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Kings of CastileEdit

 
Royal arms of Castile

Jiménez DynastyEdit

Monarch Image Nickname Reign began Reign ended Notes
Ferdinand I   The Great 1037 27 December 1065 also King of León
Sancho II   The strong 27 December 1065 6 October 1072  
Alfonso VI   The Brave 6 October 1072 30 June 1109 also King of León
Urraca     30 June 1109 8 March 1126 also Queen of León

House of IvreaEdit

The following dynasts are descendants, in the male line, of Urraca's first husband, Raymond of Burgundy.

Monarch Image Nickname Began Ended Notes
Alfonso VII The Emperor 10 March 1126 21 August 1157 also King of León
Sancho III   The Desired 21 August 1157 31 August 1158  
Alfonso VIII   The Noble 31 August 1158 6 October 1214

16 July 1212 won a decisive victory for the Reconquista at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa

Henry I     6 October 1214 6 June 1217  
Berengaria   The Great 6 June 1217 30 August 1217 abdicated in favor of her son, Ferdinand III; died 1246
Ferdinand III   The Saint 30 August 1217 30 May 1252 also King of León from 1230; all later kings were King of León as well
Alfonso X   The Wise 30 May 1252 4 April 1284 elected King of the Romans in 1257, a title which he claimed until he renounced it in 1275
Sancho IV   The Brave 4 April 1284 25 April 1295  
Ferdinand IV   The Summoned 25 April 1295 7 September 1312  
Alfonso XI   The Just 7 September 1312 26 March 1350  
Peter   The Cruel 26 March 1350 23 March 1369 Killed by Henry II of Castile

Succession crisisEdit

 
The Royal Bend of Castile, adopted since Alfonso XI in 1332 as a personal standard of the monarchs

Following the death of Peter, a succession crisis arose between Peter's illegitimate half-brother Henry of Trastámara and the Englishman John of Gaunt, a great great grandson of Ferdinand III of Castile, who claimed the title of King of Castile and Léon by virtue of his marriage to Constance, daughter of Peter. Henry took the throne by force, and faced several military actions by John of Gaunt, who had forged an alliance with John I of Portugal in an attempt to enforce his claim, however John of Gaunt was unsuccessful in his campaigns, and Henry established the House of Trastámara as the new ruling dynasty of Castile.

House of TrastámaraEdit

 
Royal arms of the Crown of Castile by the time of John II

Henry II was the illegitimate son of Alfonso XI. He was made count of Trastámara.

Monarch Image Nickname Began Ended Notes
Henry II   The Bastard 23 March 1369 29 May 1379 also claimed the throne from 1366
John I     29 May 1379 9 October 1390  
Henry III   The Infirm 9 October 1390 25 December 1406  
John II     25 December 1406 21 July 1454  
Henry IV   The Impotent 21 July 1454 11 December 1474  
Isabella I   The Catholic 11 December 1474 26 November 1504 After ruling for a month on her own, Isabella was then joined by her husband, Ferdinand, who ruled Castile jure uxoris as Ferdinand V.
Ferdinand V   The Catholic 15 January 1475 26 November 1504 Ferdinand was in Aragon when Isabella succeeded to the throne on 11 December 1474. He arrived at Segovia on 2 January 1475 and a negotiation ensued that was arbitrated by Archbishop Carrillo and Cardinal Mendoza. One of the points determined was whether Ferdinand was to be consort or jure uxoris king. In Concordia de Segovia, Carrillo and Mendoza wrote the opinion on 15 January 1475 that Ferdinand was jure uxoris King of Castile.

Succeeding to the throne of Aragon as Ferdinand II on 19 January 1479, Ferdinand then ruled all of non-Portuguese Iberia except Granada (added in 1492) and Navarre (added in 1515) effectively creating a de facto united realm of España.

In 1478 established the Spanish Inquisition to displace the Papal Inquisition

Joanna   The mad 26 November 1504 12 April 1555 in name, with her husband Philip I (1504–1506).
in confinement, with regent Archbishop Cisneros (1506-1508).
in confinement, with her father Ferdinand V (1508-1516).
in confinement, with her son Charles I (1516–1555)

House of HabsburgEdit

 
Arms of Philip I
Monarch Image Nickname Began Ended Notes
Philip I   The Handsome 26 November 1504 25 September 1506 jure uxoris king ruling on behalf of his wife, Joanna I
Charles I   The Emperor 13 March 1516 16 January 1556 jointly with his mother Joanna I in confinement to 1555,
abdicated in favor of his son 1556, died 21 September 1558.
Philip II   The Prudent 16 January 1556 13 September 1598 son of Charles I and Isabella of Portugal
Philip III   The Pious 13 September 1598 31 March 1621 son of Philip II and Anna of Austria
Philip IV   The Great 31 March 1621 17 September 1665 son of Philip III and Margaret of Austria
Charles II   The Bewitched 17 September 1665 1 November 1700 son of Philip IV and Mariana of Austria

The Crown of Castile existed in its own right within the Spanish crown and with its own law until the arrival of the Bourbon dynasty after the War of Spanish Succession.

Suggested readingEdit

  • Barton, Simon. The Aristocracy in Twelfth-Century León and Castile. Cambridge University Press, 1997. Appendix I: "The Counts of Twelfth Century León and Castile and Aragon, pp. 235–302.

See alsoEdit