Kinesiology is the scientific study of human or non-human body movement. Kinesiology addresses physiological, biomechanical, and psychological dynamic principles and mechanisms of movement. Applications of kinesiology to human health (i.e., human kinesiology) include biomechanics and orthopedics; strength and conditioning; sport psychology; methods of rehabilitation, such as physical and occupational therapy; and sport and exercise. Studies of human and animal motion include measures from motion tracking systems, electrophysiology of muscle and brain activity, various methods for monitoring physiological function, and other behavioral and cognitive research techniques.
Kinesiology is the study of human and nonhuman animal-body movements, performance, and function by applying the sciences of biomechanics, anatomy, physiology, psychology, and neuroscience. Applications of kinesiology in human-health include physical education teacher, rehabilitation, health and safety, health promotion, workplaces, sport and exercise industries. A bachelor's degree in kinesiology can provide strong preparation for graduate study in biomedical research, as well as in professional programs, such as medicine.
Whereas the term "kinesiologist" is neither a licensed nor professional designation in the United States nor most countries (with the exception of Canada), individuals with training in this area can teach physical education, provide consulting services, conduct research and develop policies related to rehabilitation, human motor performance, ergonomics, and occupational health and safety. In North America, kinesiologists may study to earn a Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, or Doctorate of Philosophy degree in Kinesiology or a Bachelor of Kinesiology degree, while in Australia or New Zealand, they are often conferred an Applied Science (Human Movement) degree (or higher). Many doctoral level faculty in North American kinesiology programs received their doctoral training in related disciplines, such as neuroscience, mechanical engineering, psychology, and physiology.
Adaptation through exerciseEdit
Adaptation through exercise is a key principle of kinesiology that relates to improved fitness in athletes as well as health and wellness in clinical populations. Exercise is a simple and established intervention for many movement disorders and musculoskeletal conditions due to the neuroplasticity of the brain and the adaptability of the musculoskeletal system. Therapeutic exercise has been shown to improve neuromotor control and motor capabilities in both normal and pathological populations.
There are many different types of exercise interventions that can be applied in kinesiology to athletic, normal, and clinical populations. Aerobic exercise interventions help to improve cardiovascular endurance. Anaerobic strength training programs can increase muscular strength, power, and lean body mass. Decreased risk of falls and increased neuromuscular control can be attributed to balance intervention programs. Flexibility programs can increase functional range of motion and reduce the risk of injury.
As a whole, exercise programs can reduce symptoms of depression and risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Additionally, they can help to improve quality of life, sleeping habits, immune system function, and body composition.
The study of the physiological responses to physical exercise and their therapeutic applications is known as exercise physiology, which is an important area of research within kinesiology.
Neuroplasticity is also a key scientific principle used in kinesiology to describe how movement and changes in the brain are related. The human brain adapts and acquires new motor skills based on this principle, which includes both adaptive and maladaptive brain changes.
Recent empirical evidence indicates the significant impact of physical activity on brain function; for example, greater amounts of physical activity are associated with enhanced cognitive function in older adults. The effects of physical activity can be distributed throughout the whole brain, such as higher gray matter density and white matter integrity after exercise training, and/or on specific brain areas, such as greater activation in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Neuroplasticity is also the underlying mechanism of skill acquisition. For example, after long-term training, pianists showed greater gray matter density in sensorimotor cortex and white matter integrity in the internal capsule compared to non-musicians.
Maladaptive plasticity is defined as neuroplasticity with negative effects or detrimental consequences in behavior. Movement abnormalities may occur among individuals with and without brain injuries due to abnormal remodeling in central nervous system. Learned non-use is an example commonly seen among patients with brain damage, such as stroke. Patients with stroke learned to suppress paretic limb movement after unsuccessful experience in paretic hand use; this may cause decreased neuronal activation at adjacent areas of the infarcted motor cortex.
There are many types of therapies that are designed to overcome maladaptive plasticity in clinic and research, such as constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), body weight support treadmill training (BWSTT) and virtual reality therapy. These interventions are shown to enhance motor function in paretic limbs  and stimulate cortical reorganization in patients with brain damage.
Motor redundancy is a widely used concept in kinesiology and motor control which states that, for any task the human body can perform, there are effectively an unlimited number of ways the nervous system could achieve that task. This redundancy appears at multiple levels in the chain of motor execution:
- Kinematic redundancy means that for a desired location of the endpoint (e.g. the hand or finger), there are many configurations of the joints that would produce the same endpoint location in space.
- Muscle redundancy means that the same net joint torque could be generated by many different relative contributions of individual muscles.
- Motor unit redundancy means that for the same net muscle force could be generated by many different relative contributions of motor units within that muscle.
The concept of motor redundancy is explored in numerous studies, usually with the goal of describing the relative contribution of a set of motor elements (e.g. muscles) in various human movements, and how these contributions can be predicted from a comprehensive theory. Two distinct (but not incompatible) theories have emerged for how the nervous system coordinates redundant elements: simplification and optimization. In the simplification theory, complex movements and muscle actions are constructed from simpler ones, often known as primitives or synergies, resulting in a simpler system for the brain to control. In the optimization theory, motor actions arise from the minimization of a control parameter, such as the energetic cost of movement or errors in movement performance.
Scope of practiceEdit
In Canada, kinesiology is a professional designation as well as an area of study. In the province of Ontario the scope has been officially defined as, "the assessment of human movement and performance and its rehabilitation and management to maintain, rehabilitate or enhance movement and performance" 
Kinesiologists work in a variety of roles as health professionals. They work as rehabilitation providers in hospitals, clinics and private settings working with populations needing care for musculoskeletal, cardiac and neurological conditions. They provide rehabilitation to persons injured at work and in vehicular accidents. Kinesiologists also work as functional assessment specialists, exercise therapists, ergonomists, return to work specialists, case managers and medical legal evaluators. They can be found in hospital, long term care, clinic, work, and community settings. Additionally, kinesiology is applied in areas of health and fitness for all levels of athletes, but more often found with training of elite athletes.
Licensing and regulationEdit
In Canada, Kinesiology has been designated a regulated health profession in Ontario. Kinesiology was granted the right to regulate in the province of Ontario in the summer of 2007 and similar proposals have been made for other provinces. The College of Kinesiologists of Ontario achieved proclamation on April 1, 2013, at which time the professional title "Kinesiologist" became protected by law. In Ontario only members of the college may call themselves a Registered Kinesiologist. Individuals who have earned degrees in kinesiology can work in research, the fitness industry, clinical settings, and in industrial environments. They also work in cardiac rehabilitation, health and safety, hospital and long-term care facilities and community health centers just to name a few.
- Health Promotion
- Kinesiologists working in the health promotion industry work with individuals to enhance the health, fitness, and well-being of the individual. Kinesiologists can be found working in fitness facilities, personal training/corporate wellness facilities, and industry.
- Kinesiologists work with individuals with disabling conditions to assist in regaining their optimal physical function. They work with individuals in their home, fitness facilities, rehabilitation clinics, and at the worksite. They also work alongside physiotherapists and occupational therapists.
- Kinesiologists work in industry to assess suitability of design of workstations and provide suggestions for modifications and assistive devices.
- Health and Safety.
- Kinesiologists are involved in consulting with industry to identify hazards and provide recommendations and solutions to optimize the health and safety of workers.
- Disability Management/Case Coordination
- Kinesiologists recommend and provide a plan of action to return an injured individual to their optimal function in all aspects of life.
- Management/Research/Administration/Health and Safety
- Kinesiologists frequently fulfill roles in all above areas, perform research, and manage businesses.
- Health Education
- Kinesiologists working in health education teach people about behaviors that promote wellness. They develop and implement strategies to improve the health of individuals and communities. Community health workers collect data and discuss health concerns with members of specific populations or communities.
- Athletic Training
- Kinesiologists working in athletic training work in cooperation with physicians. Athletic trainers strive to prevent athletes from suffering injuries, diagnose them if they have suffered an injury and apply the appropriate treatment.
- Athletic Coaches and Scouts
- Kinesiologists who pursue a career as an athletic coach develop new talent and guide an athlete's progress in a specific sport. They teach amateur or professional athletes the skills they need to succeed at their sport. Many coaches are also involved in scouting. Scouts look for new players and evaluate their skills and likelihood for success at the college, amateur, or professional level.
- Physical Education Teacher
- Kinesiologists working as physical education teachers are responsible for teaching fitness, sports and health. They help students stay both mentally and physically fit by teaching them to make healthy choices.
History of kinesiologyEdit
Royal Central Institute of Gymnastics (sv) G.C.I. was founded 1813 in Stockholm, Sweden by Pehr Henrik Ling. It was the first Physiotherapy School in the world, training hundreds of medical gymnasts who spread the Swedish physical therapy around the entire world. In 1887, Sweden was the first country in the world to give a national state licence to physiotherapists/physical therapists.
The Swedish medical gymnast and kinesiologist Carl August Georgii (sv), Professor at the Royal Gymnastic Central Institute GCI in Stockholm, was the one who created and coined the new international word Kinesiology in 1854.
The term Kinesiology is a literal translation to Greek+English from the original Swedish word Rörelselära, meaning "Movement Science". It was the foundation of the Medical Gymnastics, the original Physiotherapy and Physical Therapy, developed during 100 years in Sweden (starting 1813).
The new medical therapy created in Sweden was originally called Rörelselära (sv), and later in 1854 translated to the new and invented international word "Kinesiology". The Kinesiology consisted of nearly 2,000 physical movements and 50 different types of massage therapy techniques. They were all used to affect various dysfunctions and even illnesses, not only in the movement apparatus, but also into the internal physiology of man. Thus, the original classical and Traditional Kinesiology was not only a system of rehabilitation for the body, or biomechanics like in modern Academic Kinesiology, but also a new therapy for relieving and curing diseases, by affecting the autonomic nervous system, organs and glands in the body.,
In 1886, the Swedish Medical Gymnast Nils Posse (1862-1895) introduced the term kinesiology in the U.S. Nils Posse was a graduate of the Royal Gymnastic Central Institute in Stockholm, Sweden and founder of the Posse Gymnasium in Boston, MA. He was teaching at Boston Normal School of Gymnastics BNSG.The Special Kinesiology Of Educational Gymnastics was the first book ever written in the world with the word "Kinesiology" in the title of the book. It was written by Nils Posse and published in Boston, 1894-1895.
Technology in kinesiologyEdit
Motion capture technology has application in measuring human movement, and thus kinesiology. Historically, motion capture labs have recorded high fidelity data. While accurate and credible, these systems can come at high capital and operational costs. Modern-day systems have increased accessibility to mocap technology.
- Bodo Rosenhahn, Reinhard Klette and Dimitris Metaxas (eds.). Human Motion - Understanding, Modelling, Capture and Animation. Volume 36 in Computational Imaging and Vision, Springer, Dordrecht, 2007
- Ahmed Elgammal, Bodo Rosenhahn, and Reinhard Klette (eds.) Human Motion - Understanding, Modelling, Capture and Animation. 2nd Workshop, in conjunction with ICCV 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 4814, Springer, Berlin, 2007
- "Home - Kinesiology". uwaterloo.ca. 20 August 2012. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
- Wang, E; Næss, MS; Hoff, J; Albert, TL; Pham, Q; Richardson, RS; Helgerud, J (Nov 16, 2013). "Exercise-training-induced changes in metabolic capacity with age: the role of central cardiovascular plasticity". Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands). 36 (2): 665–676. doi:10.1007/s11357-013-9596-x. PMC 4039249. PMID 24243396.
- Potempa, K; Lopez, M; Braun, LT; Szidon, JP; Fogg, L; Tincknell, T (January 1995). "Physiological outcomes of aerobic exercise training in hemiparetic stroke patients". Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 26 (1): 101–5. doi:10.1161/01.str.26.1.101. PMID 7839377.
- Wilmore, JH; Stanforth, PR; Gagnon, J; Leon, AS; Rao, DC; Skinner, JS; Bouchard, C (July 1996). "Endurance exercise training has a minimal effect on resting heart rate: the HERITAGE Study". Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 28 (7): 829–35. doi:10.1097/00005768-199607000-00009. PMID 8832536.
- Carter, JB; Banister, EW; Blaber, AP (2003). "Effect of endurance exercise on autonomic control of heart rate". Sports Medicine. 33 (1): 33–46. doi:10.2165/00007256-200333010-00003. PMID 12477376.
- Chen, Chao‐Yin; Dicarlo, Stephen E. (January 1998). "Endurance exercise training‐induced resting Bradycardia: A brief review". Sports Medicine, Training and Rehabilitation. 8 (1): 37–77. doi:10.1080/15438629709512518.
- Crewther, BT; Heke, TL; Keogh, JW (February 2013). "The effects of a resistance-training program on strength, body composition and baseline hormones in male athletes training concurrently for rugby union 7's". The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 53 (1): 34–41. PMID 23470909.
- Schoenfeld, BJ (June 2013). "Postexercise hypertrophic adaptations: a reexamination of the hormone hypothesis and its applicability to resistance training program design". Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 27 (6): 1720–30. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31828ddd53. PMID 23442269.
- Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Lund, C; Rasmussen, C; Petersen, T; Sørensen, H; Ingemann-Hansen, T; Overgaard, K (July 2013). "Neural drive increases following resistance training in patients with multiple sclerosis". Journal of Neurology. 260 (7): 1822–32. doi:10.1007/s00415-013-6884-4. PMID 23483214.
- Staron, RS; Karapondo, DL; Kraemer, WJ; Fry, AC; Gordon, SE; Falkel, JE; Hagerman, FC; Hikida, RS (March 1994). "Skeletal muscle adaptations during early phase of heavy-resistance training in men and women". Journal of Applied Physiology. 76 (3): 1247–55. doi:10.1152/jappl.19188.8.131.527. PMID 8005869.
- Folland, JP; Williams, AG (2007). "The adaptations to strength training : morphological and neurological contributions to increased strength". Sports Medicine. 37 (2): 145–68. doi:10.2165/00007256-200737020-00004. PMID 17241104.
- Moritani, T; deVries, HA (June 1979). "Neural factors versus hypertrophy in the time course of muscle strength gain". American Journal of Physical Medicine. 58 (3): 115–30. PMID 453338.
- Narici, MV; Roi, GS; Landoni, L; Minetti, AE; Cerretelli, P (1989). "Changes in force, cross-sectional area and neural activation during strength training and detraining of the human quadriceps". European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 59 (4): 310–9. doi:10.1007/bf02388334. PMID 2583179.
- Forrester, LW; Wheaton, LA; Luft, AR (2008). "Exercise-mediated locomotor recovery and lower-limb neuroplasticity after stroke". Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 45 (2): 205–20. doi:10.1682/jrrd.2007.02.0034. PMID 18566939.
- Roig, M; Skriver, K; Lundbye-Jensen, J; Kiens, B; Nielsen, JB (2012). "A single bout of exercise improves motor memory". PLoS ONE. 7 (9): e44594. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...744594R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044594. PMC 3433433. PMID 22973462.
- Hirsch, MA; Farley, BG (June 2009). "Exercise and neuroplasticity in persons living with Parkinson's disease". European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 45 (2): 215–29. PMID 19532109.
- Schjerve, IE; Tyldum, GA; Tjønna, AE; Stølen, T; Loennechen, JP; Hansen, HE; Haram, PM; Heinrich, G; Bye, A; Najjar, SM; Smith, GL; Slørdahl, SA; Kemi, OJ; Wisløff, U (November 2008). "Both aerobic endurance and strength training programmes improve cardiovascular health in obese adults". Clinical Science. 115 (9): 283–93. doi:10.1042/CS20070332. PMID 18338980.
- Jozsi, AC; Campbell, WW; Joseph, L; Davey, SL; Evans, WJ (November 1999). "Changes in power with resistance training in older and younger men and women". The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 54 (11): M591–6. doi:10.1093/gerona/54.11.m591. PMID 10619323.
- Campbell, WW; Crim, MC; Young, VR; Evans, WJ (August 1994). "Increased energy requirements and changes in body composition with resistance training in older adults". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 60 (2): 167–75. doi:10.1093/ajcn/60.2.167. PMID 8030593.
- El-Khoury, F; Cassou, B; Charles, MA; Dargent-Molina, P (Oct 29, 2013). "The effect of fall prevention exercise programmes on fall induced injuries in community dwelling older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 347 (20): f6234. doi:10.1136/bmj.f6234. PMC 3812467. PMID 24169944.
- Hartig, DE; Henderson, JM (Mar–Apr 1999). "Increasing hamstring flexibility decreases lower extremity overuse injuries in military basic trainees". The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 27 (2): 173–6. doi:10.1177/03635465990270021001. PMID 10102097.
- Brand, S; Gerber, M; Beck, J; Hatzinger, M; Pühse, U; Holsboer-Trachsler, E (February 2010). "High exercise levels are related to favorable sleep patterns and psychological functioning in adolescents: a comparison of athletes and controls". The Journal of Adolescent Health. 46 (2): 133–41. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.06.018. PMID 20113919.
- Cederberg, H; Mikkola, I; Jokelainen, J; Laakso, M; Härkönen, P; Ikäheimo, T; Laakso, M; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S (June 2011). "Exercise during military training improves cardiovascular risk factors in young men". Atherosclerosis. 216 (2): 489–95. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.02.037. PMID 21402378.
- Borghouts, LB; Keizer, HA (January 2000). "Exercise and insulin sensitivity: a review". International Journal of Sports Medicine. 21 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1055/s-2000-8847. PMID 10683091.
- Tsai, JC; Yang, HY; Wang, WH; Hsieh, MH; Chen, PT; Kao, CC; Kao, PF; Wang, CH; Chan, P (April 2004). "The beneficial effect of regular endurance exercise training on blood pressure and quality of life in patients with hypertension". Clinical and Experimental Hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993). 26 (3): 255–65. doi:10.1081/ceh-120030234. PMID 15132303.
- Nieman, DC (October 1994). "Exercise, infection, and immunity". International Journal of Sports Medicine. 15 Suppl 3: S131–41. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1021128. PMID 7883395.
- Zorba, E; Cengiz, T; Karacabey, K (December 2011). "Exercise training improves body composition, blood lipid profile and serum insulin levels in obese children". The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 51 (4): 664–9. PMID 22212270.
- Marston, A (May 1967). "Self-reinforcement and external reinforcement in visual-motor learning". Journal of Experimental Psychology. 74 (1): 93–8. doi:10.1037/h0024505. PMID 6032584.
- Marchant, David C.; Clough, Peter J.; Crawshaw, Martin; Levy, Andrew (January 2009). "Novice motor skill performance and task experience is influenced by attentional focusing instructions and instruction preferences". International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 7 (4): 488–502. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2009.9671921.
- Yoo, Kwangsun; Sohn, William S.; Jeong, Yong (2013). "Tool-use practice induces changes in intrinsic functional connectivity of parietal areas". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 7: 49. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00049. PMC 3582314. PMID 23550165.
- Dayan, Eran; Cohen, Leonardo G. (November 2011). "Neuroplasticity Subserving Motor Skill Learning". Neuron. 72 (3): 443–454. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.10.008. PMC 3217208. PMID 22078504.
- Nudo, RJ; Wise, BM; SiFuentes, F; Milliken, GW (Jun 21, 1996). "Neural substrates for the effects of rehabilitative training on motor recovery after ischemic infarct". Science. 272 (5269): 1791–4. Bibcode:1996Sci...272.1791N. doi:10.1126/science.272.5269.1791. PMID 8650578.
- Nudo, RJ; Milliken, GW (May 1996). "Reorganization of movement representations in primary motor cortex following focal ischemic infarcts in adult squirrel monkeys". Journal of Neurophysiology. 75 (5): 2144–9. doi:10.1152/jn.19184.108.40.2064. PMID 8734610.
- Pascual-Leone, A; Nguyet, D; Cohen, LG; Brasil-Neto, JP; Cammarota, A; Hallett, M (September 1995). "Modulation of muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during the acquisition of new fine motor skills". Journal of Neurophysiology. 74 (3): 1037–45. doi:10.1152/jn.19220.127.116.117. PMID 7500130.
- Liepert, J; Terborg, C; Weiller, C (April 1999). "Motor plasticity induced by synchronized thumb and foot movements". Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Experimentation Cerebrale. 125 (4): 435–9. doi:10.1007/s002210050700. PMID 10323289.
- Eickhoff, SB; Dafotakis, M; Grefkes, C; Shah, NJ; Zilles, K; Piza-Katzer, H (July 2008). "Central adaptation following heterotopic hand replantation probed by fMRI and effective connectivity analysis". Experimental Neurology. 212 (1): 132–44. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2008.03.025. PMID 18501895.
- Johansson, B. B. (1 January 2000). "Brain Plasticity and Stroke Rehabilitation : The Willis Lecture". Stroke. 31 (1): 223–230. doi:10.1161/01.STR.31.1.223.
- Gomez-Pinilla, F. (1 November 2002). "Voluntary Exercise Induces a BDNF-Mediated Mechanism That Promotes Neuroplasticity". Journal of Neurophysiology. 88 (5): 2187–2195. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.408.4718. doi:10.1152/jn.00152.2002. PMID 12424260.
- Mora, F (March 2013). "Successful brain aging: plasticity, environmental enrichment, and lifestyle". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 15 (1): 45–52. PMC 3622468. PMID 23576888.
- Hopkins, ME; Bucci, DJ (September 2010). "BDNF expression in perirhinal cortex is associated with exercise-induced improvement in object recognition memory". Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. 94 (2): 278–84. doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2010.06.006. PMC 2930914. PMID 20601027.
- Thomas, C; Baker, CI (June 2013). "Teaching an adult brain new tricks: a critical review of evidence for training-dependent structural plasticity in humans". NeuroImage. 73: 225–36. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.03.069. PMID 22484409.
- Erickson, KI; Weinstein, AM; Lopez, OL (November 2012). "Physical activity, brain plasticity, and Alzheimer's disease". Archives of Medical Research. 43 (8): 615–21. doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2012.09.008. PMC 3567914. PMID 23085449.
- Han, Y; Yang, H; Lv, YT; Zhu, CZ; He, Y; Tang, HH; Gong, QY; Luo, YJ; Zang, YF; Dong, Q (Jul 31, 2009). "Gray matter density and white matter integrity in pianists' brain: a combined structural and diffusion tensor MRI study". Neuroscience Letters. 459 (1): 3–6. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2008.07.056. PMID 18672026.
- PANTEV, C.; ENGELIEN, A.; CANDIA, V.; ELBERT, T. (25 January 2006). "Representational Cortex in Musicians". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 930 (1): 300–314. Bibcode:2001NYASA.930..300P. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05740.x.
- Cramer SC, Sur M, Dobkin BH, O'Brien C, Sanger TD, Trojanowski JQ, Rumsey JM, Hicks R, Cameron J, Chen D, Chen WG, Cohen LG, deCharms C, Duffy CJ, Eden GF, Fetz EE, Filart R, Freund M, Grant SJ, Haber S, Kalivas PW, Kolb B, Kramer AF, Lynch M, Mayberg HS, McQuillen PS, Nitkin R, Pascual-Leone A, Reuter-Lorenz P, Schiff N, Sharma A, Shekim L, Stryker M, Sullivan EV, Vinogradov S (June 2011). "Harnessing neuroplasticity for clinical applications". Brain. 134 (Pt 6): 1591–609. doi:10.1093/brain/awr039. PMC 3102236. PMID 21482550.
- Nahum, A; Sznajder, JI; Solway, J; Wood, LD; Schumacker, PT (May 1988). "Pressure, flow, and density relationships in airway models during constant-flow ventilation". Journal of Applied Physiology. 64 (5): 2066–73. doi:10.1152/jappl.1918.104.22.1686. PMID 3391905.
- Kadota, H; Nakajima, Y; Miyazaki, M; Sekiguchi, H; Kohno, Y; Amako, M; Arino, H; Nemoto, K; Sakai, N (July 2010). "An fMRI study of musicians with focal dystonia during tapping tasks". Journal of Neurology. 257 (7): 1092–8. doi:10.1007/s00415-010-5468-9. PMID 20143109.
- Taub E, Crago JE, Burgio LD, Groomes TE, Cook EW, DeLuca SC, Miller NE (March 1994). "An operant approach to rehabilitation medicine: overcoming learned nonuse by shaping". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 61 (2): 281–93. doi:10.1901/jeab.1994.61-281. PMC 1334416. PMID 8169577.
- Jones TA, Allred RP, Jefferson SC, Kerr AL, Woodie DA, Cheng SY, Adkins DL (June 2013). "Motor system plasticity in stroke models: intrinsically use-dependent, unreliably useful". Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 44 (6 Suppl 1): S104–6. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.000037. PMC 3727618. PMID 23709698.
- Macko, RF; Smith, GV; Dobrovolny, CL; Sorkin, JD; Goldberg, AP; Silver, KH (July 2001). "Treadmill training improves fitness reserve in chronic stroke patients". Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 82 (7): 879–84. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.326.8681. doi:10.1053/apmr.2001.23853. PMID 11441372.
- Wolf, SL; Winstein, CJ; Miller, JP; Taub, E; Uswatte, G; Morris, D; Giuliani, C; Light, KE; Nichols-Larsen, D; EXCITE, Investigators (Nov 1, 2006). "Effect of constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function 3 to 9 months after stroke: the EXCITE randomized clinical trial". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 296 (17): 2095–104. doi:10.1001/jama.296.17.2095. PMID 17077374.
- Turolla, A; Dam, M; Ventura, L; Tonin, P; Agostini, M; Zucconi, C; Kiper, P; Cagnin, A; Piron, L (Aug 1, 2013). "Virtual reality for the rehabilitation of the upper limb motor function after stroke: a prospective controlled trial". Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation. 10: 85. doi:10.1186/1743-0003-10-85. PMC 3734026. PMID 23914733.
- Orihuela-Espina F, Fernández del Castillo I, Palafox L, Pasaye E, Sánchez-Villavicencio I, Leder R, Franco JH, Sucar LE (May–Jun 2013). "Neural reorganization accompanying upper limb motor rehabilitation from stroke with virtual reality-based gesture therapy". Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation. 20 (3): 197–209. doi:10.1310/tsr2003-197. hdl:10044/1/32069. PMID 23841967.
- Szaflarski, JP; Page, SJ; Kissela, BM; Lee, JH; Levine, P; Strakowski, SM (August 2006). "Cortical reorganization following modified constraint-induced movement therapy: a study of 4 patients with chronic stroke". Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 87 (8): 1052–8. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2006.04.018. PMID 16876549.
- Yang, YR; Chen, IH; Liao, KK; Huang, CC; Wang, RY (April 2010). "Cortical reorganization induced by body weight-supported treadmill training in patients with hemiparesis of different stroke durations". Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 91 (4): 513–8. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2009.11.021. PMID 20382280.
- Bernstein, Nikolai (1967). The Co-ordination and Regulation of Movement. Long Island City, NY: Permagon Press. p. 196.
- Latash, ML; Scholz, JP; Schöner, G (January 2002). "Motor control strategies revealed in the structure of motor variability". Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. 30 (1): 26–31. doi:10.1097/00003677-200201000-00006. PMID 11800496.
- Tresch, MC; Jarc, A (December 2009). "The case for and against muscle synergies". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 19 (6): 601–7. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2009.09.002. PMC 2818278. PMID 19828310.
- Todorov, E; Jordan, MI (November 2002). "Optimal feedback control as a theory of motor coordination". Nature Neuroscience. 5 (11): 1226–35. doi:10.1038/nn963. PMID 12404008.
- d'Avella, A; Saltiel, P; Bizzi, E (March 2003). "Combinations of muscle synergies in the construction of a natural motor behavior". Nature Neuroscience. 6 (3): 300–8. doi:10.1038/nn1010. PMID 12563264.
- Mussa-Ivaldi, FA; Giszter, SF; Bizzi, E (Aug 2, 1994). "Linear combinations of primitives in vertebrate motor control". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 91 (16): 7534–8. Bibcode:1994PNAS...91.7534M. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.16.7534. PMC 44436. PMID 8052615.
- Harris, CM; Wolpert, DM (Aug 20, 1998). "Signal-dependent noise determines motor planning". Nature. 394 (6695): 780–4. Bibcode:1998Natur.394..780H. doi:10.1038/29528. PMID 9723616.
- "Welcome to the Ontario Kinesiology Association". Oka.on.ca. Archived from the original on 2008-09-24. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
- "Law Document English View". gov.on.ca. 24 July 2014. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-06-28. Retrieved 2014-06-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Hoffman, S. J. (2008). Shirl J. Hoffman (ed.). Introduction to Kinesiology (3 ed.). Human Kinetics. ISBN 9780736076135.
- "Kinesiology Act, 2007, S.O. 2007, c. 10, Sched. O". E-laws.gov.on.ca. 2007-06-04. Archived from the original on 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
- "CKA - Canadian Kinesiology Alliance - Alliance Canadienne de Kinésiologie". Cka.ca. Archived from the original on 2009-03-18. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
- "CKA - Canadian Kinesiology Alliance - Alliance Canadienne de Kinésiologie". Cka.ca. Archived from the original on 2009-06-03. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
- "Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition, Health Educators and Community Health Workers". 20 April 2016. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016.
- "Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition, Athletic Trainers". 20 April 2016. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016.
- "Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition, Coaches and Scouts". 20 April 2016. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016.
- "Concordia Online Education, Physical Education Teacher: Job and Salary, Information for P.E. Teachers". teaching careers, 2016. 20 April 2016. Archived from the original on 5 May 2016.
- Ottosson, Anders (2010). "The First Historical Movements of Kinesiology: Scientification in the Borderline between Physical Culture and Medicine around 1850". The International Journal of the History of Sport. 27 (11): 1892–1919. doi:10.1080/09523367.2010.491618. PMID 20653114.
- Ottosson, Anders (2007). Sjukgymnasten - vart tog han vägen? En undersökning av sjukgymnastyrkets maskulinisering och avmaskulinisering 1813-1934. Gothenburg Sweden, Göteborg Sverige: Doctoral Theses from University of Gothenburg. ISBN 978-91-88614-56-8.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-09-11. Retrieved 2017-11-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017-11-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- www.Kinesiology.com, Mac Pompeius Wolontis. "Kinesiology.com - manual muscle testing MMT". kinesiology.com. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
- The dictionary definition of kinesiology at Wiktionary