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French travelling set of cutlery, 1550–1600, Victoria and Albert Museum

Cutlery includes any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in Western culture. A person who makes or sells cutlery is called a cutler. The city of Sheffield in England has been famous for the production of cutlery since the 17th century and a train – the Master Cutler – running from Sheffield to London was named after the industry.[1] Bringing affordable cutlery to the masses, stainless steel was developed in Sheffield in the early 20th century.[2]

Cutlery is more usually known as silverware or flatware in the United States, where cutlery usually means knives and related cutting instruments[3]. Although the term silverware is used irrespective of the material composition of the utensils, the term tableware has come into use to avoid the implication that they are made of silver.

The major items of cutlery in Western culture are the knife, fork and spoon. In recent times, hybrid versions of cutlery have been made combining the functionality of different eating implements, including the spork (spoon / fork), spife (spoon / knife), and knork (knife / fork) or the sporf which combines all three.

Contents

EtymologyEdit

The word cutler derives from the Middle English word 'cuteler' and this in turn derives from Old French 'coutelier' which comes from 'coutel'; meaning knife (modern French: couteau).[4] The word's early origins can be seen in the Latin word 'culter' (knife).

CompositionEdit

 
A set (known as a canteen) of Georgian era silver cutlery, including ladles, and serving spoons. The thin item on the left is a marrow scoop for eating Bone marrow

Sterling silver is the traditional material from which good quality cutlery is made. Historically, silver had the advantage over other metals of being less chemically reactive. Chemical reactions between certain foods and the cutlery metal can lead to unpleasant tastes. Gold is even less reactive than silver, but the use of gold cutlery was confined to the exceptionally wealthy, such as monarchs.[5]

Steel was always used for more utilitarian knives, and pewter was used for some cheaper items, especially spoons. From the nineteenth century, electroplated nickel silver (EPNS) was used as a cheaper substitute for sterling silver.

In 1913, the British metallurgist Harry Brearley discovered stainless steel by chance, bringing affordable cutlery to the masses.[2] This metal has come to be the predominant one used in cutlery. An alternative is melchior, corrosion-resistant nickel and copper alloy, which can also sometimes contain manganese and nickel-iron.

Plastic cutlery is made for disposable use, and is frequently used outdoors for camping, excursions, and barbecues for instance. Plastic cutlery is also commonly used at fast-food or take-away outlets and provided with airline meals in economy class. Plastic is also used for children's cutlery. It is often thicker and more durable than disposable plastic cutlery. Wooden disposable cutlery is also available as a biodegradable alternative.

IndustryEdit

 
A table setting for an eight-course meal. It includes a butter spreader resting on a crystal stand; a cocktail fork, soup spoon, dessert fork, dessert spoon and an ice cream fork, as well as separate knives and forks for fish, entrée, main course and salad

At Sheffield the trade of cutler became divided, with allied trades such as razormaker, awlbladesmith, shearsmith and forkmaker emerging and becoming distinct trades by the 18th century.

Before the mid 19th century when cheap mild steel became available due to new methods of steelmaking, knives (and other edged tools) were made by welding a strip of steel on to the piece of iron that was to be formed into a knife, or sandwiching a strip of steel between two pieces of iron. This was done because steel was then a much more expensive commodity than iron. Modern blades are sometimes laminated, but for a different reason. Since the hardest steel is brittle, a layer of hard steel may be laid between two layers of a milder, less brittle steel, for a blade that keeps a sharp edge well, and is less likely to break in service.

After fabrication, the knife had to be sharpened, originally on a grindstone, but from the late medieval period in a blade mill or (as they were known in the Sheffield region) a cutlers wheel.

Disposable cutleryEdit

 
Starch-polyester disposable cutlery

Introduced for convenience purposes (lightweight, no cleanup after the meal required), disposable cutlery made of plastic has become a huge worldwide market.[6][7] Along with other disposable tableware (paper plates, plastic table covers, disposable cups, paper napkins, etc.), these products have become essential for the fast food and catering industry. The products are emblematic of throw-away societies and the cause of millions of tons of non-biodegradable plastic waste.[8] Europe will be banning such plastic products from 2021 as part of the European Plastics Strategy[9].[10]

Manufacturing centresEdit

Traditional centres of cutlery-making include:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ British Pathé. "The Master Cutler". britishpathe.com.
  2. ^ a b "Made in Great Britain, Series 1, Steel". BBC. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Restodontê | Tipos de facas e suas utilidades". Restodontê. Retrieved 2019-07-04.
  4. ^ The Sheffield Knife Book, Geoffrey Tweedale, The Hallamshire press, 1996, ISBN 1-874718-11-3
  5. ^ Miodownik, Mark (29 April 2015). "Stainless steel revolutionised eating after centuries of a bad taste in the mouth". The Guardian.
  6. ^ "Environmental Impact of Plastic Cutlery and Some Affordable Solutions". Conserve Energy Future. 2018-12-07. Retrieved 2019-06-03.
  7. ^ "GUIDES: EATS". Plastic Pollution Coalition. Retrieved 2019-06-03.
  8. ^ Schnurr, Riley E.J.; Alboiu, Vanessa; Chaudhary, Meenakshi; Corbett, Roan A.; Quanz, Meaghan E.; Sankar, Karthikeshwar; Srain, Harveer S.; Thavarajah, Venukasan; Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R. (2018). "Reducing marine pollution from single-use plastics (SUPs): A review". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 137: 157–171. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.10.001.
  9. ^ "EU Plastics Strategy". European Commission - European Commission. Retrieved 2019-06-03.
  10. ^ Valdivia, Ana Garcia (2019-01-22). "The End Of Plastic Cutlery, Plates And Straws: EU Market Says Goodbye To Single-Use Plastic Products". Forbes. Retrieved 2019-06-03.

Further readingEdit

  • Hey, D. The Fiery Blades of Hallamshire: Sheffield and Its Neighbourhood, 1660–1740 (Leicester University Press 1991). 193–140.
  • Lloyd, G. I. H. The Cutlery Trades: An Historical Essay in the Economics of Small Scale Production. (1913; repr. 1968).

External linksEdit