List of fact-checking websites
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This list of fact-checking websites includes websites that provide fact-checking services about both political and non-political subjects.
The Reporters' Lab at Duke University maintains a database of fact-checking organizations that is managed by Mark Stencel and Bill Adair. The database tracks more than 100 non-partisan organizations around the world. The Lab's inclusion criteria is based on whether the organization
- examines all parties and sides;
- examines discrete claims and reaches conclusions;
- tracks political promises;
- is transparent about sources and methods;
- discloses funding/affiliations;
- and whether its primary mission is news and information.
- Africa Check: Africa's first independent fact-checking organisation with offices in Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Senegal and the UK checking claims made by public figures and the media in Africa.
- BOOM Bangladesh
- Rumor Scanner
- Fatabyyano, the only IFCN signatory that publishes in Arabic. They use short videos to share fact-checks.
- Sebenarnya.my is a Malaysian fact-checking website set up by the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission.
- Black Dot Research is the first independent fact-checking agency in Singapore.
- Mongolian Fact Checking Center
- Alt News is a fact-checking website.
- BOOM is an IFCN certified independent digital journalism initiative.
- WebQoof is The Quint's IFCN-certified fact-checking initiative.
- Vishvas News is a multilingual fact checking website which is certified by International Fact Checking Network (IFCN).
- Fact Crescendo is an IFCN Certified multilingual fact checking website, they also have a presence in Sri Lanka & Myanmar.
- You Turn is an IFCN-certified fact-checking website run primarily in Tamil language.
- India Today Fact Check - is part of TV Today Network Ltd. The Fact Check section is part of the India Today website but is managed separately and independently from the editorial operations of India Today.
- Factly is an Indian data journalism/public information portal. Each news story on FACTLY is backed by factual evidence/data from official sources that is either available in the public domain or that is collated/gathered/collected using tools such as the Right to Information (RTI).
- NewsMobile is a global fact-checker based in India.
- Newschecker.in is a website to expose bias/agenda.
- THIP Media, the media arm of The Healthy Indian Project , is a fact check website that is dedicated to health information fact check. Apart from being an IFCN signatory, THIP Media is further certified by the HONcode.
Not on IFCN list of signatories:
- SMHoaxSlayer is a broad spectrum fact-checking website with verifying social media hoaxes and scams circulating in India.
Rejected by IFCN:
- Fact Hunt is a website that claims to have been rejected by the IFCN in 2020.
- OpIndia is a right-wing news portal that was rejected by the IFCN in 2019.
- GoHoo: Launched by a nonprofit association Watchdog for Accuracy in News-reporting, Japan (WANJ or 一般社団法人 日本報道検証機構) on November 16, 2014. Crowd-funded approx. 1.6 million yen through Ready For. Awarded Social Business Grand Prize 2012 Summer.
- Japan Center of Education for Journalists (JCEJ): Fosters journalists and fact-checkers by referring to a Journalist's Guide to Social Sources published by First Draft News, a project of the Harvard Kennedy School's Shorenstein Center. JCEJ itself also debunks falsehoods.
- RMIT ABC Fact Check: An IFCN-accredited fact checking organisation, launched in 2017, jointly funded by RMIT University and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC).
- Fip.am, launched by the NGO "Union of Informed Citizens" (UIC) in 2016 as Sut.am and renamed in September 2018
- media.am media critique and analytic website and media literacy platform by Media Initiatives Center
- Mimikama: Austrian fact-checking website which mainly focuses on Facebook hoaxes in the German and Dutch language area.
- FaktYoxla, is an initiative implemented by Institute for Democratic Initiatives, focusing on political news and information.
- Yalan-Doğru Təftiş, functions actively on social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, Telegram, but any proper information about its affiliation is not available.
- Faktograf.hr: Croatian fact-checking website set up by the Croatian Journalists' Association and GONG.
- Faktabaari: a Finnish awarded and politically independent fact-checking website, launched in 2014.
- Les Décodeurs: French fact-checking blog run by Le Monde.
- Factuel: French fact-checking blog run by the Agence France-Presse.
- CaptainFact: French collaborative fact-checking platform.
- FactCheck Georgia: a project of the Tbilisi-based think-tank Georgia's Reforms Associates (GRASS), launched in 2013.
- Volksverpetzer.de, launched by Thomas Laschyk
- Correctiv.org, launched by "Recherchen für die Gesellschaft gemeinnützige GmbH"
- Ellinikahoaxes.gr: a Greek fact-checking website launched in 2013. Debunks hoaxes, urban legends, fake news, internet scams and other stories of questionable origin.
- Factchecker.gr: an independent Greek fact-checking website launched in February 2017 specializing in pseudoscience and medical frauds.
- Bufale.net: Italian national fact-checking service website and creators of the first antifakenews addon for Chrome
- Pagella Politica: an Italian fact-checking website.
- Demaskuok.lt and Debunk.eu: launched by Delfi and other Lithuanian online media.
- Stopfals.md: launched by Association of Independent Press (API) from the Republic of Moldova in 2017
- Nieuwscheckers: fact-checking initiative by the Leiden University
- Faktisk.no: Fact-checking site focusing on public debate in Norway. Set up by rival Norwegian media outlets and a part of IFCN
- Demagog: First fact-checking website in Poland, dedicated to fact check political statements. Member of International Fact-Checking Network at Poynter Institute.
- Fakenews.pl: a Polish fact-checking website.
- Observador: First newspaper in Portugal with fact-checking section. First Portuguese member of International Fact-Checking Network at Poynter Institute.
- Polígrafo: Online fact-checking website. Also featured on a SIC news programme.
- Factual.ro: First fact-checking website in Romania, dedicated to fact check political statements. Set up by the Funky Citizens NGO.
- Miniver.org: First dedicated fact-checking web in Spain, launched in 2017, with the purpose of debunking fake news. Accredited by Google as fact-checking organization.
- Newtral: Spanish fact-checking organization founded by journalist Ana Pastor from LaSexta. Currently the official news verifier for Facebook Spain.
- Maldita.es: Independent Spanish fact-checking organization.
- VoxCheck: unveiled by VoxUkraine, an online economics and policy project, in 2015.
- FactCheck Ukraine: launched by the Kyiv-based Ukrainian Team of Reformers in 2016.
- StopFake: launched by the Kyiv Mohyla Journalism School in 2014.
- BBC Reality Check
- Full Fact: An independent fact-checking organisation based in the UK which aims to "promote accuracy in public debate", launched in 2009.
- FactCheckNI: The first independent dedicated fact-checking service for Northern Ireland, launched in 2016, checking claims as well as offering training in critical thinking, tools and techniques any member of the public can use.
- The FactCheck blog: A fact-checking blog run by the Channel 4 News organization in the UK.
- Ferret Fact Service: Scotland's first fact-checker launched in April 2017 after a grant from the Google Digital News Initiative.
- Argentina: Chequeado.com
- Bolivia: Bolivia Verifica, Chequea Bolivia
- Brazil: Agência Lupa, Aos Fatos, Boatos, Comprova, É isso Mesmo? (from O Globo), E-farsas, Portal EBC's Hoax reports, Truco no Congresso, UOL Confere
- Chile: ChileCheck, Del dicho al hecho, El Polígrafo(from El Mercurio)
- Colombia: Colombia Check, Detector de Mentiras
- Guatemala: Con Pruebas
- Mexico: Checa Datos, El Sabueso,Verificado
- Peru: OjoBiónico
- Uruguay: UYcheck
- Venezuela: Cotejo, Efecto Cocuyo, Verifícalo, Verifikado
- FactNameh is an online political fact-checking website with a focus on Iran.
- The Whistle fact-checks statements said by Israeli politicians.
- Fatabyyano is an Independent Fact-checking Platform, which Considers the Leading Fact-checking Platform in the MENA region, as Fatabyyano is the First & Only Arabian Platform] that certified by the IFCN. The platform has several million followers, and had received an award from the Harvard Arab Alumni Association in 2016, as well as from Queen Rania of Jordan.
- Teyit is an independent fact-checking organization based in Turkey and a signatory to the International Fact-Checking Network’s Code of Principles and is one of the partners of First Draft News.
- Doğruluk Payı is an independent fact-checking organization that focuses on verifying the factual accuracy of statements by Turkish politicians.
- Les décrypteurs
- Le détecteur de rumeurs (Agence Science Presse)
- AFP Fact Check USA
- Climate Feedback, which is dedicated to fact-checking media coverage of climate change.
- FactCheck.org and FactCheckEd.org: self-described "advocates for voters that aims to reduce the level of deception and confusion in U.S. politics," and serving as an educational resource for high school teachers and students, respectively (the latter founded 2005). They are projects of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania, and are funded primarily by the Annenberg Foundation.
- Fact Checker (The Washington Post): A project of The Washington Post, known for grading politicians on the factual accuracy of their statements with zero to four "Pinocchios." Created September 2007 by Post diplomatic writer Michael Dobbs specifically for the 2008 presidential campaign. Ceased operation 4 November 2008, but relaunched with a broader focus in January 2011, led by veteran Post diplomatic correspondent Glenn Kessler.
- Media Bias/Fact Check is a web site that rates factual accuracy and political bias in news media. The site classifies media sources on a political bias spectrum, as well as on the accuracy of their factual reporting.
- Our.News: Created in December 2016, the platform consolidates fact checking information about news articles and other content into Nutrition Labels for News. It also crowdsources some fact-checking content by allowing its users to contribute sources, reviews, and ratings of news and content.
- PolitiFact: A service of the Tampa Bay Times - Created August 2007, uses the "Truth-o-Meter" to rank the amount of truth in public persons' statements. 2009 Pulitzer Prize Winner.
- Snopes focuses on, but is not limited to, validating and debunking urban legends and other stories in American popular culture.
- RealClearPolitics's Fact Check Review aspires to offer quaternary-level critiquing of such tertiary-level efforts at fact-checking as those listed above. Within its inaugural review item on April 9, 2018, RCP writer Kalev Leetaru said its efforts at "checking the fact checkers" were to "explore how the flagship fact-checking organizations operate in practice (as opposed to their self-reported descriptions), from their claim and verification sourcing to their topical focus to just what constitutes a 'fact.'" Leetaru is a Georgetown University fellow in residence, holding the chair established there for study and promotion of "international values, communications technology and the global Internet."
Fraudulent fact-checking websitesEdit
- Fact Check Armenia is a website with ties to Turkish government-related organizations that denies the historical facts of the Armenian Genocide.
- Fact Checking Turkey is operated by PR company Bosphorus Global and counters criticism of Turkey in foreign media. It treats statements by Turkish government officials as arbiters of the truth.
- Mediekollen, a far-right Swedish website
- "How We Identify Fact-Checkers – Duke Reporters' Lab". 22 June 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
- Lyman, Rick (23 July 2013). "Nonpartisan Fact-Checking Comes to South Africa". The New York Times.
- Flamini, Daniela (28 June 2019). "Meet the Award Winners from Global Fact 6". Poynter.
- "IFCN Code of Principles". ifcncodeofprinciples.poynter.org. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
- Sengupta, Saurya (1 July 2017). "On the origin of specious news". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2020-04-09.
- "BOOM: Conclusion and recommendations". International Fact-Checking Network. 28 February 2018. Retrieved 2020-05-19.
- "IFCN Code of Principles". ifcncodeofprinciples.poynter.org.
- "IFCN Code of Principles". ifcncodeofprinciples.poynter.org. Retrieved 2020-06-22.
- "T. V. Today Network Ltd.: Conclusion and recommendations". International Fact-Checking Network. 19 November 2019. Retrieved 2020-05-19.
- "IFCN Code of Principles". ifcncodeofprinciples.poynter.org. Retrieved 2020-07-20.
- "HONConduct10987255 - The Healthy Indian Project - HONcode certificate: The health website respects the eight HONcode principles". www.hon.ch. Retrieved 2020-07-20.
- "THIP Media receives certifications from Health On the Net Foundation, Poynter's IFCN". Express Healthcare. 2020-06-25. Retrieved 2020-07-20.
- "This 'Hoax Slayer' has busted 1,300 fake forwards on WhatsApp". YourStory.com. 1 April 2017.
- "Fake News Warriors". hindustantimes.com/. 2017-07-08. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
- "In an era of fake news, check out India's homegrown Hoax Slayer". hindustantimes.com/. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
- "Boom! This team of four journalists is on a mission to hunt down and destroy fake news in India | FactorDaily". FactorDaily. 28 July 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
- DelhiApril 24, Balkrishna New; April 24, 2019UPDATED:; Ist, 2019 20:23. "Fact Check: CIA survey on Indian poll results is a hoax". India Today.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- Fact Hunt [@facthunt_in] (4 March 2020). "IFCN @factchecknet rejects Fact Hunt based on the personal social media activity of founders" (Tweet). Retrieved 2020-05-06 – via Twitter.
- Kaur, Kanchan (11 February 2019). "Conclusions and recommendations on the application by OpIndia.com". International Fact-Checking Network. Archived from the original on 10 March 2019. Retrieved 12 December 2019.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- "私たちは、マスメディアの情報の真偽をチェックするニュースメディア、「メディアのメディア」を創ります！". Ready For. Retrieved 2017-11-01.
- "ソーシャルビジネスグランプリ 2012夏 結果発表". Social Entrepreneur School. Retrieved 2017-11-01.
- Kajimoto, Masato (2017-10-30). "A snap election (and global worries over fake news) spur fact-checking collaborations in Japan". Nieman Foundation at Harvard. Retrieved 2017-11-01.
- "RMIT ABC Fact Check". Retrieved 10 September 2019.
- "About". RMIT ABC Fact Check. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
- "SUT.am-ը դարձել է «Փաստերի ստուգման հարթակ»` FIP.am". September 3, 2018.
- "Mimikama – Verein zur Aufklärung über Internetmissbrauch". Mimikama – Verein zur Aufklärung über Internetmissbrauch. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- "Fakt Yoxla". www.faktyoxla.info. Retrieved 2020-06-24.
- "Yalan-Doğru Təftiş". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2020-11-30.
- "Təftiş". Telegram. Retrieved 2020-11-30.
- "Faktograf.hr - evo koji su političari uhvaćeni u laži" [Faktograf.hr - here are the politicians who were caught lying]. HRT. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
- "Faktabaari paljastaa poliitikkojen puppupuheet". Yleisradio. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
- "Faktabaari sai Chydeniuksen avoimuuspalkinnon". Helsingin Sanomat, hs.fi. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
- "Fact-checking blogs turn up heat on French candidates". France 24. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "FactCheck Georgia". factcheck.ge. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- Graves, Lucas; Cherubini, Federica (2016). "The Rise of Fact-Checking Sites in Europe". Digital News Report. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "Μιλήσαμε με τον Έλληνα που Κυνηγάει τα Hoaxes στο Ίντερνετ". Vice Greece. 24 November 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "Τι παίζει με την κυρία Βαλεντίνη;". Lifo. 11 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "Αντιδράσεις στον Βόλο για προσκεκλημένο ομιλητή". Ταχυδρόμος. 19 June 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "Come smascherare le notizie false e le bufale che girano su internet". Il Fatto Quotidiano. 18 December 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "Italian politics: Pinocchio's heirs". The Economist. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Mantzarlis, Alexios (22 March 2017). "Rivals become partners in Norway's newest fact-checking project". Poynter Institute. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "DEMAGOG - fakty są najważniejsze! Weryfikujemy i kontrolujemy". Demagog.
- [dead link]
- "Observador – Notícias, Opinião, Especiais, Explicadores e Newsletters". Observador.
- "Polígrafo - O primeiro jornal português de Fact-Checking". Polígrafo.
- politică, Factual • Adevărul din. "Factual.ro". ww.factual.ro/.
- "Miniver.org". Miniver.org. 20 May 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "Newtral". Newtral.es. 10 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "Quiénes somos". Newtral (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-01-12.
- "El doble salto mortal de Ana Pastor, juez y parte: ¿quién vigila a la vigilante de las fake news?". El Español (in Spanish). 2019-03-17. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
- "Maldita". Maldital.es. 22 April 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- "Global Fact-Checking Sites". Duke Reporters' Lab. Retrieved 2020-07-16.
- "VoxUkraine". VoxUkraine.org. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "About us". StopFake.org. 21 May 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- Jackson, Jasper (12 January 2017). "BBC sets up team to debunk fake news". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
- "Full Fact". FullFact.org. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- "FactCheckNI". FactCheckNI.org. 29 November 2019. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- "The FactCheck Blog". Channel 4. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- "Ferret Fact Service". 4 April 2017.
- "Journalism.co.uk interview". 28 April 2017.
- "Google DNI: The Ferret". 19 September 2017. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017.
- "Chequeado.com: Fiel defensor de los hechos". Lanacion.com. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "Lanzan Bolivia Verifica, observatorio que luchará contra las noticias falsas". Correo del Sur (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-08-19.
- "Chequea Bolivia verifica las noticias | La Prensa". www.laprensa.com.bo. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
- "Programa do Facebook de checagem de notícias chega ao Brasil". EXAME. 2018-05-10. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "'Aos Fatos': um serviço jornalístico para checar o que é fato ou cascata". Blog do Mário Magalhães. 2015-07-09. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Selo de verificação de fatos chega à América Latina". O Blog do Google Brasil. 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "16 ways fact-checkers and users can debunk hoaxes on WhatsApp". International Fact-Checking Day. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Projeto Comprova une redações do Brasil para combater notícias falsas nas eleições". Diário Catarinense. 2018-06-28. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Grupo vai checar e combater avanço de notícias falsas". O Globo. 2017-03-12. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Entrevistamos o criador do E-farsas, site que desvenda os boatos da internet!". Tec Mundo. 2018-01-01.
- "Fact-checking in Latin America: features and challenges". Polis - journalism and society at the LSE. 2018-03-08. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Truco no Congresso: chegou a hora da verdade". Congresso em Foco. 2015-08-03. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Fake News". Mundo Educação – Educação, Vestibular, ENEM, Trabalhos Escolares. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Creador del programa "Chile Check" devela 5 mentiras de los candidatos a la presidencia". El Desconcierto - Prensa digital libre. 2017-10-06. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Feitas por jornalistas, plataformas de checagem de discurso público ganham espaço". Portal IMPRENSA. 2015-09-08. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Los siete pasos de verificación de "El Polígrafo"". Puroperiodismo. 2015-12-21. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Siete pasos de verificación de El Polígrafo (El Mercurio)". 2015-12-21. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Los aprendizajes de crear un proyecto de fact checking llamado El Poder de Elegir". Chicas Poderosas. 2018-03-08. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Sitios de verificación de discurso y de noticias falsas en el mundo". Aldea de Periodistas. 2018-09-15. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Fact-checking y vigilancia del poder: La verificación del discurso público en los nuevos medios de América Latina". Communication & Society. 2018. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "La apuesta por el fact-checking: periodistas crean más iniciativas para verificar el discurso público y revelar noticias falsas". Blog Periodismo en las Américas. 2017-04-20. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Editora de 'El Sabueso': "Fact Checking simplemente es hacer periodismo"". Fact Checking UC. 2018-07-13. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "El 'fact checking' de noticias de Google llega a México". Verne en EL PAÍS. 2017-04-17. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Search, Trends and fact checking during the Mexican elections". Google News Initiative | Google Blog. 2018-08-15. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Medios peruanos llevan el fact-checking a la radio a nivel nacional con nuevo segmento para verificar el discurso público". Blog Periodismo en las Américas. 2018-11-07. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Las promesas de Vázquez durante el primer año de gestión". Montevideo Portal. 2016-03-01. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Uruguay en la época de las fake news". DelSol 99.5 FM. 2018-04-02. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- "Abierto Primer Concurso del Programa de Captación de Fact Checkers para Cotejo.info". Medianálisis - Comunicación para la Democracia. 2018-10-04. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- Avendaño, Shari (12 February 2019). "¿Qué son las "fake news" y cómo no ser víctima de ellas? #CocuyoChequea" (in Spanish). Efecto Cocuyo. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- "La evolución del periodismo en las plataformas 2.0" (in Spanish). El Nacional. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- ستاد مبارزه با چرندیات (2013-07-14), VOA Persian-Introducing Gomaneh, retrieved 2018-04-01
- "IFCN Code of Principles". ifcncodeofprinciples.poynter.org.
- "Combating fake news: Ambitious project of Jordanian youth". Jordan Times. 2017-12-18. Retrieved 2019-09-10.
- "Teyit". teyit.org.
- "Fact-checkers seek out grain of truth in Turkey's fake-news onslaught". POLITICO. 21 December 2018. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
- "FactsCan plans to test political claims during election". cbc.ca. 2015-02-10. Retrieved 2019-11-21.
- "Fact-checking triples over four years". Duke Reporters' Lab. 2018-02-22.
- Rucker, Philip. "Fact Checker". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
- Kessler, Glenn. "About the Fact Checker". Blog.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
- "washingtonpost.com Launches "FactChecker"". Findarticles.com. 2007. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
- Rucker, Philip. "Fact Checker". Voices.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
- Kessler, Glenn (19 July 2012). "Welcome to the new Fact Checker". The Washington Post.
- "Our.News fights misinformation with a 'nutrition label' for news stories". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
- Mendoza-Moyers, Diego (2019-01-21). "Troy-based start-up aims to combat online misinformation". Times Union. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
- "St. Petersburg Times Online". Politifact.com. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
- "Introducing RealClearPolitics' Fact Check Review | RealClearPolitics".
- Leetaru, Kalev. "About". Retrieved June 3, 2014.
- Sözeri, Efe Kerem (31 May 2017). "These fake 'fact-checkers' are peddling lies about genocide and censorship in Turkey". Poynter. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
Just like Fact Check Armenia, “FactCheckingTurkey.com,” launched in 2016, is not a fact-checking service. Instead, it is a project to counter articles critical of Turkey’s government.
- Moshirnia, Andrew (2020). "Who Will Check the Checkers? False Factcheckers and Memetic Misinformation". Utah Law Review. 2020 (4): 1029–1073. ISSN 0042-1448.
- Powers, Matthew; Russell, Adrienne. Rethinking Media Research for Changing Societies. Cambridge University Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-108-84051-4.
- WEISE, ZIA (21 December 2018). "Fact-checkers seek out grain of truth in Turkey's fake-news onslaught". POLITICO. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
- Jackson, Jasper (15 February 2017). "Fact-checkers are weapons in the post-truth wars, but they're not all on one side". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
- Jackson, Jasper (19 January 2017). "In the post-truth era Sweden's far right fake fact checker was inevitable". the Guardian. Retrieved 20 November 2020.