Kolhapur State

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Kolhapur State or Kolhapur Kingdom (1710–1949) was a Maratha princely State of British India, under the Deccan Division of the Bombay Presidency, and later the Deccan States Agency.[1] It was considered the most important of the Maratha principalities with the others being Baroda State, Gwalior State and Indore State. Its rulers, of the Bhonsle dynasty, were entitled to a 19-gun salute – thus Kolhapur was also known as a 19-gun state. The state flag was a swallow-tailed saffron pennant.[2]

Karvir State
करवीर राज्य
Princely state of British India
1710–1 Mar 1949
Flag of Kolhapur State
Flag
State Emblem of Kolhapur State
State Emblem
Kolhapur State Map, 1912.jpg
Kolhapur State Map, 1912
CapitalKolhapur
Area 
• 1901
8,332 km2 (3,217 sq mi)
Population 
• 1901
910,011
History 
• Established
1710
• Acceded to Dominion of India
1947
• Merged into Bombay State
1 Mar 1949
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Maratha Empire
India
Today part ofMaharashtra, India

HistoryEdit

 
Rajarshi Shahu of Kolhapur (r. 1894 – 1922)
 
Maharani Tarabai. Founder of the Karvir State

Kolhapur State, together with its jagirs or feudatory vassal estates (including Ichalkaranji), covered an area of 3,165 square miles (8,200 km2).[3] According to the 1901 census, the state population was 910,011, of which 54,373 resided in Kolhapur Town. In 1901, the state enjoyed an estimated revenue of £300,000.[3][4]

The Maharajas of Kolhapur have a common ancestry with the Bhonsle dynasty of Satara, being direct descendants of the Maratha King Shivaji. The states of Satara and Kolhapur came into being in 1707, because of the succession dispute over the Maratha kingship. Shahuji, the heir apparent to the Maratha kingdom, captured by the Mughals at the age of nine, remained their prisoner at the death of his father Sambhaji, the elder son of Shivaji Maharaj the founder of the Maratha Empire, in 1689. The Dowager Maharani Tarabai (a widow of Rajaram I) proclaimed her son Shivaji II, as Chhatrapati under her regency. The Mughals released Shahu under certain conditions in 1707, and he returned to claim his inheritance. He defeated the regent at the Battle of Khed and established himself at Satara, forcing her to retire with her son to Kolhapur. By 1710 two separate principalities had become an established fact. Shivaji II and Tarabai were soon deposed by the other widow of Rajaram, Rajasbai. She installed her own son, Sambhaji II as the new ruler of Kolhapur. Sambhaji II signed the Treaty of Warana in 1731 with his cousin Shahuji to formalize the two separate seats of Bhonsle family. The British sent expeditions against Kolhapur in 1765 and 1792;[3] Kolhapur entered into treaty relations with the British, after the collapse of the Maratha confederacy in 1812. In the early years of the 19th century the British invaded again, and appointed a political officer to temporarily manage the state.[3][5]

A Brahmin regent called Daji Krishna Pandit was installed by the British to govern the state in 1843 at a time when the natural heir to the throne was underage. He took direction from a political agent of the East India Company and among their actions were reforms to the tax of land. These reforms caused much resentment and, despite Kolhapur having refrained from involvement in the previous Anglo-Maratha Wars, a revolt against the British began in 1844. The rebellion began with soldiers locking themselves into hill-forts such as those as Panhala and Vishalgad, and then spread to Kolhapur itself. Both the regent and the political agent were captured by the militia forces led by Babaji Ahirekar.[6]

The last ruler of Kolhapur was Maharaja Shahaji II. After Indian independence in 1947, Kolhapur acceded to the Dominion of India on 14 August 1947 and merged into Bombay State on 1 March 1949. In 1960 Bombay state was divided by languages into the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat.[citation needed] The boundaries of former Kolhapur state correspond very closely with those of modern-day Kolhapur district in Maharashtra state.

Rulers of KolhapurEdit

RajasEdit

  • 1710 – 2 Aug 1714 Shivaji II (b. 1696 – d. 1726)
  • 2 Aug 1714 – 18 Dec 1760 Sambhaji II (b. 1698 – d. 1760)
  • 20 Dec 1760 – 17 Feb 1773 Rani Jiji Bai (f) – Regent(b. 1716 – d. 1773)
  • 22 Sep 1762 – 24 Apr 1813 Shivaji III(b. 1756 – d. 1813)
  • 24 Apr 1813 – 2 Jul 1821 Sambhaji III (b. 1801 – d. 1821)
  • 2 Jul 1821 – 3 Jan 1822 Shivaji IV (b. 1816 – d. 1822)
  • 2 Jul 1821 – 3 Jan 1822 Shahaji -Regent (b. 1802 – d. 1838)
  • 3 Jan 1822 – 29 Nov 1838 Shahaji
  • 29 Nov 1838 – 4 Aug 1866 Shivaji V (b. 1830 – d. 1866)
  • 29 Nov 1838 – 1845 Rani Sai Bai (f) -Regent (d. 1861)
  • 4 Aug 1866 – 30 Nov 1870 Rajaram II Nagaji Rao (b. 1850 – d. 1870)
  • 30 Nov 1870 – 12 Oct 1871 Rani Tara Bai (f) – Regent (b. 1855 – d. 1874)
  • 12 Oct 1871 – 25 Dec 1883 Shivaji VI Chhatrapati Narayana Rao (b. 1863 – d. 1883)
  • 25 Dec 1883 – 17 Mar 1884 Rani Anand Bai (f) – Regent
  • 17 Mar 1884 – 1900 Shahu Chhatrapati Jashwant (b. 1874 – see below)

MaharajasEdit

  • 17 Mar 1884 – 20 Mar 1885 Jaisinhrao Ghatge - Regent
  • 1900 – 6 May 1922 Shahu Chhatrapati (see above; d. 1922)
  • 6 May 1922 – 26 Nov 1940 Rajaram III Chhatrapati (b. 1897 – d. 1940)
  • 26 Nov 1940 – 18 Nov 1942 Tara Bai (f) -Regent (1st time) (b. 1904 – d. ....)
  • 18 Nov 1942 – 28 Sep 1946 Shivaji VII Chhatrapati (b. 1941 – d. 1946)
  • 22 Nov 1942 – 31 Mar 1947 Tara Bai (f) -Regent (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • 31 Mar 1947 – 15 Aug 1947 Shahaji II Chhatrapati (b. 1910 – d. 1983)

Family treeEdit

  • Babaaji Bhonsle
    • Malojirao (1552–1606/20/22)
      • Shahajirao (c.1594–1664)
        •   SHIVAJI The king of the Maratha Kingdom (c.1630–1680; Emperor: 1674–1680)
          •   Sambhaji, King of the Maratha kingdom (1657–1689; r. 1680–1689)
          •   Rajaram, King of the Maratha Kingdom (1670–1700; r. 1689–1700)
            •   I. Shivaji II, Raja of Kolhapur (1696–1726; Raja of Kolhapur: 1710–1714)
            •   II. Sambhaji II, Raja of Kolhapur (1698–1760; r. 1714–1760)
      • Sharifjirao
        • Trimbukjirao
          • Venkatjirao
            • Mankojirao
              • Shahajirao
                •   III. Shivaji III, Raja of Kolhapur (1756–1813; r. 1762–1813)
                  •   IV. Sambhaji III, Raja of Kolhapur (1801–1821; r. 1813–1821)
                    •   V. Shivaji IV, Raja of Kolhapur (1816–1822; r. 1821–1822)
                  •   VI. Shahaji I, Raja of Kolhapur (1802–1838; r. 1822–1838)
                    •   VII. Shivaji V, Raja of Kolhapur KCSI (1830–1866; r. 1838–1866)
                    • Shrimati Akhand Soubhagyavati Aubai Patankar m. (1845) Shrimant Sardar Ramchandrarao Patankar, Patil of Patan
                      •   VIII. Rajaram II, Raja of Kolhapur (1850–1870; r. 1866–1870)
                    • Shrimati Akhand Soubhagyavati Balabai Maharaj Ghatge (d. 1867), m. (1848) Meherban Shrimant Chiranjiva Rajashri Narayanrao Ghatge, Sarjerao, Chief of Kagal Junior (c. 1833–1881)
                      • HH Meherban Shrimant Rajamanya Rajashri Jaisinhrao Ghatge, Sarjerao, Vazarat, Ma-ab, Chief of Kagal Senior (1857–1885) m. (2nd; 1878) Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Radhabai Sahib Ghatge
                        •   X. Shahu I, Maharaja of Kolhapur GCSI, GCIE, GCVO (1874–1922; r. 1884–1922; Raja of Kolhapur: 1884; Maharaja of Kolhapur: 1900)
                          • HH Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Maharani Radhabai Maharaj Puar, Maharani of Dewas Senior (1894–1973) m. (1908) HH Tukojirao III, Maharaja of Dewas Senior KCSI (1888–1937)
                            •   XIII. Shahaji II, Maharaja of Dewas Senior, Maharaja of Kolhapur GCSI (1910–1983; Maharaja of Dewas Senior: 1937–1947; Maharaja of Kolhapur: 1947–1949; titular ruler: 1949–1971; family head: 1971–1983)
                              • Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Maharajkumari Shaliniraje Sahib Maharaj Bhonsle (b. 1929) m. (1945) Shrijut Raje Rajaramsinhrao Laxmanrao Bhonsle (d. 1970)
                                • XIV. Shahu II, Maharaja of Kolhapur (b. 1948; family head: 1983–present)
                          •   XI. Rajaram III, Maharaja of Kolhapur GCSI, GCIE (1897–1940; r. 1922–1940)
                • Sambhajirao
                  • Ramchandrarao
                    • Narayanjirao
                      • Dinkarrao (b. 1832)
                • Swarupjirao
                  • Mankojirao
                    • Yashwantrao (1832–1884)
                      • Appa Sahib
                        • Shivajirao
                          • Shankarrao (b. 1922)
                            •   XII. Shivaji VII, Maharaja of Kolhapur (1941–1946; r. 1941–1946)

[citation needed]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Kolhapur State". The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Vol. 15. Oxford at Clarendon Press. 1909. pp. 380–87.
  2. ^ Gazetteer, p. 380
  3. ^ a b c d Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Kolhapur" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 889.
  4. ^ "Kolhapur Princely State (19 gun salute)". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  5. ^ Manohar Malgonkar, Chhatrapatis of Kolhapur, Pub. Popular Prakashan, 1971.
  6. ^ Gott, Richard (2011). Britain's Empire: Resistance, Repression and Revolt. Verso Books. p. 343. ISBN 978-1-84467-738-2.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 16°41′N 74°14′E / 16.683°N 74.233°E / 16.683; 74.233