Leopold IV, Duke of Anhalt
Leopold IV Frederick, Duke of Anhalt (1 October 1794 – 22 May 1871) was a German prince of the House of Ascania.
|Duke of Anhalt|
|Born||1 October 1794|
|Died||22 May 1871 (aged 76)|
|Spouse||Frederica Wilhelmina of Prussia|
|Princess Auguste of Anhalt-Dessau|
Agnes, Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg
Frederick I, Duke of Anhalt
Maria Anna, Princess Frederick Charles of Prussia
|Father||Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Anhalt-Dessau|
|Mother||Landgravine Amalie of Hesse-Homburg|
From 1817 until 1853 he was ruler of the duchy of Anhalt-Dessau and from 1847 until 1853 also ruler of the duchy of Anhalt-Köthen. From 1853 until 1863 he was the ruler of the joined duchy of Anhalt-Dessau-Köthen and from 1863 the first ruler of the united duchy of Anhalt.
Leopold was born in Dessau on 1 October 1794 as the eldest son of Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, by his wife Landgravine Amalie of Hesse-Homburg, daughter of Frederick V, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg.
Following the premature death of his father in 1814, he became heir to the duchy of Anhalt-Dessau.
The Duke's Administrative Officer and close friend was Christian Raster, a German statesman.
During the revolutions of 1848 he was forced to grant a constitution to Dessau on 29 October 1848. It was revoked, however, on 4 November 1849, then replaced with a new version in October 1859.
On 27 November 1847 he inherited the Duchy of Anhalt-Köthen from his distant cousin Duke Henry. As a result of a treaty concluded with Anhalt-Bernburg in May 1853 his duchies were joined together and named Anhalt-Dessau-Köthen, because the eventual inheritance of Leopold over all the Anhalt duchies seemed inevitable. The death of another distant cousin, Duke Alexander Karl, on 19 August 1863 resulted in the ruling line of the duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg becoming extinct, thus Leopold inherited that duchy as well. On 30 August he assumed the title "duke of Anhalt."
Marriage and issueEdit
In Berlin on 18 April 1818 Leopold married Frederica Wilhelmina of Prussia (b. Berlin, 30 September 1796 - d. Dessau, 1 January 1850), daughter of Prince Frederick Louis Charles of Prussia (brother of King Frederick William III of Prussia) by his wife Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; through her mother's last marriage, she was a half-sister of King George V of Hanover. They had been engaged since 17 May 1816, as the connection had already been arranged by the Prussian court. This dynastic connection was an expression of Leopold's pro-Prussian policies.
|Princess Fredericka Amalie Auguste||28 November 1819||11 December 1822|
|Princess Fredericka Amalie Agnes||24 June 1824||23 October 1897||married on 28 April 1853 to Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg.|
|A son||3 August 1825||3 August 1825||he was either stillborn or died shortly after the birth.|
|A son||3 November 1827||3 November 1827||he was either stillborn or died shortly after the birth.|
|Frederick I, Duke of Anhalt||29 April 1831||24 January 1904||married on 22 April 1854 to Princess Antoinette of Saxe-Altenburg.|
|Princess Maria Anna||14 September 1837||12 May 1906||married on 29 November 1854 to Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia.|
- German orders and decorations
- Austrian Empire:
- Baden: Grand Cross of the House Order of Fidelity, 1814
- Kingdom of Prussia:
- Russian Empire:
- Kingdom of Poland: Knight of the White Eagle
- Ascanian duchies: Joint Founder and Grand Master of the Order of Albert the Bear, 18 November 1836
- Kingdom of Hanover:
- Denmark: Knight of the Elephant, 25 December 1840
- Ernestine duchies: Grand Cross of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order, March 1843
- Oldenburg: Grand Cross of the Order of Duke Peter Friedrich Ludwig, with Golden Crown, 18 April 1854
- Kingdom of Bavaria: Knight of St. Hubert, 1854
- Nassau: Knight of the Gold Lion of Nassau, May 1862
- Sweden-Norway: Knight of the Seraphim, 14 May 1864
- Kingdom of Saxony: Knight of the Rue Crown, 1867
- Foreign orders and decorations
- Almanach de Gotha. 1867. p. 3.
- "Duke of Anhalt is dead". New York Times. 25 January 1904. p. 7.
- Genealogical database by Herbert Stoyan
- Marek, Miroslav. "Complete Genealogy of the House of Ascania". Genealogy.EU.[self-published source][better source needed]
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Herzogtum Anhalt (1867) "Das Herzoglicher Haus: Genealogie" p. 1
- "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden (1834), "Großherzogliche Orden" p. 31
- Liste der Ritter des Königlich Preußischen Hohen Ordens vom Schwarzen Adler (1851), "Von Seiner Majestät dem Könige Friedrich Wilhelm III. ernannte Ritter" p. 18
- "Андреевский кавалер – Герцог Леопольд IV Фридрих Франц фон Ангальт-Дессау-Кетен Александр Рожинцев" (in Russian). Retrieved 6 August 2020.
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Herzogtum Anhalt (1867) "Herzoglicher Haus-orden Albrecht des Bären" p. 13
- Staat Hannover (1865). Hof- und Staatshandbuch für das Königreich Hannover: 1865. Berenberg. pp. 37, 75.
- Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 463. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
- Adreß-Handbuch des Herzogthums Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (1847), "Herzogliche Sachsen-Ernestinischer Hausorden" p. 26
- Staat Oldenburg (1870). Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Großherzogtums Oldenburg: für ... 1869/70. Schulze. p. 28.
- Bayern (1870). Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Königreichs Bayern: 1870. Landesamt. p. 8.
- Staats- und Adreß-Handbuch des Herzogthums Nassau (1866), "Herzogliche Orden" p. 9
- Sveriges och Norges Statskalender (in Swedish), 1865, p. 428, retrieved 20 February 2019 – via runeberg.org
- Sachsen (1870). Staatshandbuch für den Freistaat Sachsen: 1870. Heinrich. p. 4.
Leopold IV, Duke of AnhaltBorn: 1 October 1794 Died: 22 May 1871
| Duke of Anhalt-Dessau
| Duke of Anhalt-Köthen|
|New title|| Duke of Anhalt-Dessau-Köthen
|Unification of all|
| Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg|
|New title|| Duke of Anhalt