixa orellana and the red-orange condiment and food coloring derived from its seeds.
Guwatsinanggo Cuauchilnacatl Guachinango Astute
Kakaw Cacáhuatl Cacao Theobroma cacao
Kakawati, Kakawate Cacáhuatl Cacahuete Gliricidia sepium
Kalatsutsi Cacálotl + Xóchitl ("flower) Cacalosúchil Plumeria rubra
Kamatis Tomatl Tomate Solanum lycopersicum
Kamatsile Cuamóchitl Guamúchil Pithecellobium dulce
Kamote Camotli Camote Ipomoea batatas
Koyote Coyotl Coyote Coyote
Kulitis Quilitl Quelite Amaranthus viridis
Mekate Mecatl Mecate Rope or cord made out of abaca
Nanay[11] Nantli Nana Mother
Paruparo[10][4] Papalotl Papalote Butterfly
Pitaka Petlacalli Petaca Coin purse
Sakate Zacatl Zacate Hay or grass for fodder
Sangkaka Chiancaca Chancaca Taffy (candy)
Sapote Tzapotl Zapote Pouteria sapota
Sayote Chayotli Chayote Sechium edule
Sili Chīlli Chile Chili pepper
Singkamas Xicamatl Jicama Pachyrhizus erosus
Sisiwa Chichiua Chichigua Wet nurse
Tamales Tamalli Tamal Rice-based tamales wrapped in banana leaves or corn husks
Tatay[11] Tahtli Tata Father
Tisa Tizatl Tiza Chalk
Tiyangge Tianquiztli Tianguis Seasonal markets
Tsiklet Chictli Chicle Chewing gum
Tsiko Tzicozapotl Chicozapote Manilkara zapota
Tsokolate Xocolatl Chocolate Chocolate
Tsonggo Tzonco Chongo Monkey
Tukayo, Katukayo Tocayotia Tocayo Namesake

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Thompson, Roger M. (2003). Filipino, English and Taglish - Language switching from multiple perspectives. 
  2. ^ "Ebolusyon ng Alpabetong Filipino". Retrieved 2010-06-22. 
  3. ^ a b c Forastieri Braschi, Eduardo; Cardona, Julia; López Morales, Humberto. Estudios de lingüística hispánica : homenaje a María Vaquero. 
  4. ^ a b c Quilis, Antonio; Casado-Fresnillo, Celia. La lengua española en Filipinas. Historia. Situación actual. El chabacano. Antología de textos. 
  5. ^ Alcantara y Antonio, Teresita. Mga hispanismo sa Filipino: batay sa komunikasyong pangmadla ng Filipinas : pag-aaral lingguwistiko. Diliman, Quezon City : Sentro ng Wikang Filipino, Unibersidad ng Pilipinas. ISBN 9718781773. 
  6. ^ a b c d Potet, Jean-Paul G. Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. lulu.com. ISBN 1326615793. 
  7. ^ a b Sawikaan 2007: Mga Salita ng Taon. 
  8. ^ Haspelmath, Martin. Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 724. ISBN 3110218437. 
  9. ^ "Ancient Japanese pottery in Boljoon town | Inquirer News". Newsinfo.inquirer.net. 2011-05-30. Retrieved 2012-08-28. 
  10. ^ a b Albalá, Paloma. "Hispanic Words of Indoamerican Origin in the Philippines". Philippine Studies. 51 (1): 22. 
  11. ^ a b León-Portilla, Miguel. "Algunos nahuatlismos en el castellano de Filipinas". Estudios de cultura Náhuatl: 21. 

External linksEdit