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The Deaflympics (previously called World Games for the Deaf, and International Games for the Deaf) are an International Olympic Committee (IOC)-sanctioned event at which deaf athletes compete at an elite level. Unlike the athletes in other IOC-sanctioned events (the Olympics, the Paralympics, and the Special Olympics), the Deaflympians cannot be guided by sounds (e.g., the starter's guns, bullhorn commands or referee whistles).[2] The games have been organized by the Comité International des Sports des Sourds (CISS, "The International Committee of Sports for the Deaf") since the first event in 1924.

Deaflympics Games
Deaflympics logo.svg
Deaflympics Logo
MottoPER LUDOS AEQUALITAS (Equality through sport)
First event1924 in Paris, France1924 Summer Deaflympics[1]
Occur every4 years
Last event2017 in Samsun, Turkey2017 Summer Deaflympics
PurposeProvision of opportunities for deaf persons to participate in elite sports
Websitewww.deaflympics.com
www.ciss.org

Contents

HistoryEdit

The Deaflympics are held every four years, and are the longest running multi-sport event excluding the Olympics themselves.[3] The first games, held in Paris in 1924, were also the first ever international sporting event for athletes with a disability.[4] The event has been held every four years since, apart from a break for World War II, and an additional event, the Deaflympic Winter Games, was added in 1949.[5] The games began as a small gathering of 148 athletes from nine European nations competing in the International Silent Games in Paris, France, in 1924; now, they have grown into a global movement.[2]

Officially, the games were originally called the "International Games for the Deaf" from 1924 to 1965, but were sometimes also referred to as the "International Silent Games". From 1966 to 1999 they were called the "World Games for the Deaf", and occasionally referred to as the "World Silent Games". From 2001, the games have been known by their current name Deaflympics (often mistakenly called the Deaf Olympics).[5]

To qualify for the games, athletes must have a hearing loss of at least 55 db in their "better ear". Hearing aids, cochlear implants and the like are not allowed to be used in competition, to place all athletes on the same level.[5] Other examples of ways the games vary from hearing competitions are the manner in which they are officiated. To address the issue of Deaflympians not being able to be guided by sounds, certain sports use alternative methods of commencing the game. For example, the football referees wave a flag instead of blowing a whistle; on the track, races are started by using a light, instead of a starter pistol. It is also customary for spectators not to cheer or clap, but rather to wave – usually with both hands.

Host nations and citiesEdit

To date, the Summer Deaflympic Games have been hosted by 21 cities in 17 countries, but by cities outside Europe on only six occasions (Washington, D.C. 1965, Los Angeles 1985, Christchurch 1989, Melbourne 2005, Taipei 2009 and Samsun 2017). The last summer games were held in Samsun, Turkey in 2017. The Winter Deaflympic Games have been hosted by 16 cities in 11 countries. The last winter games were held in Khanty-Mansiysk, Russian Federation in 2015.

The 2011 Winter Games scheduled to be held in Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia were cancelled due to the lack of readiness by the organizing committee to host the games.[6][7] The International Committee of Deaf Sports filed a criminal complaint against the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee and its President, Mr. Jaromír Ruda.[8] The criminal complaint demands reimbursement of the funds that were transferred to the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee from national deaf sports federations, to cover hotel accommodations and other Deaflympics-related expenses.[8] According to the Slovak newspaper, SME, "Jaromír Ruda, head of the Slovak Organising Committee, [is] a champion of promises and someone who is accused of a 1.6 million Euro Deaflympics-related fraud".[9] In a letter to the United States Deaflympians, International Committee of Sports for the Deaf ICSD President Craig Crowley expressed "his deep apologies for the cancellation of the 17th Winter Deaflympics".[10] Currently, the Slovak Deaflympic Committee and the Slovakia Association of Deaf Sportsmen Unions have been suspended.[11] In 2013 the Special Criminal Court in Banská Bystrica sentenced Ruda to a prison term of 14 and a half years for defrauding €1.6 million that should have been used for Winter Deaflympics.[12]

The host cities and NOCs for all past and scheduled games are as follows:[4][13]

List of Summer Deaflympics hostsEdit

Host cities of the Summer Deaflympics
Games Year Host Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top nation
Total Men Women
1 1924   Paris, France Gaston Doumergue 10–17 August 9 148 147 1 6 31   France
2 1928   Amsterdam, Netherlands Wilhelmina of the Netherlands 18–26 August 10 212 198 14 5 38   Great Britain
3 1931   Nuremberg, Germany 19–23 August 14 316 288 28 6 43   Germany
4 1935   London, Great Britain 17–24 August 12 221 178 43 5 41   Great Britain
5 1939   Stockholm, Sweden 24–27 August 13 250 208 42 6 43   Great Britain
6 1949   Copenhagen, Denmark 12–16 August 14 391 342 49 7 51   Great Britain
7 1953   Brussels, Belgium 15–19 August 16 473 432 41 7 57   Germany
8 1957   Milan, Italy 25–30 August 25 635 565 70 9 69   Soviet Union
9 1961   Helsinki, Finland 6–10 August 24 613 503 110 10 94   Soviet Union
10 1965   Washington, D.C., United States Lyndon B. Johnson 27 June – 3 July 27 687 575 112 9 85   Soviet Union
11 1969   Belgrade, Yugoslavia 9–16 August 33 1,189 964 225 12 105   Soviet Union
12 1973   Malmö, Sweden 21–28 August 31 1,116 893 223 11 97   United States
13 1977   Bucharest, Romania Nicolae Ceauşescu 17–27 July 32 1,150 913 237 11 106   United States
14 1981   Köln, West Germany 23 July – 1 August 32 1,198 893 305 11 110   United States
15 1985   Los Angeles, United States Ronald Reagan 10–20 August 29 995 745 250 11 96   United States
16 1989   Christchurch, New Zealand David Cargill 7–17 January 30 955 726 229 12 120   United States
17 1993   Sofia, Bulgaria Zhelyu Zhelev 24 July – 2 August 52 1,679 1,295 384 12 126   United States
18 1997   Copenhagen, Denmark John M. Lovett 13–26 July 65 2,028 1,496 534 14 140   United States
19 2001   Rome, Italy Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 22 July – 1 August 67 2,208 1,562 646 14 143   United States
20 2005   Melbourne, Australia Marigold Southey 5–16 January 63 2,038 1,402 636 14 147   Ukraine
21 2009   Taipei, Chinese Taipei 1 Ma Ying-jeou 5–15 September 80 2,670 1,714 779 17 177   Russia
22 2013   Sofia, Bulgaria Rosen Plevneliev 26 July – 4 August 83 2,711 1,792 919 16 203   Russia
23 2017   Samsun, Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 18–30 July 97 2,856 1,897 959 18 219   Russia
24 2021

1 The   Republic of China (Taiwan) is recognised as Chinese Taipei by CISS and the majority of international organisations it participates in due to political considerations and Cross-Strait relations with the People's Republic of China.

List of Winter Deaflympics hostsEdit

Host cities of the Winter Deaflympics
Games Year Host Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top nation
Total Men Women
1 1949   Seefeld, Austria 26–30 February 5 33 33 0 2 5   Switzerland
2 1953   Oslo, Norway 20–24 February 6 44 42 2 4 9   Norway
3 1955   Oberammergau, West Germany 10–13 February 8 59 54 5 4 11   Norway
4 1959   Montana-Vermala, Switzerland 27–31 January 14   Norway
5 1963   Åre, Sweden 12–16 March 13   Austria
6 1967   Berchtesgaden, West Germany 20–25 February 11   Norway
7 1971   Adelboden, Switzerland 25–30 February 11   Switzerland
8 1975   Lake Placid, United States 2–8 February 12   Canada
9 1979   Méribel, France 21–27 January 12   Soviet Union
10 1983   Madonna di Campiglio, Italy 13–23 January 17   Soviet Union
11 1987   Oslo, Norway 7–14 February 18   Norway
12 1991   Banff, Canada 2–9 March 18   Soviet Union
13 1995   Ylläs, Finland 14–19 March 15   Russia
14 1999   Davos, Switzerland 6–14 March 17   Russia
15 2003   Sundsvall, Sweden 26 February – 9 March 23   Russia
16 2007   Salt Lake City, United States 1–10 February 26   Russia
17 2011   Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia 16–28 February Cancelled
18 2015   Khanty-Mansiysk and Magnitogorsk, Russia 28 March – 5 April 31   Russia
19 2019   Sondrio Province, Italy 12–21 December 6 38

All-time medal tableEdit

Summer DeaflympicsEdit

An all-time Summer Deaflympics from 1924 Summer Deaflympics to 2017 Summer Deaflympics, is tabulated below. The table is simply the consequence of the sum of the medal tables of the various editions of the Summer Deaflympics. [14]

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1  United States3553103381003
2  Russia240151220611
3  Soviet Union173124108405
4  Germany168207207582
5  Ukraine10184130315
6  Iran896978236
7  Italy8884111283
8  Great Britain688595248
9  Japan676550182
10  France669092248
11  Sweden648060204
12  South Korea625741160
13  Hungary514438133
14  Finland475147145
15  Denmark464053139
16  China463644126
17  Australia39243093
18  Belarus374026103
19  Poland365472162
20  South Africa3518962
21  Turkey343660130
22  Netherlands32352895
23  Norway32282585
24  Canada314037108
25  Chinese Taipei27313492
26  Yugoslavia24132158
27  India1881339
28  Ireland16151142
29  Czech Republic1691035
30  Bulgaria154249106
31  Belgium15294185
32  Kenya14131542
33  Lithuania13172757
34  Venezuela12101537
35  Cuba1251229
36  Estonia1181332
37  Switzerland9161641
38  East Germany78823
39  Romania691429
40  Greece69722
41  New Zealand56718
42  Portugal54413
43  Croatia45312
44  Czechoslovakia37919
45  Latvia35311
46  Slovakia34310
47  Kazakhstan31812
48  Puerto Rico3014
49  Austria26816
50  Thailand2103
51  Malaysia17311
52  Mongolia161320
53  Spain13610
54  Argentina1337
55  Mexico1236
56  Brazil1179
57  Macau1012
  Singapore1012
59  Georgia0213
  Nigeria0213
  Slovenia0213
62  Armenia0156
63  Indonesia0134
64  Serbia0123
65  Moldova0112
66  Ecuador0101
  Iceland0101
68  Kyrgyzstan0055
69  Israel0022
70  Colombia0011
  Cyprus0011
  Egypt0011
  Hong Kong0011
  Saudi Arabia0011
  Turkmenistan0011
  Uzbekistan0011
Totals (76 nations)2269216724166852

Winter DeaflympicsEdit

An all-time Winter Deaflympics from 1949 Winter Deaflympics to 2015 Winter Deaflympics, is tabulated below. The table is simply the consequence of the sum of the medal tables of the various editions of the Winter Deaflympics. [15]

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1  Norway483640124
2  Russia35222885
3  Canada2791147
4  Soviet Union24262171
5  Switzerland22292475
6  Finland21192060
7  United States204140101
8  Italy18111241
9  Austria17242061
10  Czech Republic165526
11  Germany13152856
12  France1012830
13  Japan82313
14  Australia64111
15  Sweden2151027
16  Slovakia25714
17  Slovenia2237
18  Great Britain2226
19  China1135
20  Ukraine010616
21  Yugoslavia0112
22  Lithuania0101
23  Croatia0011
  Turkey0011
Totals (24 nations)294292295881

SportsEdit

Summer DeaflympicsEdit

The following sports have been contested in a Summer Deaflympic Games programme:

Sport (Discipline) Body 24 28 31 35 39 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 97 01 05 09 13 17
 
Current summer sports
 
Aquatics – Swimming 7 10 11 10 11 14 18 14 14 15 17 17 26 26 34 31 34 32 38 38 38 38 40
 
Athletics 17 20 23 23 23 24 26 32 32 33 34 34 35 30 32 36 40 40 43 42 43 44 43
Badminton 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 5 6
Basketball DIBF 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Bowling 10 10 10 10 8 12
 
Cycling – Mountain 2 2
Cycling – Road 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 8
 
Football 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
 
Golf 2
Handball 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1
Judo 10 17 17
Karate 5 15 18
Orienteering 6 6 5 8 9
Shooting 1 1 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 8 7 7 6 6 10 11 12
Table Tennis 5 5 7 7 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
Taekwondo 8 13 13
Tennis 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
 
Volleyball – Beach 2 2 2 2
Volleyball – Indoor 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Wrestling – Freestyle 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 7 7 7 8
Wrestling – Greco-Roman 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 7 7 7 8
 
Discontinued summer sports
 
Aquatics – Diving 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Aquatics – Water Polo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 
Gymnastics – Artistic 2 2 13 12 12
 
Demonstration summer sports
 
Gymnastics – Artistic
Gymnastics – Rhythmic
 
Total 31 38 43 45 47 51 57 69 94 85 105 97 106 110 96 120 126 140 143 147 177 203 219

These sports are organised by the CISS but haven't appeared in the Deaflympics:

  • Futsal

Winter DeaflympicsEdit

The following sports have been contested in a Winter Deaflympic Games programme:

Sport (Discipline) Body 49 53 55 59 63 67 71 75 79 83 87 91 95 99 03 07 15
 
Current winter sports
 
Curling 2 2
Ice hockey 1 1 1 1 1 1
 
Skiing – Alpine 3 4 6 10 8 6 6 6 6 8 8 6 8 8 8 10 10
Skiing – Snowboarding 6 5 10
Skiing – Nordic – Cross-Country 2 3 3 3 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 9 8
 
Discontinued winter sports
 
Skiing – Nordic – Nordic Combined 1 1
Skiing – Nordic – Ski jumping 1 1 1
 
Speed skating 3 4 5
 
Demonstration winter sports
 
Curling
Ice hockey AHIHA
 
Skiing – Snowboarding
 
Speed skating
 
Total 5 9 11 14 13 11 11 12 12 17 18 18 15 17 23 27 31

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Constitution". International Committee of Sports for the Deaf. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  2. ^ a b International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – News Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Deaflympics.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  3. ^ What are the Deaflympics?. Disabled World. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  4. ^ a b Future Directions of the Deaflympics. Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  5. ^ a b c Historical overview of the Paralympics, Special Olympics, and Deaflympics. Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  6. ^ Winter Olympics: 2011 Winter Deaflympics Cancelled Archived 25 January 2013 at Archive.today. Healthyhearing.com (17 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  7. ^ International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – PressRelease Archived 15 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Deaflympics.com (13 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  8. ^ a b ICSD Pursuing Legal Action Following Failure of 17th Winter Deaflympics Archived 24 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Deaf Sports Mag. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  9. ^ Slovakia: Deaflympics 2011 Controversy · Global Voices. Globalvoices.org. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  10. ^ 2011 US Deaflympics – Article | Letter from ICSD to USA athletes Archived 9 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Usdeaflympics.org (17 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  11. ^ International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – PressRelease Archived 18 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Deaflympics.com (14 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  12. ^ Deaflympics Committee Head Sentenced to Thirteen Years – English News. Webnoviny.sk. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  13. ^ International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – Games. Deaflympics.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  14. ^ "Deaflympics". deaflympics.com. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
  15. ^ "Deaflympics". deaflympics.com. Retrieved 25 March 2017.

External linksEdit