|Born||Jon Raymond Polito
December 29, 1950
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
|Died||September 1, 2016
City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Darryl Armbruster (m. 2015; his death 2016)|
|Relatives||Jack Polito (brother)|
|Awards||Cinequest Film Festival:
Maverick Spirit Event Award (2005)
Best Actor in a Short Film (2012)
Jon Raymond Polito (December 29, 1950 – September 1, 2016) was an American character actor and voice artist. In a film and television career spanning 35 years, he amassed over 220 credits. Notable television roles included Detective Steve Crosetti in the first two seasons of Homicide: Life on the Street and on the first season of Crime Story. He also appeared in several films including The Rocketeer, The Crow and Gangster Squad, but was mostly known for his work with the Coen brothers. He appeared in five of their films, including Miller's Crossing, Barton Fink and The Big Lebowski.
Homicide: Life on the StreetEdit
Polito was initially reluctant to audition for Homicide as he didn't want to move to Baltimore for the series, having just relocated from New York to Los Angeles. His agents sent him the script anyway, featuring a dialogue scene between a Polish-American and an Irish-American detective. Polito preferred the Irish detective role, but was told that he could only do the Polish one. After reading for the part Polito added a message on his audition tape saying that if the producers wanted to call him back he would only be interested if he could take the part of the Irish detective. Series co-creators Barry Levinson and Tom Fontana rewrote the character as an Italian named Steve Crosetti and cast him in the role. The Polish detective was also rewritten, becoming Detective Meldrick Lewis, and was played by African-American actor Clark Johnson.
The show was rating poorly and the producers were under pressure from NBC to include a new female character (Megan Russert) in the hope of gaining broader appeal. As a result, they decided to write out Polito's character at the end of Season 2. Fontana assured him that he would be brought back later in the season, but Polito was unhappy and criticized the producers publicly, an action he later regretted. The outburst caused a rift with Fontana and the Crosetti character was killed off early in Season 3, with the explanation that the detective had committed suicide. This further infuriated Polito, who again complained to the media, triggering a public slinging match between him and Fontana. Interviewed about the situation in 2005, Polito expressed regret for his handling of the matter. He noted that he and Fontana subsequently patched up their differences, and as a result the Crosetti character returned to make a farewell appearance as a spirit in Homicide: The Movie.
Coen brothers collaborationEdit
Polito was a regular in the Coen brothers movies appearing in five of their films. The Coens had seen Polito in the New York stage adaptation of Death of a Salesman in 1986 playing Howard Wagner. They approached him to play the part of The Dane in Miller's Crossing (1990), but after reading the script he turned them down saying he would only play the Italian gangster Johnny Caspar. The Coens auditioned several other actors but eventually used Polito after they made him read his entire role cold.
He was offered the role of Lou Breeze in their next film Barton Fink (1991), in a role which was written especially for him. Again he turned down the Coens offer saying he wanted to play the part of movie producer Jack Lipnick. Actress Frances McDormand persuaded him to take the role saying it would change his career. He later appeared in The Hudsucker Proxy (1994) as an eccentric businessman, The Big Lebowski (1998) as a private detective and finally in 2001 as a flirtatious salesman in The Man Who Wasn't There.
Polito won an Obie Award in 1980 for his theater performances off Broadway and for his lifetime of work in film and television he received the Maverick Spirit Event Award at Cinequest Film Festival in 2005. In 2012, he won the award for "Best Actor in a Short Film" at Hollywood Reel Independent Film Festival.
Polito was born on December 29, 1950 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to John and Delaida "Dee" (née Pompei) Polito. He has an older brother and sister, Rosemary Simpson and Jack Polito, an animator. After acting at high school he studied theater at Villanova University. Polito was openly gay. He married fellow actor Darryl Armbruster on October 16, 2015, fifteen years after they first met.
TV Commercial work- In 2014, Polito was chosen by Robert Downey Jr, to appear with him in an ad campaign for HTC mobile phones. Mr. Downey acting as creative director, decided to pay a tribute to his father's 1960's cult classic film "Putney Swope" and based the advertising content story on the movie. He chose Mr. Polito to play the part of his sidekick and be his comic foil in the ad.
||This section contains embedded lists that may be poorly defined, unverified or indiscriminate. (October 2016)|
|TV miniseries||1981||Gangster Chronicles, TheThe Gangster Chronicles||Thomas "Three Finger Brown" Lucchese|
|Film||1981||Gangster Wars||Thomas "Three Finger Brown" Lucchese|
|Film||1982||ClairvoyantThe Clairvoyant||Detective Sporaco||a.k.a. The Killing Hour|
|TV film||1983||Running Out||Joe Poswalsky|
|TV film||1984||Good SportA Good Sport||Man in Taxi|
|Film||1984||Princess and the Call GirlThe Princess and the Call Girl||Private Detective|
|Film||1985||Compromising Positions||Cop #1|
|TV film||1985||Death of a Salesman||Howard|
|Film||1985||Remo Williams: The Adventure Begins||Zack|
|Film||1986||Dream Lover||Doctor James|
|TV series||1986||Equalizer, TheThe Equalizer||Gianni||"Unpunished Crimes"|
|Film||1986||Highlander||Detective Walter Bedsoe|
|TV film||1986||Deadly BusinessA Deadly Business||Vitola|
|Film||1986||Fire with Fire||Boss|
|TV series||1986–1988||Crime Story||Phil Bartoli||16 episodes|
|TV series||1987||Equalizer, TheThe Equalizer||Carmack||"Memories of Manon: Part 1"
"Memories of Manon: Part 2"
|TV series||1987||Ohara||Captain Ross||11 episodes|
|TV film||1988||Alone in the Neon Jungle||Brad Stakowski|
|TV series||1988||Miami Vice||El Gato||"Hostile Takeover"
"Redemption in Blood"
|TV series||1988||Wiseguy||Eddie Van Platt||"Player to Be Named Now"|
|TV series||1989||Equalizer, TheThe Equalizer||David Pfieffer||"Silent Fury"|
|TV film||1989||Livin' Large||Sal|
|TV film||1989||Memories of Manon||Carmack|
|TV series||1989||Trying Times||Agent Caponello||"Death and Taxes"|
|Film||1990||Freshman, TheThe Freshman||Chuck Greenwald|
|Film||1990||Miller's Crossing||Johnny Caspar|
|Film||1991||Barton Fink||Lou Breeze|
|TV series||1991||Empty Nest||Slocum||"Harry's Got a Gun"|
|Film||1991||Rocketeer, TheThe Rocketeer||Bigelow|
|TV series||1991||Tales from the Crypt||Nikos Stano||"Deadline"|
|Film||1992||Flodder in Amerika!||Larry Rosenbaum|
|TV series||1992||Hearts Are Wild||Leon 'Pepe' Pepperman||03 episodes|
|Film||1992||Leather Jackets||Fat Jack|
|TV series||1992||Murder, She Wrote||Lieutenant Peter DiMartini||"Dead FileThe Dead File"|
|Film||1993||ContendersThe Contenders||Pedro Perusia|
|TV series||1993||Dinosaurs||Ty Warner||"Swamp Music"||voice actor|
|TV series||1993||Fallen Angels||Al Reseck||"I'll Be Waiting"|
|TV series||1993||Homicide: Life on the Street||Detective Steve Crosetti||"Gone for Goode"
"Ghost of a Chance"
"Son of a Gun"
"A Shot in the Dark"
"Three Men and Adena"
"A Dog and Pony Show"
"And the Rockets' Dead Glare"
"Smoke Gets in Your Eyes"
"The Night of the Dead Living"
|13 episodes total|
|TV series||1993||Untouchables, TheThe Untouchables||Tommy Palumbo||"Railroaded"|
|Film||1994||Blankman||Michael 'The Suit' Minelli|
|Film||1994||Crow, TheThe Crow||Gideon|
|TV film||1994||Girls in Prison||Boss Johnson|
|TV series||1994||Homicide: Life on the Street||Detective Steve Crosetti||"Bop Gun"
"See No Evil"
"Black and Blue"
"A Many Splendored Thing"
|13 episodes total|
|Film||1994||Hudsucker Proxy, TheThe Hudsucker Proxy||Mr. Bumstead|
|TV series||1994||Murder, She Wrote||Lieutenant Peter DiMartini||"Murderous MuseA Murderous Muse"|
|TV film||1994||Shaggy Dog, TheThe Shaggy Dog||Detective Al|
|TV series||1994||Viper||Councilman Strand||"Pilot"|
|TV series||1995||[[Burke's Law (1994 TV series)}Burke's Law]]||"Who Killed Cock-a-Doodle Dooley?"|
|TV series||1995||Chicago Hope||Detective Bill Ranford||"Life Support"|
|TV series||1995||High Society||Alvin Spalding||"We Ought to Be in Pictures"|
|Film||1995||InvadersThe Invaders||Whitley, Metro HQ||uncredited|
|TV series||1995||Mad About You||Ralphy||"My Boyfriend's Back!"|
|TV series||1995||NYPD Blue||Paul Biaggi||"One Big Happy Family"|
|TV series||1995||Dream On||Louie||"Significant Author"
"Flight of the Pedalbee"
|04 episodes total|
|TV series||1996||Dream On||Louie||"All About Louie"||04 episodes total|
|Film||1996||Homeward Bound II: Lost in San Francisco||Ashcan||voice actor|
|Film||1996||Just Your Luck||Nick|
|TV series||1996||New York Undercover||John Dennis||"Andre's Choice"|
|TV series||1996||Pretender, TheThe Pretender||Ben Hansel||"Virus Among UsA Virus Among Us"|
|TV series||1996||Roseanne||Mr. Russo||"Millions from Heaven"|
|TV series||1996||Swift Justice||Tom Luddy||"Supernote"|
|Film||1997||Corporate Ladder, TheThe Corporate Ladder||Mr. Deacon|
|TV series||1997||Early Edition||Louie DeFozio||"CatThe Cat"|
|TV series||1997||Fired Up||Sam Harris||"Domestic Bliss"|
|Short film||1997||Inside Out||Paparazzi||27 minutes; included in the compilation film Boys Life 3|
|TV film||1997||Invasion||Detective Kemper|
|Animated TV series||1997||Life with Louie||"Louie's Harrowing Halloween"||voice actor|
|TV series||1997||Night Man||Al Capone||"That Ol' Gang of Mine"|
|TV series||1997||Over the Top||Mr. Hamstead||"Bee StoryThe Bee Story"|
|Film||1998||Big Lebowski, TheThe Big Lebowski||Da Fino|
|TV film||1998||Defenders: Choice of Evils, TheThe Defenders: Choice of Evils||D.A. Al Orsini|
|TV series||1998||Honey, I Shrunk the Kids: The TV Show||Marv Fishland||"Honey, She's Like a Fish Out of Water"|
|TV series||1998||Jenny||Sid Bouchie||"Girl's Gotta Get ItA Girl's Gotta Get It"|
|TV series||1998||Millennium||Eddie Scarpino Giannini||"Omerta"|
|TV film||1998||Money Play$||Lou Spano|
|Film||1998||Music from Another Room||Lorenzo Palmieri|
|TV series||1998||New York Undercover||Rinaldi||"Drop Dead Gorgeous"|
|TV series||1998||Players||Pappas||"Mint Condition"|
|TV series||1998||Seinfeld||Silvio||"Reverse PeepholeThe Reverse Peephole"|
|Film||1998||Tale of the Mummy||Parsons|
|TV series||1998||Veronica's Closet||Mr. Lehman||"Veronica's Dog Day Afternoon"|
|Film||1998||With Friends Like These...||Rudy Ptak|
|TV film||1999||Apartment Complex, TheThe Apartment Complex||Dr. Caligari|
|Film||1999||Angel's Dance||Uncle Vinnie|
|Film||1999||Carlo's Wake||Uncle Gus|
|TV series||1999||Good vs. Evil||Howard||"Sunday Night Evil"|
|Video game||1999||Lands of Lore III||Dark Army Orc / Elliott the Guard / Viscosa||voice actor|
|TV series||1999||Nash Bridges||Roland Margolis||"Truth and Consequences"|
|Film||1999||Stuart Little||Detective Sherman|
|Film||1999||The Green Mile||"D" Block Prison Guard|
|Short film||1999||Surgeon General's Warning||Other GuyThe Other Guy||08 minutes|
|Film||2000||Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle, TheThe Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle||Schoentell|
|Animated TV series||2000||Batman Beyond||MajorThe Major||"Betrayal"||voice actor|
|TV series||2000||Early Edition||Cliff Mourning||"Snow Angels"|
|Film||2000||Flies on Cupid||Giorgio Gagantano|
|TV film||2000||Homicide: The Movie||Steve Crosetti|
|TV series||2000||Invisible Man, TheThe Invisible Man||Eddie the Mammoth||"Pilot"|
|Short TV film||2000||Nature Boy||Mort Ruby||29 minutes; directed by Kari Skogland|
|TV series||2000||Popular||Caesar Croutons||"Hard on the Outside, Soft in the Middle"|
|TV series||2000||Pretender, TheThe Pretender||Constantin Falzone||"Cold Dick"|
|Animated film||2000||Tangerine Bear: Home in Time for Christmas!, TheThe Tangerine Bear: Home in Time for Christmas!||Virgil||voice actor|
|TV series||2001||Chris Isaak Show, TheThe Chris Isaak Show||Rhonda Parks||"Our Place"|
|TV series||2001||Chronicle, TheThe Chronicle||Donald Stern||"Pilot"
"What Gobbles Beneath"
"Here There Be Dragons"
"Baby Got Back"
"He's Dead, She's Dead"
"Bermuda Love Triangle"
"Only the Young Die Good"
"Bring Me the Head of Tucker Burns"
"Let Sleeping Dogs Fry"
"Take Me Back"
|22 episodes total|
|TV series||2001||Drew Carey Show, TheThe Drew Carey Show||BabyThe Baby||"Drew and the Baby"||03 episodes total; voice actor|
|Short film||2001||Frank's Last Dance||Frank||18 minutes|
|TV series||2001||Gideon's Crossing||Lou Peda||"RaceThe Race"|
|Film||2001||Man Who Wasn't There, TheThe Man Who Wasn't There||Creighton Tolliver|
|Film||2001||Mimic 2||Morrie Deaver|
|Film||2001||Shrink Is In, TheThe Shrink Is In||Judge Bob|
|Film||2001||Tailor of Panama, TheThe Tailor of Panama||Ramón Rudd, the Banker|
|TV series||2002||Becker||Leonard Nagle||"Piece Talks"|
|Film||2002||Black Mask 2: City of Masks||King|
|TV series||2002||Chronicle, TheThe Chronicle||Donald Stern||"Touched by an Alien"
"Pig Boy's Big Adventure"
"The Cursed Sombrero"
"Tears of a Clone"
"I See Dead Fat People"
"Man and Superman"
"Hot from the Oven"
"The Stepford Cheerleaders"
"The Mists of Avalon Parkway"
"The King Is Undead"
"A Snitch in Time"
|22 episodes total|
|TV series||2002||Drew Carey Show, TheThe Drew Carey Show||Stansfield||"Curse of the MummyThe Curse of the Mummy"
|03 episodes total|
|TV series||2002||Gilmore Girls||Father in Kirk's Film||"Teach Me Tonight"||02 episodes total|
|Film||2002||29 Palms||Security GuardThe Security Guard|
|TV series||2002||Push, Nevada||Silas Bodnick||"AmountThe Amount"|
|TV series||2002||She Spies||Edward Malloy||"Ice Man"|
|TV film||2002||Women vs. Men||Desk Sergeant|
|Film||2003||Box, TheThe Box||Michael Dickerson|
|TV series||2003||Crossing Jordan||Dick||"Wild Card"|
|TV series||2003||Dragnet||Richard Maughm||"Silver SlayerThe Silver Slayer"|
|TV series||2003||Gilmore Girls||Pete||"Happy Birthday, Baby"||02 episodes total|
|TV film||2003||Life on Parole||Ernie|
|TV series||2003||Lyon's Den, TheThe Lyon's Den||Mr. Carpeggi||"Trick or Treat"|
|Short film||2003||No Credits, No Peace||Network ExecutiveThe Network Executive||06 minutes|
|TV series||2003||Oliver Beene||Mr. Rayfield||"Dancing Beene"||02 episodes total|
|Film||2003||Singing Detective, TheThe Singing Detective||Second Hood|
|Film||2003||View from the Top||Roy Roby|
|TV series||2004||10-8: Officers on Duty||Enzo Fontana||"Wild and the Innocent"|
|Film||2004||Charlie the Ox||Freddy Boon|
|TV film||2004||Gone, But Not Forgotten||Sam Oberhurst||based on the novel by Phillip Margolin|
|TV series||2004||It's All Relative||Leonard||"Long Day's JourneyA Long Day's Journey Into Leonard's"|
|TV series||2004||Judging Amy||D.A. Gerald Abner||"Disposable"
"The Quick and the Dead"
|TV series||2004||Jury, TheThe Jury||Johnny Pappas||"BoxerThe Boxer"|
|Film||2004||Last Shot, TheThe Last Shot||Wally Kamin|
|TV series||2004||My Wife and Kids||Minister||"WeddingThe Wedding"|
|TV series||2004||Oliver Beene||Mr. Rayfield||"Oliver & the Otters"||02 episodes total|
|TV series||2004||Scrubs||Mr. Summers||"My Female Trouble"|
|Animated TV series||2005||Avatar: The Last Airbender||Chief Arnook
|"Waterbending MasterThe Waterbending Master"
"The Siege of the North: Part 1"
"The Siege of the North: Part 2"
|Animated TV series||2005||Buzz on Maggie, TheThe Buzz on Maggie||New Aldrin / New Pupert||"Those Pesky Roaches"||voice actor|
|TV series||2005||Desperate Housewives||Charles Skouras||"Love Is in the Air"|
|TV film||2005||Family Plan||Gold|
|TV series||2005||Ghost Whisperer||Joe Grimaldi||"Pilot"||02 episodes total|
|Film||2005||Honeymooners, TheThe Honeymooners||Kirby|
|TV series||2005||Threshold||Nicky Frost||"OrderThe Order"|
|TV series||2005||Without a Trace||Jimmy 'The Tooth' Fusco||"Lone Star"|
|Film||2006||Big Nothing||Agent Hymes|
|Short film||2006||Cleaners||10 minutes|
|Film||2006||Flags of Our Fathers||Borough President|
|Animated TV series||2006||Handy Manny||Joe Bolotero||"Supremoguy/Tool Talk"||voice actor|
|Animated film||2006||Happily N'Ever After||Wolf 1||voice actor|
|Film||2006||Alibi, TheThe Alibi||Jimmy the Photographer||a.k.a. Lies & Alibis|
|TV series||2006||Masters of Horror||Montesquino||"Haeckel's Tale"|
|Film||2007||Cougar Club||Mr. Archibald|
|Video game||2007||Dead Head Fred||Ulysses S. Pitt||voice actor|
|TV series||2007||Medium||Vincent Discala||"Better Off Dead"|
|Short film||2008||Animated American||Max Rabbit||15 minutes|
|Film||2008||Bart Got a Room||Bob|
|TV series||2008||Chocolate News||Harvey Silverstein||"Episode #1.7"|
|Animated TV series||2008||Chowder||Funjl / Guy||"Moldy TouchThe Moldy Touch/The Heavy Sleeper"||voice actor|
|TV series||2008||Do Not Disturb||R.J.||"Dosing"|
|TV series||2008||Ghost Whisperer||Joe Grimaldi||"First Do No Harm"||02 episodes total|
|TV series||2008||Las Vegas||CleanerThe Cleaner||"Guess Who's Coming to Breakfast"|
|Film||2008||Marconi Bros., TheThe Marconi Bros.||Lou Burns|
|TV film||2008||Rock Monster||ColonelThe Colonel|
|TV series||2008||Two and a Half Men||Mr. Sharipa||"He Smelled the Ham, He Got Excited"|
|TV series||2008||Raising the Bar||Judge Dominick Ventimiglia||"Hang Time"
"Out on the Roof"
"Shop Till You Drop"
|10 episodes total|
|TV film||2009||Citizen Jane||Detective Romer|
|Short film||2009||Locker 13||Don Dillon||15 minutes|
|TV series||2009||Monk||George Gionopolis||"Mr. Monk Fights City Hall"|
|TV series||2009||Raising the Bar||Judge Dominick Ventimiglia||"Hair Apparent"
"I'll Be Down to Get You in a Taxi, Honey"
"Fine and Dandy"
|10 episodes total|
|Film||2009||Super Capers: The Origins of Ed and the Missing Bullion||Captain Sludge|
|Animated short film||2010||DC Showcase: The Spectre||Police Captain||voice actor; 12 minutes|
|Animated TV series||2009-2010||Glenn Martin, DDS||Vito Renzuli||"We've Created a Mobster"; "Life Swap"||voice actor; 02 episodes total|
|Film||2010||Grind, TheThe Grind||HIM|
|Film||2010||Last Godfather, TheThe Last Godfather||Don Bonfante|
|TV series||2010||Mentalist, TheThe Mentalist||Duesterberg||"Red Herring"|
|Film||2010||Stiffs||John "The Prince" Monaco|
|Short film||2010||Talking HeadThe Talking Head||Mr. Opportunity||19 minutes|
|Film||2010||Venus & Vegas||Frank|
|Film||2011||Atlas Shrugged: Part I||Orren Boyle|
|Animated film||2011||Batman: Year One||Commissioner Loeb||voice actor|
|Animated TV series||2011||Ben 10: Ultimate Alien||DN Alien Mizaru / Mizaru||"Simian Says"||voice actor|
|TV series||2011||Funny or Die Presents||Eddy||"Episode #2.1"||segment United States Police Department|
|TV series||2011||It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia||Gino||"Frank's Brother"|
|Short film||2011||Jonny Boy||Jonny Boy||07 minutes|
|Film||2011||Son of Morning||Mr. Bordasche|
|Animated TV series||2011||ThunderCats||Conquedor||"Berbils"||voice actor|
|Short film||2012||Anti-Muse||Anti-Muse||Directed by John M Goodner|
|TV series||2012||Bunheads||Sal Russano||"Money for Nothing"
"No One Takes Khaleesi's Dragons"
|TV series||2012||Franklin & Bash||Lucky Louie||"Jango and Rossi"|
|TV series||2012||Mike & Molly||Frankie Moranto||"Thanksgiving Is Canceled"|
|Film||2012||From the Head||Vinnie|
|Film||2013||Gangster Squad||Jack Dragna|
|Video game||2013||Batman: Arkham Origins||G.C.P.D. Commissioner Gillian B. Loeb||voice actor|
|TV series||2014||Castle||Harold Metzger||"That '70s Show"|
|Film||2014||Big Eyes||Enrico Banducci|
|TV series||2014–2016||Modern Family||Earl Chambers||"Won't You Be Our Neighbor"
"The Closet Case"
|Video game||2016||Batman: Arkham Underworld||Carmine Falcone||voice actor|
|TV series||2016||Comedy Bang! Bang!||Frank O'Brien||"Tony Hale Wears a Blue Flannel Shirt and Fuchsia Sneakers"|
|TV series||2016||Ultimate Spider-Man||Hammerhead||Return to the Spider-Verse" (Part 3)||voice actor; posthumous|
|Film||2017||Monster Trucks||Thelonious||voice actor; posthumous|
- "R.I.P. Jon Polito, a favorite of the Coen Brothers". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Jon Polito, Actor in Coen Brothers Films, Dies at 65". Variety. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Jon Polito interview". The Groucho Reviews. 5 March 2005. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- Philadelphia Inquirer (2 December 1994). "Character's Suicide Has Actor Steaming". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- "Jon Polito - Random Roles". A.V. Club. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- Crane, Pete (2005). "Maverick Spirit Event: Jon Polito: American Dynamo". Cinequest.
- "Hollywood Reel Independent Film Festival - List of awards 2012.". Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Slotnik, Daniel E. (2016-09-02). "Jon Polito, a Favorite in Coen Brothers Films, Dies at 65". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-09-05.
- "Name Dropping with Jason Stuart… Jon Polito". Newnownext.com. 29 September 2010.
- "Jon Polito Interview Pt 3". Youtube.com. 8 July 2015.
- Nicole Bitette (2 September 2016). "Jon Polito, known for roles in Coen brothers films, dead at 65". nydailynews.com. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- "Jon Polito". British Film Institute. Retrieved 3 Sep 2016.
- "Jon Polito Filmography". Allmovie.com. Retrieved 4 September 2016.