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Linear A is a writing system used by the Minoans (Cretans) from 1800 to 1450 BC that belongs to an independent group that is distinct from Egyptian and Babylonian systems. During the second millennium, there were four major branches: the Cretan Hieroglyphic Script, Linear A, Linear B, and Cypro-Minoan.[3] Along with Cretan hieroglyphic, it is one of two undeciphered writing systems used by ancient Minoan and peripheral peoples. Linear A was the primary script used in palace and religious writings of the Minoan civilization. It was discovered by archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans. It is related to the Linear B script, which succeeded the Linear A and was used by the Mycenaean civilization.

Linear A
Linear A cup.png
Type
Undeciphered (presumed syllabic and ideographic)
Languages'Minoan' (unknown)
Time period
MM IB to LM IIIA 1800–1450 BC[1]
StatusExtinct
Child systems
Linear B, Cypro-Minoan syllabary[2]
Sister systems
Cretan hieroglyphs
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924Lina, 400
Unicode alias
Linear A
U+10600–U+1077F
Final Accepted Script Proposal

In the 1950s, Linear B was largely deciphered by Michael Ventris and found to encode an early form of Greek. Although the two systems share many symbols, this did not lead to a subsequent decipherment of Linear A. Using the values associated with Linear B in Linear A mainly produces unintelligible words. If Linear A uses the same or similar syllabic values as Linear B, then its associated language, dubbed "Minoan", appears unrelated to any known language.

All assumptions and hypotheses about Linear A and Minoan (their underlying language) are based primarily on comparison with the well-known Linear B, the famous child system developed by Linear A.

Contents

ScriptEdit

Linear A has hundreds of signs, believed to represent syllabic, ideographic, and semantic values in a manner similar to Linear B. While many of those assumed to be syllabic signs are similar to ones in Linear B, approximately 80% of Linear A's logograms are unique;[4][3] the difference in sound values between Linear A and Linear B signs ranges from 9% to 13%.[5] It primarily appears in the left-to-right direction, but occasionally appears as a right-to-left or boustrophedon script.

Linear A may be divided into four categories: numerals and metrical signs, phonetic signs, ligatures and composite signs, and ideograms. Numbers follow a decimal system, units are represented by vertical dashes, tens by horizontal dashes, hundreds by circles, and thousands by circles with rays. Specific signs that coincide with numerals are regarded as fractions.[6]

An interesting feature is the recording of numbers in the script. The highest number that has been recorded is 3000, but there are special symbols to indicate fractions and weights.

SignaryEdit

Linear A: signary and numbering according to E. Bennett. Reading of signs is based on Linear B analogs.
*01-*20 *21-*30 *31-*53 *54-*74 *76-*122 *123-*306
  DA

*01

  QI

*21

  SA

*31

  WA

*54

 

*76

 

*123

  RO

*02

 

*21f

 

*34

 

*55

  KA

*77

 

*131a

  PA

*03

 

*21m

  TI

*37

  PA3

*56

  QE

*78

 

*131b

  TE

*04

  MI?

*22

  E

*38

  JA

*57

  WO2?

*79

 

*131c

 

*05

 

*22f

  PI

*39

  SU

*58

  MA

*80

 

*164

  NA

*06

 

*22m

  WI

*40

  TA

*59

  KU

*81

 

*171

  DI

*07

  MU

*23

  SI

*41

  RA

*60

 

*82

 

*180

  A

*08

 

*23m

  KE

*44

  O

*61

 

*85

 

*188

  S

*09

  NE

*24

 

*45

  JU

*65

 

*86

 

*191

 

*10

  RU

*26

 

*46

  TA2

*66

  TWE

*87

 

*301

 

*11

  RE

*27

 

*47

  KI

*67

 

*100/
*102

 

*302

  ME

*13

  I

*28

 

*49

  TU

*69

 

*118

 

*303

  QA2

*16

 

*28b

  PU

*50

 

*70

 

*120

 

*304

  ZA

*17

 

*29

  DU

*51

  MI

*73

 

*120b

 

*305

  ZO

*20

  NI

*30

 

*53

  ZE

*74

 

*122

 

*306

CorpusEdit

 
Linear A incised on tablets found in Akrotiri, Santorini.
 
Linear A tablet from the palace of Zakros, Archeological Museum of Sitia.

Linear A has been unearthed chiefly on Crete, but also at other sites in Greece, as well as Turkey and Israel. The extant corpus, comprising some 1,427 specimens totalling 7,362 to 7,396 signs, if scaled to standard type, would fit easily on two sheets of paper.[7] Linear A has been written on various media, such as stone offering tables, gold and silver hairpins, and ceramics.[8] The earliest inscriptions of Linear A are found in Phaistos, in a layer dated at the end of the Minoan II, which provides us with c. 1700 BC as a term before it. Linear A can be found throughout the island of Crete and is even exported to the Aegean islands (Kythera, Kea, Thera, Melos), the mainland of Greece (Ayos Stephanos), the west coast from Asia Minor (Miletos, Troia) and the Levant (Tel Haror).[9]

CreteEdit

According to Ilse Schoep, the main discoveries of Linear A tablets have been at three sites on Crete:[10]

Haghia Triadha in the Mesara with 147 tablets; Zakro/Zakros, a port town in the far east of the island with 31 tablets; and Khania/Chania, a port town in the northwest of the island with 94 tablets.

Discoveries have been made at the following locations on Crete:[11]

Outside CreteEdit

Until 1973, only one Linear A tablet was known to have been found outside Crete (on Kea).[12] Since then, other locations have yielded inscriptions.

According to Margalit Finkelberg, most—if not all—inscriptions found outside Crete were made locally. This is indicated by such factors as the composition of the material on which the inscriptions were made.[12] Also, close analysis of the inscriptions found outside Crete indicates the use of a script that is somewhere in between Linear A and Linear B, combining elements from both.

Other Greek islandsEdit

Mainland GreeceEdit

ChronologyEdit

Linear A became eminent during the Middle Minoan Period, specifically from 1625–1450 BC. It was a contemporary and possible child of Cretan hieroglyphs and the ancestor of Linear B. The sequence and the geographical spread of Cretan hieroglyphs, Linear A, and Linear B, the three overlapping but distinct writing systems on Bronze Age Crete and the Greek mainland, can be summarized as follows:[14]

Writing system Geographical area Time span[a]
Cretan Hieroglyphic Crete c. 2100 – 1700 BC
Linear A Crete, Aegean islands (Kea, Kythera, Melos, Thera), and Greek mainland (Laconia) c. 1800 – 1450 BC
Linear B Crete (Knossos), and mainland (Pylos, Mycenae, Thebes, Tiryns) c. 1450 – 1200 BC

DiscoveryEdit

Archaeologist Arthur Evans named the script "Linear" because its characters consisted simply of lines inscribed in clay, in contrast to the more pictographic characters in Cretan hieroglyphs that were used during the same period.[15]

Several tablets inscribed in signs similar to Linear A were found in the Troad in northwestern Anatolia. While their status is disputed, they may be imports, as there is no evidence of Minoan presence in the Troad. Classification of these signs as a unique Trojan script (proposed by contemporary Russian linguist Nikolai Kazansky) is not accepted by other linguists.

Egyptian evidenceEdit

Egyptian evidence related to the Keftiu (Cretan/Crete) language consists of a spell against Asian chickenpox and a writing name exercise called Keftiu. The spell, probably originated from the reign of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BC), evolves as follows: sntÈk|pwpyw| yÈymªntÈÈrk|k|r, or, in the vocal transliteration adopted by Wolfgang Helck: sa-n-ta-ka-pu-pi-wa-ya-’a-ya-ma-n-ta-ra-kú-ka-ra[9].
Egyptian writing of Keftiu (Cretan/Crete) names such as mÈd|d|m, or, mi-da gives Egyptian evidence of Keftius' language essentially indicate that the words of the vocabulary are Semitic (see below).

Linear A and Linear B comparisonEdit

 
Minoan Inscriptions, Linear A script

In 1945, E. Pugliese Carratelli first introduced the classification of Linear A and Linear B parallels. However, in 1961 W.C. Brice modified the Carratelli system that was based on a wider range of Linear A sources, but Brice did not suggest Linear B equivalents to the Linear A signs. Louis Godart and Jean-Pierre Olivier introduced in the 1985 Recueil des inscriptions en linéaire A (GORILA), based on E.L Bennett's standard numeration of the signs of Linear B, introduced a joint numeration of the Linear A and B signs.[16] The Egyptian exercise in writing the names keftiu even informs us of another Minoan ethnic identity in the form of mÈd|d|m whose first element cannot be associated with the name Midas, since it was already labeled by a linearly inscribed Hagia Triada (or HT 41.4) dating to c. 1350 BC. This Egyptian evidence of Keftius' language essentially indicate that the words of the vocabulary are Semitic, but in the language predominantly of the Luwians. One might conclude from this that the Semitic in Minoan Crete is used as a lingua franca for a largely Luwian population.

PhoneticEdit

The majority of signs in the Linear A script appear to have graphic equivalents in the Linear B syllabary. Comparing the Hagia Triada tablets HT 95 and HT 86 contain identical lists of words and some kind of phonetic alteration. Scholars that approached Linear A with the phonetic values of Linear B produced a series of identical words. The Linear B- Linear A parallels: ku-ku-da-ra, pa-i-to, ku-mi-na, di-de-ro →di-de-ru, qa-qa-ro→qa-qa-ru, a-ra-na-ro→a-ra-na-re.[16]

Theories regarding languageEdit

 
Linear A incised on a vase, also found in Akrotiri.

It is difficult to evaluate a given analysis of Linear A as there is little point of reference for reading its inscriptions. The simplest approach to decipherment may be to presume that the values of Linear A match more or less the values given to the deciphered Linear B script, used for Mycenaean Greek.[17] However, recently, Peter Z. Revesz identified the Cretan Hieroglyphs, Linear A, Linear B, the Cypriot syllabary, and the Greek, Old Hungarian, Phoenician, South Arabic and Tifinagh alphabets as members of an unknown writing system from western Anatolia.[18]

A characteristic of Minoan consonance is the lack of distinction between voice and voiceless the velar and labial series. The distinction t / d reflected in the Linear A, Linear B and Cypriot is an example of speech stops.[12]

GreekEdit

In 1957, Bulgarian scholar Vladimir I. Georgiev published his Le déchiffrement des inscriptions crétoises en linéaire A ("The decipherment of Cretan inscriptions in Linear A") stating that Linear A contains Greek linguistic elements.[19] Georgiev then published another work in 1963, titled Les deux langues des inscriptions crétoises en linéaire A ("The two languages of Cretan inscriptions in Linear A"), suggesting that the language of the Hagia Triada tablets was Greek but that the rest of the Linear A corpus was in Hittite-Luwian.[19][20] In December 1963, Gregory Nagy of Harvard University developed a list of Linear A and Linear B terms based on the assumption "that signs of identical or similar shape in the two scripts will represent similar or identical phonetic values"; Nagy concluded that the language of Linear A bears "Greek-like" and Indo-European elements.[21] Michael Ventris decipherment in 1952 suggests an old form of Greek: it is derived from the Linear A. Therefore, we can assume that the signs related to the linear A express the same value as the Linear B. In all Linear B values for related words give a large number of identical forms or identical root forms, but alternate with the final vowel, or almost identical forms among linear texts, mainly those of Hagia Triada.

Extracting conclusions or arguments from a simple morphology can hardly be considered methodologically satisfactory. Yves Duhoux in the "Linear A as Greek" discussion at AEGEANET in March 1998[16]:

I would like to remind you of some basic facts related to the Greekness of Linear A's language: (1) The word for "total" is different in Linear A and in Linear B: LB to - so(- de); LA > B ku-ro. (2) The Linear B language is significantly less "prefixing" than Linear A. (3) Votive Linear A texts, where we are pretty sure to have variant forms of the same "word", show morphological (I mean: grammatical) features totally different from Linear B. The conclusion must be that even if one can find some casual resemblances between words in both languages (remember this MUST statistically happen: e.g. English and Persian use the same word "bad" to express the meaning of BAD, although it is proven that both words have no genetic relation at all), they are probably structurally different.

Anatolian languagesEdit

Since the late 1950s, some scholars have suggested that the Linear A language could be an Anatolian language.[22] Cyrus H. Gordon first proposed in 1966-69 that the texts contained Semitic vocabulary that was based on the lexical items such as kull -. meaning 'all' (Akkadian kalu, kullatu, Hebrew kol).[23][3] Gordon uses morphological evidence to suggest that u- serves as a prefix in Linear A like Semitic copula u-. However, Gordon's copula u- is based on an incomplete word, and even if some of Gordon's identifications were true, there is still no complete case for a Semitic language that has not yet been built.[3]


LuwianEdit

Palmer (1958) put forward a theory, based on Linear B phonetic values, suggesting that Linear A language could be related closely to Luwian.[22] The theory, however, failed to gain universal support for the following reasons:

  • There is no remarkable resemblance between Minoan and Hitto-Luwian morphology.
  •  
    Luwian Hieroglyphs
    None of the existing theories of the origin of Hitto-Luwian peoples and their migration to Anatolia (either from the Balkans or from the Caucasus) are related to Crete.
  • There was a lack of direct contact between Hitto-Luwians and Minoan Crete; the latter was never mentioned in Hitto-Luwian inscriptions. Small states located along the western coast of ancient Asia Minor were natural barriers between Hitto-Luwians and Minoan Crete.
  • Obvious[how?] anthropological differences between Hitto-Luwians and the Minoans may be considered as another indirect testimony against this hypothesis.[citation needed]

There are recent works focused on the Luwian connection, not in terms of the Minoan language being Anatolian, but rather in terms of possible borrowings from Luwian, including the origin of the writing system itself.[24]

LycianEdit

In an article from 2001, Professor of Classics (Emerita) at Tel Aviv University, Margalit Finkelberg, demonstrated a "high degree of correspondence between the phonological and morphological system of Minoan and that of Lycian" and proposed that "the language of Linear A is either the direct ancestor of Lycian or a closely related idiom."[25]

PhoenicianEdit

In 2001, the journal Ugarit-Forschungen published the article "The First Inscription in Punic — Vowel Differences in Linear A and B" by Jan Best, claiming to demonstrate how and why Linear A notates an archaic form of Phoenician.[26] This was a continuation of attempts by Cyrus Gordon in finding connections between Minoan and West Semitic languages.

Indo-IranianEdit

Another recent interpretation, based on the frequencies of the syllabic signs and on complete palaeographic comparative studies, suggests that the Minoan Linear A language belongs to the Indo-Iranian family of Indo-European languages. Studies by Hubert La Marle include a presentation of the morphology of the language, avoid the complete identification of phonetic values between Linear A and B, and also avoid comparing Linear A with Cretan Hieroglyphs.[27] La Marle uses the frequency counts to identify the type of syllables written in Linear A, and takes into account the problem of loanwords in the vocabulary.[27] However, the La Marle interpretation of Linear A has been rejected by John Younger of Kansas University showing that La Marle has invented erroneous and arbitrary new transcriptions based on resemblances with many different script systems at will (as Phoenician, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Hieroglyphic Hittite, Ethiopian, Cypro-Minoan, etc.), ignoring established evidence and internal analysis, while for some words he proposes religious meanings inventing names of gods and rites.[28] La Marle rebutted in "An answer to John G. Younger's remarks on Linear A" in 2010.[29]

TyrrhenianEdit

Italian scholar Giulio M. Facchetti attempted to link Linear A to the Tyrrhenian language family comprising Etruscan, Rhaetic, and Lemnian. This family is reasoned to be a pre-Indo-European Mediterranean substratum of the 2nd millennium BC, sometimes referred to as Pre-Greek. Facchetti proposed some possible similarities between the Etruscan language and ancient Lemnian, and other Aegean languages like Minoan.[30] Michael Ventris who, along with John Chadwick, successfully deciphered Linear B, also believed in a link between Minoan and Etruscan.[31] The same perspective is supported by S. Yatsemirsky in Russia.[32]

A distinct, otherwise unknown branch of Indo-EuropeanEdit

According to Gareth Alun Owens, Linear A represents the Minoan language, which Owens classifies as a distinct branch of Indo-European potentially related to Greek, Sanskrit, Hittite, Latin, etc.[33][34] At "The Cretan Literature Centre", Owens stated:

Beginning our research with inscriptions in Linear A carved on offering tables found in the many peak sanctuaries on the mountains of Crete, we recognise a clear relationship between Linear A and Sanskrit, the ancient language of India. There is also a connection to Hittite and Armenian. This relationship allows us to place the Minoan language among the so-called Indo-European languages, a vast family that includes modern Greek and the Latin of Ancient Rome. The Minoan and Greek languages are considered to be different branches of Indo-European. The Minoans probably moved from Anatolia to the island of Crete about 10,000 years ago. There were similar population movements to Greece. The relative isolation of the population which settled in Crete resulted in the development of its own language, Minoan, which is considered different to Mycenaean. In the Minoan language (Linear A), there are no purely Greek words, as is the case in Mycenaean Linear B; it contains only words also found in Greek, Sanskrit and Latin, i.e. sharing the same Indo-European origin.[35]

HurrianEdit

In 2016, Peter van Soesbergen published a two-part series Hurrians and Hurrian in Minoan Crete alleging that most of the Linear A inscriptions could be understood as a dialect of Hurrian.[36] Among the equations he makes are Linear A uminasi enasi with Hurrian umminnaši ennaši "of the lands of the gods"; Linear A ataijowaja with the absolutive of Hurrian attaiwwašuuš "our father"; Linear A potokuro, seeming to mean "total," with Hurrian puttukuru, "value again"; Linear A sukiriteia with a nickname for Hurrian Šukri-tešup "blessed Teshub"; api on an entrance to a tomb with Hurrian abi "pit (especially for communicating with the netherworld)"; turusa with Hurrian turu "man"; and dupure with tuppuleš "may (he) be strong."

Attempts at decipherment of single wordsEdit

Some researchers suggest that a few words or word elements may be recognized, without (yet) enabling any conclusion about relationship with other languages. In general, they use analogy with Linear B in order to propose phonetic values of the syllabic sounds. John Younger, in particular, thinks that place names usually appear in certain positions in the texts, and notes that the proposed phonetic values often correspond to known place names as given in Linear B texts (and sometimes to modern Greek names). For example, he proposes that three syllables, read as KE-NI-SO, might be the indigenous form of Knossos.[37] Likewise, in Linear A, MA+RU is suggested to mean wool, and to correspond both to a Linear B pictogram with this meaning, and to the classical Greek word μαλλός with the same meaning (in that case a loan word from Minoan).[4]

UnicodeEdit

The Linear A alphabet (U+10600–U+1077F) was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0.

Linear A[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1060x 𐘀 𐘁 𐘂 𐘃 𐘄 𐘅 𐘆 𐘇 𐘈 𐘉 𐘊 𐘋 𐘌 𐘍 𐘎 𐘏
U+1061x 𐘐 𐘑 𐘒 𐘓 𐘔 𐘕 𐘖 𐘗 𐘘 𐘙 𐘚 𐘛 𐘜 𐘝 𐘞 𐘟
U+1062x 𐘠 𐘡 𐘢 𐘣 𐘤 𐘥 𐘦 𐘧 𐘨 𐘩 𐘪 𐘫 𐘬 𐘭 𐘮 𐘯
U+1063x 𐘰 𐘱 𐘲 𐘳 𐘴 𐘵 𐘶 𐘷 𐘸 𐘹 𐘺 𐘻 𐘼 𐘽 𐘾 𐘿
U+1064x 𐙀 𐙁 𐙂 𐙃 𐙄 𐙅 𐙆 𐙇 𐙈 𐙉 𐙊 𐙋 𐙌 𐙍 𐙎 𐙏
U+1065x 𐙐 𐙑 𐙒 𐙓 𐙔 𐙕 𐙖 𐙗 𐙘 𐙙 𐙚 𐙛 𐙜 𐙝 𐙞 𐙟
U+1066x 𐙠 𐙡 𐙢 𐙣 𐙤 𐙥 𐙦 𐙧 𐙨 𐙩 𐙪 𐙫 𐙬 𐙭 𐙮 𐙯
U+1067x 𐙰 𐙱 𐙲 𐙳 𐙴 𐙵 𐙶 𐙷 𐙸 𐙹 𐙺 𐙻 𐙼 𐙽 𐙾 𐙿
U+1068x 𐚀 𐚁 𐚂 𐚃 𐚄 𐚅 𐚆 𐚇 𐚈 𐚉 𐚊 𐚋 𐚌 𐚍 𐚎 𐚏
U+1069x 𐚐 𐚑 𐚒 𐚓 𐚔 𐚕 𐚖 𐚗 𐚘 𐚙 𐚚 𐚛 𐚜 𐚝 𐚞 𐚟
U+106Ax 𐚠 𐚡 𐚢 𐚣 𐚤 𐚥 𐚦 𐚧 𐚨 𐚩 𐚪 𐚫 𐚬 𐚭 𐚮 𐚯
U+106Bx 𐚰 𐚱 𐚲 𐚳 𐚴 𐚵 𐚶 𐚷 𐚸 𐚹 𐚺 𐚻 𐚼 𐚽 𐚾 𐚿
U+106Cx 𐛀 𐛁 𐛂 𐛃 𐛄 𐛅 𐛆 𐛇 𐛈 𐛉 𐛊 𐛋 𐛌 𐛍 𐛎 𐛏
U+106Dx 𐛐 𐛑 𐛒 𐛓 𐛔 𐛕 𐛖 𐛗 𐛘 𐛙 𐛚 𐛛 𐛜 𐛝 𐛞 𐛟
U+106Ex 𐛠 𐛡 𐛢 𐛣 𐛤 𐛥 𐛦 𐛧 𐛨 𐛩 𐛪 𐛫 𐛬 𐛭 𐛮 𐛯
U+106Fx 𐛰 𐛱 𐛲 𐛳 𐛴 𐛵 𐛶 𐛷 𐛸 𐛹 𐛺 𐛻 𐛼 𐛽 𐛾 𐛿
U+1070x 𐜀 𐜁 𐜂 𐜃 𐜄 𐜅 𐜆 𐜇 𐜈 𐜉 𐜊 𐜋 𐜌 𐜍 𐜎 𐜏
U+1071x 𐜐 𐜑 𐜒 𐜓 𐜔 𐜕 𐜖 𐜗 𐜘 𐜙 𐜚 𐜛 𐜜 𐜝 𐜞 𐜟
U+1072x 𐜠 𐜡 𐜢 𐜣 𐜤 𐜥 𐜦 𐜧 𐜨 𐜩 𐜪 𐜫 𐜬 𐜭 𐜮 𐜯
U+1073x 𐜰 𐜱 𐜲 𐜳 𐜴 𐜵 𐜶
U+1074x 𐝀 𐝁 𐝂 𐝃 𐝄 𐝅 𐝆 𐝇 𐝈 𐝉 𐝊 𐝋 𐝌 𐝍 𐝎 𐝏
U+1075x 𐝐 𐝑 𐝒 𐝓 𐝔 𐝕
U+1076x 𐝠 𐝡 𐝢 𐝣 𐝤 𐝥 𐝦 𐝧
U+1077x
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 12.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Beginning date refers to first attestations, the assumed origins of all scripts lie further back in the past.

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Daniels & Bright 1996, pp. 132.
  2. ^ Palaima 1997, pp. 121–188.
  3. ^ a b c d Packard 1974, Chapter 1: Introduction.
  4. ^ a b Younger, John (2000). "Linear A Texts in Phonetic Transcription: 7b. The Script". University of Kansas.
  5. ^ Owens 1999, pp. 23–24 (David Packard, in 1974, calculated a sound-value difference of 10.80% ± 1.80%; Yves Duhoux, in 1989, calculated a sound-value difference of 14.34% ± 1.80% and Gareth Owens, in 1996, calculated a sound-value difference of 9–13%).
  6. ^ Packard, David W. (1974). Minoan Linear A. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-520-02580-6.
  7. ^ Younger, John (2000). "Linear A Texts in Phonetic Transcription: 5. Basic Statistics". University of Kansas. Younger: "if there are 4002 characters (font Times, pitch 12, no spaces) on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper with 1 inch margins, all extant Linear A would take up 1.84 pages." (14.34 pages for Linear B).
  8. ^ Winterstein, Gregoire; Cacciafoco, Francesco Perono; Petrolito, Ruggero; Petrolito, Tommaso. "Minoan linguistic resources: The Linear A Digital Corpus". Proceedings of the 9th SIGHUM Workshop on Language Technology for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, and Humanities (LaTeCH).
  9. ^ a b Woudhuizen, Fred C. (Frederik Christiaan), 1959- (2016). Documents in Minoan Luwian, Semitic, and Pelasgian. Nederlands Archeologisch Historisch Genootschap. Amsterdam. ISBN 9789072067197. OCLC 1027956786.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Schoep 1999, pp. 201–221.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cacciafoco, Francesco Perono (January 2014). "Linear A and Minoan. The Riddle of Unknown Origins": 3–4. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  12. ^ a b c Finkelberg 1998, pp. 265–272.
  13. ^ Book review by Daniel J. Pullen (Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2009) of W. D. Taylour, R. Janko, Ayios Stephanos: Excavations at a Bronze Age and Medieval Settlement in Southern Laconia. British School at Athens, 2008. "Its location on the Laconian coast, easily accessible from Kythera, undoubtedly encouraged early contacts with Crete whether directly or indirectly (see the Linear A sign catalogued in chapter 11)."
  14. ^ Olivier 1986, pp. 377f.
  15. ^ Robinson 2009, p. 54.
  16. ^ a b c Finkelberg, Margalit (March 2000). "Greater Anatolia and the Indo-Hittite Language Family". Indo-European Series Monograph Studies. No. 38: 83 – via Academia.edu.
  17. ^ Younger, John (2000). "Linear A Texts in Phonetic Transcription". University of Kansas. See "1. List of Linked Files" for a comprehensive list of known texts written in Linear A.
  18. ^ Revesz, Peter Z. (2017). Mastorakis, N.; Mladenov, V.; Bulucea, A. (eds.). "The Cretan Script Family Includes the Carian Alphabet". MATEC Web of Conferences. 125: 05019. doi:10.1051/matecconf/201712505019. ISSN 2261-236X.
  19. ^ a b Nagy 1963, p. 210 (Footnote #24).
  20. ^ Georgiev 1963, pp. 1–104.
  21. ^ Nagy 1963, pp. 181–211.
  22. ^ a b Palmer 1958, pp. 75–100.
  23. ^ Rendsburg, Gary A. (2001). "Cyrus H. Gordon (1908-2001): A Giant among Scholars". The Jewish Quarterly Review. 92 (1/2): 137–143. ISSN 0021-6682. JSTOR 1455617.
  24. ^ Marangozis, John (2006). An introduction to Minoan Linear A. LINCOM Europa.
  25. ^ Finkelberg, Margalit, "The Language of Linear A: Greek, Semitic, or Anatolian?", in: Drews, Robert (ed.), Greater Anatolia dnt eh Ind-Hittite Language Family, Journal of Indo-European Studies, Monograph 38, Washington, DC, 2001.
  26. ^ Dietrich & Loretz 2001.
  27. ^ a b La Marle, Hubert. Linéaire A, la première écriture syllabique de Crète. Paris: Geuthner, 4 Volumes, 1997–1999, 2006; Introduction au linéaire A. Geuthner, Paris, 2002; L'aventure de l'alphabet: les écritures cursives et linéaires du Proche-Orient et de l'Europe du sud-est à l'Âge du Bronze. Paris: Geuthner, 2002; Les racines du crétois ancien et leur morphologie: communication à l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, 2007.
  28. ^ Younger, John (2009). "Linear A: Critique of Decipherments by Hubert La Marle and Kjell Aartun". University of Kansas. According to Younger, La Marle "assigns phonetic values to Linear signs based on superficial resemblances to signs in other scripts (the choice of scripts being already prejudiced to include only those from the eastern Mediterranean and northeast Africa), as if 'C looks like O so it must be O.'"
  29. ^ La Marle, Hubert (September 2010). "An answer to John G. Younger's remarks on Linear A". Academia.edu.
  30. ^ Facchetti & Negri 2003.
  31. ^ Yatsemirsky 2011.
  32. ^ Owens 2007, pp. 3–4: "Η έρευνα απέδειξε ότι η μινωική γλώσσα σχετίζεται με την ελληνική περισσότερο από κάθε άλλη ινδοευρωπαϊκή γλώσσα, χωρίς να αποτελεί μια άλλη ελληνική διάλεκτο αλλά ένα χωριστό παρακλάδι της ινδοευρωπαϊκής οικογένειας...υπάρχουν λέξεις που εντοπίζονται και στην ελληνική γλώσσα αλλά και σε άλλες, όπως τη σανσκριτική και τη χεττιτική, τη λατινική, της ίδιας οικογένειας.".
  33. ^ Owens 1999, pp. 15–56.
  34. ^ "The Language of the Minoans". Crete Gazette. 2006.
  35. ^ van Soesbergen 2016
  36. ^ Younger, John (2000). "Linear A Texts in Phonetic Transcription: 10c. Place Names". University of Kansas.

SourcesEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Best, Jan G. P. (1972). Some Preliminary Remarks on the Decipherment of Linear A. Amsterdam: Hakkert.
  • Marangozis, John (2007). An introduction to Minoan Linear A. LINCOM Europa, ISBN 3-89586-386-6
  • Montecchi, Barbara (January 2010). "A Classification Proposal of Linear A Tablets from Haghia Triada in Classes and Series". Kadmos. 49 (1): 11–38. doi:10.1515/KADMOS.2010.002.
  • Nagy, Gregory (October 1965). "Observations on the Sign-Grouping and Vocabulary of Linear A". American Journal of Archaeology. 69 (4): 295–330. doi:10.2307/502181. JSTOR 502181.
  • Palmer, Ruth (1995). "Linear A Commodities: A Comparison of Resources" (PDF). Aegeum. 12.
  • Thomas, Helena. Understanding the transition from Linear A to Linear B script. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Supervisor: Professor John Bennet. Thesis (D. Phil.). University of Oxford, 2003. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 311–338).
  • Woodard, Roger D. (1997). Greek Writing from Knossos to Homer. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510520-9. (Review)

External linksEdit