List of wars of independence

(Redirected from List of independence wars)

This is a list of wars of independence (also called liberation wars). These wars may or may not have been successful in achieving a goal of independence.

ListEdit

Dates Name Independent state Original state Result
1038–1047 Miecław's Rebellion Miecław's State Duchy of Poland Defeat of Miecław; his state is reincorporated into Poland
1185–1188 Uprising of Asen and Peter   Bulgaria   Byzantine Empire Independence of Bulgaria from the Byzantine Empire; creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire
1296–1357 Wars of Scottish Independence   Scotland   England Scotland retains its status as an independent nation
1468–1500 Kazakh War of Independence Kazakh Khanate Uzbek Khanate Kazakh Khanate maintains independence from the Uzbek Khanate
1521–1523 Swedish War of Liberation   Sweden   Kalmar Union Independence of Sweden from the Kalmar Union
1568–1648 Eighty Years' War   Netherlands   Spain Independence of the Netherlands from Spain
1640–1668 Portuguese Restoration War   Portugal   Spain Restoration of Portuguese independence from Spain
1680–1707 Maratha War of Independence   Maratha Empire   Mughal Empire Mughals fail to annex Maratha Empire
1703–1711 Rákóczi's War of Independence   Hungary   Holy Roman Empire Limited autonomy for Hungary within the Habsburg monarchy
1775–1783 American Revolutionary War
(American Revolution)
  United States   Great Britain Independence of the United States from Great Britain
1791–1804 Haitian Revolution   Haiti   France Independence of Haiti from France
1804–1813 First Serbian Uprising
(Serbian Revolution)
  Serbia   Ottoman Empire Defeat of insurgents; Ottoman Empire retains control of Serbia
1808–1814 Peninsular War   Spain   France Independence of Spain from France
1810s–1820s Latin American wars of independence:

Argentine War of Independence, Bolivian War of Independence, Chilean War of Independence, Foolish Fatherland, Ecuadorian War of Independence, Mexican War of Independence, Peruvian War of Independence, Venezuelan War of Independence

  Río de la Plata

  Bolivia

  Chile

  Colombia

  Ecuador

  Mexico

  Peru

  Venezuela

  Spanish Empire Independence of many Spanish-American colonies from Spain
1814 Swedish–Norwegian War (1814)   Norway   Sweden Partial independence of Norway within the later United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway
1815–1817 Second Serbian Uprising
(Serbian Revolution)
  Serbia   Ottoman Empire Semi-independence of Serbia within the Ottoman Empire
1821–1829 Greek War of Independence   Greece   Ottoman Empire Independence of Greece from the Ottoman Empire
1822–1824 Brazilian War of Independence   Brazil   Portuguese Empire Independence of the Empire of Brazil from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
1825–1828 Cisplatine War   Uruguay   Brazil

  Río de la Plata

Disputed between the Empire of Brazil and United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. Independence of Uruguay from Brazil
1830–1831 November Uprising   Poland   Russia Defeat of Polish insurgents. Russian retains control of Poland, introduction of the Organic Statute of the Kingdom of Poland, liquidation of Polish autonomy.
1830–1839 Belgian Revolution   Belgium   Netherlands Independence of Belgium from the Netherlands
1835–1845 Ragamuffin War   Riograndense Republic   Brazil The Riograndense Republic is dissolved; reintegration with Brazil
1835–1836 Texas Revolution   Texas   Mexico Independence of Texas from Mexico
1843–1849 Dominican War of Independence   Dominican Republic   Haiti Independence of Dominican Republic from Haiti
1846 Bear Flag Revolt   California   Mexico The California Republic declares independence from the Centralist Republic of Mexico. The republic is quickly annexed by the United States
1848–1849 First Italian War of Independence   Sardinia   Austria Kingdom of Sardinia defeated by the Austrian Empire; Italian unification not achieved
1857–1858 First Indian War of Independence   India   British East India Company East India Company loses power to Great Britain, vide Government of India Act 1858.
1859 Second Italian War of Independence   Piedmont-Sardinia

  Lombardy–Venetia

  Parma

  Modena

  Tuscany

  Austria France and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia defeat the Austrian Empire; most of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia transferred to France and then to Piedmont-Sardinia; Duchy of Parma, Duchy of Modena, Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Papal Legations annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia
1861–1865 American Civil War   Confederate States   United States (Union) Defeat and dissolution of the Confederacy; U.S. territorial integrity preserved
1863–1865 January Uprising   Poland   Russia Defeat of Polish insurgents; Russia retains control of Poland
1863–1865 Dominican Restoration War   Dominican Republic   Spain Independence of Dominican Republic from 4 year occupation by the Spanish Empire; ousts Spain from Hispaniola
1866 Third Italian War of Independence   Veneto   Austria Austrian Empire loses Veneto to Kingdom of Italy
1868–1878 Ten Years' War   Cuba   Spain Defeat of insurgents; Spain retains control of Cuba
1869 Red River Rebellion   Métis   Canada Establishment of Provisional government of the Red River Colony
1876 April Uprising   Bulgaria   Ottoman Empire Defeat of Bulgarian nationalists by the Ottoman Empire; subsequent reprisals by the Ottomans led to the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78 and the 1878 independence of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire.
1877 Romanian War of Independence   Romania   Ottoman Empire Independence of Romania from the Ottoman Empire
1896–1898 Philippine Revolution   Philippines   Spain Inconclusive; Philippines independence from Spain then achieved by Spanish–American War
1895–1898 Cuban War of Independence   Cuba   Spain Independence of Cuba from Spain following four years of American occupation
1899–1913 Philippine–American War   Philippines   United States Defeat of Philippine insurgents; United States retains control of the Philippines
1902–1932 Unification of Saudi Arabia   Saudi Arabia Emirate of Jabal Shammar

Kingdom of Hejaz

Independence of Saudi Arabia from the Kingdom of Hejaz and Emirate of Jabal Shammar
1916–1918 Arab Revolt   Hejaz   Ottoman Empire Defeat of Arab aspirations for independence by post-World War I partition of Arab Ottoman Empire lands into protectorates controlled by United Kingdom and France
1917–1921 Ukrainian War of Independence   Ukraine   Soviet Russia

  Poland

Independence of Ukraine from Russia; partition of Ukraine by Soviet Union and Poland
1918–1920 Estonian War of Independence   Estonia   Soviet Russia Independence of Estonia from Russian Empire/Russian SFSR
1918–1920 Latvian War of Independence   Latvia   Soviet Russia Independence of Latvia from Russian Empire/Russian SFSR
1918–1920 Lithuanian War of Independence   Lithuania   Soviet Russia

  Poland

Independence of Lithuania from Russian Empire/Russian SFSR and Poland
1919–1921 Irish War of Independence   Ireland   United Kingdom Anglo-Irish Treaty; Partition of Ireland; secession of 26 of Ireland's 32 counties (the Irish Free State) from the United Kingdom
1919–1923 Turkish War of Independence   Turkey   Ottoman Empire

Allies of World War I

Creation of the Republic of Turkey
1920–1926 Rif War   Republic of the Rif   Spain Defeat of insurgents and Rif Republic; Spain retains control of Spanish Morocco
1942-1947 Second Indian War of Independence   India   United Kingdom INA captured parts of North-East India and Andaman & Nicobar Islands, later INA Trials triggered Bombay Mutiny & Royal Air Force mutiny which resulted in Indian Independence Act 1947[1]
1944–1948 Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine   Israel   United Kingdom Independence of Israel from the United Kingdom
1945–1949 Indonesian National Revolution   Indonesia   Netherlands Independence of Indonesia from the Netherlands
1946–1954 First Indochina War   Vietnam

  Laos

  Cambodia

  France Independence of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia from France; partition of Vietnam
1947–1949 1948 Arab–Israeli War   Israel   United Kingdom

  Arab League

Defeat of Arabs; Israel retains independence
1952–1960 Kenyan Mau Mau Uprising   Kenya   United Kingdom Defeat of insurgents; United Kingdom retains control of Kenya
1954–1962 Algerian War   Algeria   France Independence of Algeria from France
1955–1972 First Sudanese Civil War   Southern Sudan   Sudan Conflict between Sudan and South Sudan
1961–1974 Angolan War of Independence   Angola   Portugal Independence of Angola from Portugal
1961–1991 Eritrean War of Independence   Eritrea   Ethiopia Independence of Eritrea from Ethiopia
1961–Ongoing Papua conflict   Free Papua   Indonesia Ongoing
1963–1974 Guinea-Bissau War of Independence   Guinea-Bissau   Portugal Independence of Guinea-Bissau from Portugal
1964–1979 Zimbabwe War of Liberation   Zimbabwe   Rhodesia Defeat of unrecognized Republic of Rhodesia; internationally recognized independence of Zimbabwe
1964–1974 Mozambican War of Independence   Mozambique   Portugal Independence of Mozambique from Portugal
1966–1988 Namibian War of Independence   Namibia   South Africa Independence of Namibia from South Africa
1967–1970 Nigerian Civil War   Biafra   Nigeria Defeat and dissolution of the Republic of Biafra
1971 Bangladesh Liberation War   Bangladesh   Pakistan Independence of Bangladesh from Pakistan
1975–Ongoing Cabinda War   Cabinda   Angola Ongoing
1975–1991 Western Sahara War   Western Sahara   Morocco Partition of Western Sahara between Morocco and Sahrawi Republic
1976-2005 Insurgency in Aceh   Free Aceh Movement   Indonesia Special autonomy granted to Aceh, disarmament of the GAM
1981–1991 Somaliland War of Independence   Somali National Movement   Somalia De facto independence of Somaliland from Somalia
1982–Ongoing Casamance conflict   Casamance   Senegal Low-level conflict since 2014
1983–2005 Second Sudanese Civil War   South Sudan   Sudan Independence of South Sudan from Sudan
1988–1994 First Nagorno-Karabakh War   Artsakh   Azerbaijan De facto independence of the Republic of Artsakh from Azerbaijan
1988–1998 Bougainville Civil War   Bougainville   Papua New Guinea Bougainville receives autonomy in 2002; voted in favour of independence in 2019
1990–1992 Transnistria War   Transnistria   Moldova De facto independence of Transnistria from Moldova
1991–1992 South Ossetia War   South Ossetia   Georgia De facto independence for South Ossetia from Georgia
1991 Liberation of Kuwait   Kuwait   Iraq Part of the Gulf War; Kuwait regains independence
1991–1995 Croatian War of Independence   Croatia   Yugoslavia Independence of Croatia from Yugoslavia
1991 Ten-Day War   Slovenia   Yugoslavia Independence of Slovenia from Yugoslavia
1992–1993 War in Abkhazia   Abkhazia   Georgia De facto independence for Abkhazia from Georgia
1993–1996 First Chechen War   Chechen Republic of Ichkeria   Russia De facto independence for Chechnya from Russia
1998–1999 Kosovo War   Republic of Kosova   Serbia & Montenegro No legal changes to Yugoslav borders according to the Resolution 1244, but de facto independence of Kosovo from the rest of Yugoslavia
1999–2009 Second Chechen War   Chechen Republic of Ichkeria   Russia Defeat of Chechnya; reincorporation into Russia
2012 Tuareg rebellion (2012)   Azawad   Mali Unrecognized independence of Azawad from Mali; renounced it's independence in 2013
2014–Ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War   Ukraine   Russia Also called a "rebirth," or a war for independence from Russia by some Ukrainian sources[2]
2014–2022 War in Donbas   Donetsk People's Republic

  Luhansk People's Republic

  Ukraine Recognition of independence by Russia on 21 February 2022; annexed by Russia on September the same year.
2017–Ongoing Anglophone Crisis   Ambazonia   Cameroon Ongoing
2020–Ongoing Western Togoland Rebellion   Western Togoland   Ghana Ongoing

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Bhat D. "RIN mutiny gave a jolt to the British". The Tribune. Retrieved 2007-09-02.
  2. ^ "Ukraine will fight to the end: Zelenskyy's Independence Day vow". Al Jazeera. August 24, 2022. Archived from the original on August 31, 2022. “A new nation appeared in the world on February 24 at 4 o’clock in the morning. It was not born, but reborn. A nation that did not cry, scream or take fright. One that did not flee. Did not give up. And did not forget,” he said.