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List of Secretaries of State of the United States

This is a list of Secretaries of State of the United States.

United States Secretary of State
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg
Official Seal
Mike Pompeo official photo (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Mike Pompeo

since April 26, 2018
United States Department of State
AppointerPresident of United States
Inaugural holderJohn Jay (acting)
Thomas Jefferson
FormationJuly 27, 1789
SuccessionFourth
Websitewww.state.gov

Contents

Secretaries of Foreign Affairs (1781–1789)Edit

List of Secretaries of StateEdit

Parties
Status
  Denotes acting Secretary of State
No. Portrait Name State of Residence Took office Left office President(s)
  John Jay[A]
Acting
New York September 15, 1789 March 22, 1790 George Washington
1   Thomas Jefferson[M] Virginia March 22, 1790 December 31, 1793
2   Edmund J. Randolph Virginia January 2, 1794 August 20, 1795
3   Timothy Pickering Massachusetts August 20, 1795 December 10, 1795[B]
December 10, 1795 March 4, 1797
March 4, 1797 May 12, 1800 John Adams
  Charles Lee[C]
Acting
Virginia May 13, 1800 June 5, 1800
4   John Marshall Virginia June 13, 1800 March 4, 1801
  Levi Lincoln Sr.[C]
Acting
Massachusetts March 5, 1801 May 1, 1801 Thomas Jefferson
5   James Madison[M] Virginia May 2, 1801 March 3, 1809
6   Robert Smith Maryland March 6, 1809 April 1, 1811 James Madison
7   James Monroe[M] Virginia April 2, 1811 March 3, 1817
John Graham
Acting
Kentucky March 4, 1817 March 9, 1817 James Monroe
  Richard Rush[C]
Acting
Pennsylvania March 10, 1817 September 22, 1817
8   John Quincy Adams[M] Massachusetts September 22, 1817 March 3, 1825
Daniel Brent
Acting
Virginia March 4, 1825 March 7, 1825 John Quincy Adams
9   Henry Clay Kentucky March 7, 1825 March 3, 1829
James A. Hamilton
Acting
New York March 4, 1829 March 27, 1829 Andrew Jackson
10   Martin Van Buren[M] New York March 28, 1829 May 23, 1831
11   Edward Livingston Louisiana May 24, 1831 May 29, 1833
12   Louis McLane Delaware May 29, 1833 June 30, 1834
13   John Forsyth Georgia July 1, 1834 March 4, 1837
March 4, 1837 March 3, 1841 Martin Van Buren
Jacob L. Martin
Acting
District of Columbia March 4, 1841 March 5, 1841 William Harrison
14   Daniel Webster Massachusetts March 6, 1841 April 4, 1841
April 4, 1841 May 8, 1843 John Tyler
  Hugh S. Legaré
Acting
South Carolina May 9, 1843 June 20, 1843
William S. Derrick
Acting
Pennsylvania June 21, 1843 June 23, 1843
15   Abel P. Upshur Virginia June 24, 1843 July 23, 1843[D]
July 24, 1843 February 28, 1844
  John Nelson[C]
Acting
Maryland February 29, 1844 March 31, 1844
16   John C. Calhoun South Carolina April 1, 1844 March 10, 1845[E]
17   James Buchanan[M] Pennsylvania March 10, 1845 March 7, 1849[E] James K. Polk[E]
18   John M. Clayton Delaware March 8, 1849 July 9, 1850 Zachary Taylor
July 9, 1850 July 22, 1850 Millard Fillmore
19   Daniel Webster Massachusetts July 23, 1850 October 24, 1852
  Charles M. Conrad[B]
Acting
Louisiana October 25, 1852 November 5, 1852
20   Edward Everett Massachusetts November 6, 1852 March 3, 1853
  William Hunter[F]
Acting
Rhode Island March 4, 1853 March 7, 1853 Franklin Pierce
21   William L. Marcy New York March 7, 1853 March 6, 1857[E]
22   Lewis Cass Michigan March 6, 1857 December 14, 1860 James Buchanan
  William Hunter
Acting
Rhode Island December 15, 1860 December 16, 1860
23   Jeremiah S. Black Pennsylvania December 17, 1860 March 5, 1861[E]
24   William H. Seward New York March 5, 1861 April 15, 1865 Abraham Lincoln
April 15, 1865 March 4, 1869 Andrew Johnson
25   Elihu B. Washburne Illinois March 5, 1869 March 16, 1869 Ulysses S. Grant
26   Hamilton Fish New York March 17, 1869 March 4, 1877
March 4, 1877 March 12, 1877[E] Rutherford B. Hayes[E]
27   William M. Evarts New York March 12, 1877 March 7, 1881
28   James G. Blaine Maine March 7, 1881 September 19, 1881 James A. Garfield
September 19, 1881 December 19, 1881 Chester A. Arthur
29   Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen New Jersey December 19, 1881 March 6, 1885[E]
30   Thomas F. Bayard Delaware March 7, 1885 March 6, 1889 Grover Cleveland[E]
31   James G. Blaine Maine March 7, 1889 June 4, 1892 Benjamin Harrison
  William F. Wharton[G]
Acting
Massachusetts June 4, 1892 June 29, 1892
32   John W. Foster Indiana June 29, 1892 February 23, 1893
-   William F. Wharton[G]
Acting
Massachusetts February 24, 1893 March 6, 1893
Grover Cleveland
33   Walter Q. Gresham Indiana March 7, 1893 May 28, 1895
  Edwin F. Uhl[G]
Acting
Michigan May 28, 1895 June 9, 1895
34   Richard Olney Massachusetts June 10, 1895 March 5, 1897[E]
35   John Sherman Ohio March 6, 1897 April 27, 1898 William McKinley
36   William R. Day Ohio April 28, 1898 September 16, 1898
  Alvey A. Adee[H]
Acting
New York September 17, 1898 September 29, 1898
37   John Hay District of Columbia September 30, 1898 September 14, 1901
September 14, 1901 July 1, 1905 Theodore Roosevelt
  Francis B. Loomis[G]
Acting
Ohio July 1, 1905 July 18, 1905
38   Elihu Root New York July 19, 1905 January 27, 1909
39   Robert Bacon New York January 27, 1909 March 5, 1909[E]
40   Philander C. Knox Pennsylvania March 6, 1909 March 5, 1913 William Howard Taft[E]
41   William Jennings Bryan Nebraska March 5, 1913 June 9, 1915 Woodrow Wilson
42   Robert Lansing New York June 9, 1915 June 23, 1915
June 24, 1915 February 13, 1920
  Frank Polk[I]
Acting
New York February 14, 1920 March 12, 1920
43   Bainbridge Colby New York March 23, 1920 March 4, 1921
44   Charles Evans Hughes New York March 5, 1921 August 2, 1923 Warren G. Harding
August 2, 1923 March 4, 1925 Calvin Coolidge
45   Frank B. Kellogg Minnesota March 5, 1925 March 4, 1929
March 4, 1929 March 28, 1929 Herbert Hoover
46   Henry L. Stimson New York March 28, 1929 March 4, 1933
47   Cordell Hull Tennessee March 4, 1933 November 30, 1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt
48   Edward Stettinius Jr. Virginia December 1, 1944 April 12, 1945
April 12, 1945 June 27, 1945 Harry S. Truman
  Joseph Grew[I]
Acting
New Hampshire June 28, 1945 July 3, 1945
49   James F. Byrnes South Carolina July 3, 1945 January 21, 1947
50   George C. Marshall Pennsylvania January 21, 1947 January 20, 1949
51   Dean Acheson Connecticut January 21, 1949 January 20, 1953
  Harrison F. Matthews[I]
Acting
Maryland January 20, 1953 January 21, 1953 Dwight D. Eisenhower
52   John Foster Dulles New York January 21, 1953 April 22, 1959
53   Christian Herter Massachusetts April 22, 1959 January 20, 1961
  Livingston T. Merchant
Acting
District of Columbia January 20, 1961 January 21, 1961 John F. Kennedy
54   Dean Rusk Georgia January 21, 1961 November 22, 1963
November 22, 1963 January 20, 1969 Lyndon B. Johnson
  Charles E. Bohlen
Acting
District of Columbia January 20, 1969 January 22, 1969 Richard Nixon
55   William P. Rogers Maryland January 22, 1969 September 3, 1973
  Kenneth Rush
Acting
Florida September 3, 1973 September 22, 1973
56   Henry Kissinger District of Columbia September 22, 1973 August 9, 1974
August 9, 1974 January 20, 1977[1] Gerald Ford
  Philip Habib
Acting
California January 20, 1977 January 23, 1977 Jimmy Carter
57   Cyrus Vance West Virginia January 23, 1977 April 28, 1980[2]
  Warren Christopher[K][3]
Acting
California April 28, 1980 May 2, 1980
  David D. Newsom[L][3]
Acting
May 2, 1980 May 3, 1980
Richard N. Cooper[N][3]
Acting
May 3, 1980
  David D. Newsom[L][3]
Acting
May 3, 1980 May 4, 1980
  Warren Christopher[K][3]
Acting
California May 4, 1980 May 8, 1980
58   Edmund Muskie Maine May 8, 1980 January 20, 1981[4]
59   Alexander Haig Connecticut January 22, 1981 July 5, 1982[5] Ronald Reagan
  Walter J. Stoessel Jr.[K]
Acting
California July 5, 1982 July 16, 1982
60   George P. Shultz California July 16, 1982 January 20, 1989[6]
  Michael Armacost[L]
Acting
Maryland January 20, 1989 January 25, 1989 George H. W. Bush
61   James Baker Texas January 25, 1989 August 23, 1992[7]
62   Lawrence Eagleburger Wisconsin August 23, 1992 December 8, 1992[K][8]
December 8, 1992 January 19, 1993[9]
Arnold Kanter[L][10]
Acting
Virginia January 20, 1993 Bill Clinton
  Frank G. Wisner[O][10]
Acting
District of Columbia January 20, 1993
63   Warren Christopher California January 20, 1993 January 17, 1997[11]
64   Madeleine Albright District of Columbia January 23, 1997 January 20, 2001[12]
65   Colin Powell Virginia January 20, 2001 January 26, 2005[13] George W. Bush
66   Condoleezza Rice California January 26, 2005 January 20, 2009[14]
  William Joseph Burns[L]
Acting
District of Columbia January 20, 2009 January 21, 2009[15] Barack Obama
67   Hillary Rodham Clinton New York January 21, 2009 February 1, 2013[16]
68   John Kerry Massachusetts February 1, 2013 January 20, 2017[17]
  Tom Shannon[L]
Acting
Minnesota January 20, 2017 February 1, 2017[18][19][20] Donald Trump
69   Rex Tillerson Texas February 1, 2017 March 31, 2018
  John J. Sullivan[K]
Acting
Massachusetts April 1, 2018 April 26, 2018
70   Mike Pompeo Kansas April 26, 2018 Incumbent

List of Secretaries of State by time in officeEdit

 
11 years, 271 days
Cordell Hull from 1933 to 1944
 
7 years, 364 days
Dean Rusk from 1961 to 1969
 
7 years, 364 days
William H. Seward from 1861 to 1869
 
43 days
Lawrence Eagleburger from 1992 to 1993
 
37 days
Robert Bacon in 1909
 
11 days
Elihu B. Washburne in 1869

This is a list of United States Secretaries of State by time in office. This is based on the difference between dates; if counted by number of calendar days all the figures would be one greater.

Cordell Hull is the only person to have served as Secretary of State for more than eight years. Daniel Webster and James G. Blaine are the only Secretaries of State to have ever served non-consecutive terms. Elihu B. Washburne served as Secretary of State for less than two weeks before becoming Ambassador to France.

# in office Secretary Length of service
(days)
Rank
47 Cordell Hull 4289 1
54 Dean Rusk 2921 2
24 William H. Seward 2921
8 John Quincy Adams 2920 4
26 Hamilton Fish 2917 5
5 James Madison 2862 6
37 John Hay 2465 7
13 John Forsyth 2437 8
60 George P. Shultz 2380 9
52 John Foster Dulles 2282 10
7 James Monroe 2011 11
42 Robert Lansing 1695 12
55 William P. Rogers 1685 13
14/19 Daniel Webster 1617 14
3 Timothy Pickering 1614 15
45 Frank B. Kellogg 1484 16
28/31 James G. Blaine 1472 17
67 Hillary Rodham Clinton 1472
65 Colin Powell 1467 19
51 Dean Acheson 1460 20
21 William L. Marcy 1460
30 Thomas F. Bayard Sr. 1460
40 Philander C. Knox 1460
44 Charles Evans Hughes 1460
63 Warren Christopher 1458 25
64 Madeleine Albright 1458
17 James Buchanan 1458
9 Henry Clay 1457 28
27 William M. Evarts 1456 29
66 Condoleezza Rice 1455 30
68 John Kerry 1449 31
46 Henry L. Stimson 1437 32
1 Thomas Jefferson 1380 33
22 Lewis Cass 1379 34
61 James Baker 1306 35
38 Elihu Root 1288 36
56 Henry Kissinger 1216 37
57 Cyrus Vance 1191 38
29 Frederick T. Frelinghuysen 1173 39
41 William Jennings Bryan 826 40
33 Walter Q. Gresham 812 41
10 Martin Van Buren 786 42
6 Robert Smith 756 43
11 Edward Livingston 736 44
50 George Marshall 730 45
53 Christian Herter 639 46
34 Richard Olney 634 47
2 Edmund Randolph 595 48
49 James F. Byrnes 567 49
59 Alexander Haig 529 50
18 John M. Clayton 501 51
70 Mike Pompeo 482 52
69 Rex Tillerson 423 53
35 John Sherman 417 54
12 Louis McLane 397 55
43 Bainbridge Colby 346 56
16 John C. Calhoun 343 57
4 John Marshall 264 58
58 Edmund Muskie 257 59
32 John W. Foster 239 60
15 Abel P. Upshur 219 61
48 Edward Stettinius Jr. 208 62
36 William R. Day 141 63
20 Edward Everett 117 64
23 Jeremiah S. Black 78 65
62 Lawrence Eagleburger 43 66
39 Robert Bacon 37 67
25 Elihu B. Washburne 11 68

Living former Secretaries of StateEdit

As of August 2019, there are nine living former Secretaries of State (with all Secretaries that have served since 1997 still living), the oldest being George P. Shultz (served 1982–1989, born 1920). The most recent Secretary of State to die was Lawrence Eagleburger (served 1992–1993, born 1930), on June 4, 2011. The most recently serving Secretary of State to die was Warren Christopher (served 1993–1997, born 1925) on March 18, 2011.

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Henry A. (Heinz Alfred) Kissinger (1923–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  2. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Cyrus Roberts Vance (1917–2002)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  3. ^ a b c d e Allexperts.com – Secretary of State Archived 2012-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Edmund Sixtus Muskie (1914–1996)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  5. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Alexander Meigs Haig Jr. (1924–2010)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  6. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: George Pratt Shultz (1920–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  7. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: James Addison Baker III (1930–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  8. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (1930–2011)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian. Served as Acting Secretary of State, Aug 23-Dec 8, 1992.
  9. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (1930–2011)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  10. ^ a b and, Thomas L. Friedman. "Clinton Rounds Out State Dept. Team". nytimes.com. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  11. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Warren Minor Christopher (1925–2011)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  12. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Madeleine Korbel Albright (1937–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  13. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Colin Luther Powell (1937–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  14. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Condoleezza Rice (1954–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  15. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Condoleezza Rice (1954–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian. Under Secretary for Political Affairs William J. Burns served as Acting Secretary of State, January 20-21, 2009.
  16. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Hillary Rodham Clinton (1947–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  17. ^ "John Forbes Kerry (1943–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  18. ^ Herman, Steve. "Career Diplomat Becomes Acting Secretary of State with Trump Inauguration". voanews.com. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  19. ^ News, ABC. "ABC News". ABC News. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  20. ^ "Under Secretary of State Shannon meets Tillerson: U.S. official". January 19, 2017. Retrieved March 14, 2018 – via Reuters.

Further readingEdit

  • Graebner, Norman A., ed. An Uncertain Tradition: American Secretaries of State in the Twentieth Century (1961) scholarly essays on John Hay through John Foster Dulles.
  • Hopkins, Michael F. "President Harry Truman's Secretaries of State: Stettinius, Byrnes, Marshall and Acheson." Journal of Transatlantic Studies 6.3 (2008): 290-304.
  • Mihalkanin Edward, ed. American Statesmen: Secretaries of State from John Jay to Colin Powell (2004); short scholarly articles by experts; 572pp online

External linksEdit