Frederick I, Duke of Anhalt

Frederick I (German: Herzog Friedrich I von Anhalt) (29 April 1831 – 24 January 1904) was a German prince of the house of Ascania who ruled the Duchy of Anhalt from 1871 to 1904.

Frederick I
Duke of Anhalt
Friedrich I Anhalt.jpg
Frederick I, Duke of Anhalt
Duke of Anhalt
Reign22 May 1871 – 24 January 1904
PredecessorLeopold IV
SuccessorFrederick II
Born(1831-04-29)April 29, 1831
Dessau, Anhalt
DiedJanuary 24, 1904(1904-01-24) (aged 72)
Ballenstedt, Anhalt
SpousePrincess Antoinette of Saxe-Altenburg
IssueLeopold, Hereditary Prince of Anhalt
Frederick II, Duke of Anhalt
Elisabeth, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Eduard, Duke of Anhalt
Prince Aribert
Alexandra, Princess of Schwarzburg
German: Leopold Friedrich Franz Nikolaus
FatherLeopold IV, Duke of Anhalt
MotherPrincess Frederica of Prussia

Early lifeEdit

Duke Frederick I of Anhalt

Frederick was born in Dessau in 1831 as the third child and only son of Duke Leopold IV of Anhalt-Dessau and his wife Princess Frederica of Prussia, the daughter of Prince Louis Charles of Prussia.[1]

He studied in Bonn and Geneva, and in 1851 entered the Prussian military at Potsdam.

In 1863 he became heir to the united Duchy of Anhalt, when his father Leopold IV had inherited all the Anhalt territories following the death of the last Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg.

In 1864, he participated in the Second Schleswig War in the staff of his brother-in-law, Prince Frederic Charles of Prussia, and in 1870-71 in the Franco-Prussian War as Lieutenant General. He was present at the proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Versailles Palace on 18 January 1871.


Frederick succeeded his father as Duke of Anhalt on 22 May 1871.

On 23 January 1904 he suffered an apoplectic stroke and died the next day at Ballenstedt castle. As his eldest son Leopold had predeceased him, he was succeeded as Duke by his second son who became Frederick II.[2]


Marriage and issueEdit

He was married on 22 April 1854 at Altenburg to Princess Antoinette of Saxe-Altenburg. She was a daughter of Prince Eduard of Saxe-Altenburg and his wife Princess Amalie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. They had six children:[1]

Name Birth Death Notes
Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Anhalt 18 July 1855 2 February 1886 married Princess Elisabeth of Hesse-Kassel; had issue
Frederick II, Duke of Anhalt 19 August 1856 22 April 1918 married Princess Marie of Baden, no issue
Princess Elisabeth of Anhalt 7 September 1857 20 July 1933 married Adolf Friedrich V, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; had issue
Eduard, Duke of Anhalt 18 April 1861 13 September 1918 married Princess Luise of Saxe-Altenburg; had issue
Prince Aribert of Anhalt 18 June 1866 24 December 1933 married Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein, no issue
Princess Alexandra of Anhalt 4 April 1868 26 August 1958 married Sizzo, Prince of Schwarzburg; had issue


German orders and decorations[3]
Foreign orders and decorations[3]



  1. ^ a b Almanach de Gotha. 1903. pp. 3, 4.
  2. ^ "Duke of Anhalt is dead". New York Times. 1904-01-25. p. 7.
  3. ^ a b Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Herzogtum Anhalt (1894) "Genealogie des Herzoglichen Hauses" p. 1-2
  4. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Herzogtum Anhalt (1867) "Herzoglicher Haus-orden Albrecht des Bären" p. 16
  5. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden (1896), "Großherzogliche Orden" pp. 63, 77
  6. ^ Braunschweig, Staat (Hg.) (1903): Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Herzogtums Braunschweig für 1903. In: Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Herzogtums Braunschweig 1903. p. 10
  7. ^ Staats- und Adreß-Handbuch des Herzogthums Nassau (1866), "Herzogliche Orden" p. 8
  8. ^ Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Großherzogtums Oldenburg: 1879. Schulze. 1879. p. 32.
  9. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Württemberg (1896), "Königliche Orden" p. 28
  10. ^ "Ritter-Orden", Hof- und Staatshandbuch der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie, 1903, pp. 57, 68, retrieved 2 November 2019
  11. ^ Belgien (1875). Almanach royal officiel: 1875. p. 55.
  12. ^ Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 463. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
  13. ^ Sveriges Statskalender (in Swedish), 1881, p. 377, retrieved 2018-01-06 – via
Frederick I, Duke of Anhalt
Born: 29 April 1831 Died: 24 January 1904
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Leopold IV
Duke of Anhalt
Succeeded by
Frederick II