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The Guayaquil conference (1822) between Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín, the greatest libertadores (liberators) of Spanish America.

Libertadores (Spanish pronunciation: [liβeɾtaˈðoɾes] (About this soundlisten), Portuguese: [libeʁtaˈdoɾis], "Liberators") were the principal leaders of the Latin American wars of independence from Spain and Portugal. They are named that way in contrast with the Conquistadors.[1]

They were largely bourgeois criollos (local-born people of European, mostly of Spanish or Portuguese, ancestry) influenced by liberalism and in most cases with military training in the metropole (mother country).

List of libertadoresEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Contributed to the independence of Took part in Refs
  José de San Martín
(1778–1850)
Argentina, Chile and Peru Argentine War of Independence
Crossing of the Andes
Chilean War of Independence
Peruvian War of Independence
[2]
  Simón Bolívar
(1783–1830)
Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Panama and Bolivia Venezuelan War of Independence
Admirable Campaign
Patria Boba
Ecuadorian War of Independence
Peruvian War of Independence
Bolivian War of Independence
[3]
  Augustin I of Mexico
(1783–1824)
Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica Mexican War of Independence
design of the Plan de Iguala
[4]
  Manuel Belgrano
(1770–1820)
Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay British invasions of the River Plate
May Revolution
Paraguay campaign
Argentine War of Independence
Bolivian War of Independence
[5]
  Bernardo O'Higgins
(1778–1842)
Chile and Peru Chilean War of Independence
Argentine War of Independence
Peruvian War of Independence
[6][7]
  Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
(1753–1811)
Mexico Grito de Dolores
Mexican War of Independence
[8]
  José María Morelos
(1765–1815)
Mexico Mexican War of Independence
wrote the Sentimientos de la Nación
[9]
  Ramón Castilla
(1797–1867)
Peru Peruvian War of Independence [10]
  Andrés de Santa Cruz
(1792–1865)
Bolivia and Peru Bolivian War of Independence
Argentine War of Independence
Peruvian War of Independence
Ecuadorian War of Independence
War of the Confederation
[10]
  José Gervasio Artigas
(1764–1850)
Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata British invasions of the River Plate
Portuguese invasion of the Banda Oriental
Portuguese conquest of the Banda Oriental
Argentine Civil Wars
[10]
  Thomas Cochrane
(1775–1860)
Brazil, Chile French Revolutionary Wars
Napoleonic Wars
Chilean War of Independence
Peruvian War of Independence
Brazilian War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
[4]
  Francisco de Miranda
(1750–1816)
Venezuela American Revolutionary War
French Revolution
Venezuelan War of Independence
[11]
  Mariano Moreno
(1778–1811)
Argentina May Revolution
Argentine War of Independence
Paraguay campaign
[12]
  Pedro I of Brazil
(1798–1834)
Brazil Brazilian War of Independence
Cisplatine War
Liberal Wars
[13]
  Antonio José de Sucre
(1795–1830)
Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela Venezuelan War of Independence
Ecuadorian War of Independence
Bolivian War of Independence
Peruvian War of Independence
Gran Colombia–Peru War
[14]

LegacyEdit

The flags of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador follow Francisco de Miranda's design of 1806. Also, Bolivia was named after Bolivar, who in turn was president of Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and twice of Venezuela. San Martín served as "President Protector" of Peru.

In what today is part of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, Iturbide, a military leader revolted against the Viceroyalty of New Spain, founded an independent nation where he ascended as Emperor Aguistin I.

The names of libertadores are used all over South America to name anything from towns and places to institutions and sports clubs. Also, the most prestigious international club football competition in South America is named the Copa Libertadores in their honour.

See alsoEdit

BibliographyEdit

  • Robert Harvey. Liberators: Latin America's Struggle for Independence. Woodstock, The Overlook Press, 2000. ISBN 1-58567-072-3
  • James Higgins (editor). The Emancipation of Peru: British Eyewitness Accounts, 2014. Online at https://sites.google.com/site/jhemanperu
  • Marion Lansing. Liberators and Heroes of South America. Boston, L. C. Page & Co., 1940.
  • Irene Nicholson. The Liberators: A Study of Independence Movements in Spanish America. New York, Frederick A. Praeger, 1968.
  • Pigna, Felipe (2010). Libertadores de América. Buenos Aires: Planeta. ISBN 978-950-49-2420-3.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Pigna, p. 9
  2. ^ Pigna, pp. 195-272
  3. ^ Pigna, pp. 135-192
  4. ^ a b Robert Harvey. Liberators: Latin America's Struggle for Independence. Woodstock, The Overlook Press, 2000. ISBN 1-58567-072-3
  5. ^ Pigna, p. 55-91
  6. ^ page 429 Robert Harvey. Liberators: Latin America's Struggle for Independence. Woodstock, The Overlook Press, 2000. ISBN 1-58567-072-3
  7. ^ Pigna, pp. 93-133
  8. ^ Lansing, pp. 15-39
  9. ^ Lansing, pp. 39-59
  10. ^ a b c Lansing, p. 121
  11. ^ Pigna, pp. 13-52
  12. ^ Lansing, pp. 119
  13. ^ page 511, Robert Harvey. Liberators: Latin America's Struggle for Independence. Woodstock, The Overlook Press, 2000. ISBN 1-58567-072-3
  14. ^ Lansing, pp. 219

External linksEdit