Jennifer Lee (filmmaker)
Jennifer Michelle Lee (born October 22, 1971 as Jennifer Michelle Rebecchi) is an American screenwriter, film director, playwright, and chief creative officer of Walt Disney Animation Studios. She is best known as the writer and director of Frozen, for which she earned an Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Lee is the first female director of a Walt Disney Animation Studios feature film and the first female director of a feature film that earned more than $1 billion in gross box office revenue.
Lee in 2013
Jennifer Michelle Rebecchi
October 22, 1971
Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.
|Residence||San Fernando Valley, California, U.S.|
|Education||University of New Hampshire, Durham (BA)|
Columbia University (MFA)
|Occupation||Screenwriter, film director, playwright|
|Employer||Walt Disney Animation Studios (2011–present)|
|Known for||Wreck-It Ralph|
|Title||Chief Creative Officer of Walt Disney Animation Studios|
|Spouse(s)||Robert Monn (Divorced)|
Lee was born in October 22, 1971 to Linda Lee and Saverio Rebecchi, who were living in Barrington, Rhode Island at the time; after their divorce, Lee and her older sister, Amy who is an English teacher, lived with their mother in East Providence, Rhode Island. Both Lee and her older sister graduated from East Providence High School and the University of New Hampshire. Lee earned a bachelor's degree in English in 1992 and went to New York City, where she worked as a graphic artist in publishing; she designed audiobooks for Random House. As an adult, she began using her mother's maiden name, Lee, in a professional capacity and in January 1995, legally changed her last name from Rebecchi to Lee.
After the loss of her boyfriend at age 20, Lee became closer to her sister Amy. At around 30 years old, she entered Columbia University School of the Arts and earned a Master of Fine Arts in film. There she met Phil Johnston, her future writing partner on Wreck-It Ralph. Lee graduated from Columbia in 2005 and stayed in New York City, where she developed a background in live-action film, working as assistant director on and producer of the short film in 2004, "A Thousand Words".
In March 2011, Johnston called Lee to ask her to join him at Disney Animation in Burbank to help him write Wreck-It Ralph. What was supposed to be a temporary eight-week writing gig eventually turned into a much longer commitment. First, she was asked to stay on until Ralph was finished. She then became involved with Frozen, initially as screenwriter and later as co-director with Chris Buck. When Lee was brought on board, she helped transition the film from an action-adventure to "more musical, with more comedy." She worked closely with the songwriters (Robert Lopez and Kristen Anderson-Lopez) in the writing of the script. Frozen gave her the opportunity to celebrate "wild and wonderful" girls like her childhood self, and her daughter, Agatha. It was also the highest-earning film with a female director in terms of domestic earnings, until surpassed by Warner Bros.' Wonder Woman.
On May 17, 2014, Lee delivered the commencement address to the class of 2014 at her alma mater, the University of New Hampshire. She revealed that she had struggled with self-doubt while growing up,:2:00 and then in April of her junior year of college, her boyfriend was killed in a boating accident, after which she felt "no doubt, only grief ... and for a brief moment ... [knew] better than to waste a second doubting.":6:18 Years later, that memory would help her overcome her initial doubt over whether she was good enough to apply to Columbia.:7:10 At Columbia, Johnston recognized she was talented but insecure, and one day asked her to "promise ... that you'll leave it out of your work, just know that you're good enough and move on." She concluded: "If I learned one thing it is that self-doubt is one of the most destructive forces. It makes you defensive instead of open, reactive instead of active. Self-doubt is consuming and cruel and my hope today is that we can all collectively agree to ban it ... Please know, from here on out, you are enough and dare I say, more than enough." UNH then awarded her the honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters.
In September 2014, it was announced that Lee and Buck would co-direct a short film featuring the Frozen characters called Frozen Fever. It was released in March 2015. Lee was one of several Disney writers and directors who received credit for "Creative Leadership" on the 2014 film Big Hero 6 and the 2016 film Moana, and received screen credit as one of the writers who developed the story for the 2016 film Zootopia.
In August 2014, Variety reported that Lee's next project after Frozen would be an adaptation of Madeleine L'Engle's 1962 novel A Wrinkle in Time. After the news broke, Lee tweeted: "Been in love with the book for over 30 years. Writing this script means the world to me." Catherine Hand, the executive producer of the 2003 television film version, and Jim Whitaker produced for Disney, and Ava DuVernay directed the film, based on Lee's script. A Wrinkle in Time was released in March 2018.
Lee married Robert Joseph Monn on May 30, 1999, at the Rhode Island Country Club (they later divorced). They have a daughter Agatha Lee Monn (born in 2003), who voices pre-teen Anna for the middle verse of "Do You Want to Build a Snowman?" in Frozen. Lee and her daughter now live in the San Fernando Valley in California.
|2004||A Thousand Words||No||Yes||No||No||Short film|
Also Assistant Director
|2012||Wreck-It Ralph||No||No||Screenplay by||No||with Phil Johnston|
|2013||Frozen||Yes||No||Yes||No||Co-director with Chris Buck|
Voice of Queen of Arendelle
Story co-written with Chris Buck and Shane Morris
|2014||Big Hero 6||No||No||No||Yes||Creative leadership|
|2015||Frozen Fever||Yes||No||Story by||No||Short film|
Co-director with Chris Buck
Story co-written with Chris Buck and Marc E. Smith
|2016||Zootopia||No||No||Story by||Yes||Creative leadership|
|2018||A Wrinkle in Time||No||No||Yes||No||Co-writer with Jeff Stockwell|
|Ralph Breaks the Internet||No||Executive||No||Yes||Studio leadership|
|2019||Frozen 2||Yes||No||Yes||No||Co-director with Chris Buck|
Screenplay co-written with Allison Schroeder
|2020||Raya and The Last Dragon||No||Executive||No||No|
- Amidi, Amid (April 26, 2012). "Chronicle Books Is Releasing A Ton Of Cartoon Titles This Fall". Cartoon Brew. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- Perry, Valerie A. (January 21, 1995). "Legal Notices (Probate Court of the City of East Providence)". Providence Journal. The Providence Journal Company. p. B-14. This article lists various matters noticed for hearing before the probate court, of which the relevant one is as follows: "REBECCHI, JENNIFER MICHELLE, estate - Change of name to Jennifer Michelle Lee; for hearing January 24, 1995." Available via ProQuest NewsStand.
- Kit, Borys (December 18, 2013). "'Frozen' Director Wants to Break a Sci-Fi Blockbuster Barrier". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
Lee, 42, is the first woman in the studio's history to act as a director on one of its animated features (she co-directed with Chris Buck).
- Flores, Terry (June 10, 2014). "'Frozen's' Jennifer Lee Melts Glass Ceilings". Variety. Variety Media LLC. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- Stewart, Jill (May 15, 2013). "Jennifer Lee: Disney's New Animation Queen". LA Weekly. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
Raised in East Providence, R.I., Lee, 41, was a flute-playing band nerd who "became a cheerleader — a nerd cheerleader."
- Flynn, Sean (February 17, 2014). "Is it her time to shine?". The Newport Daily News. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
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- August, John; Aline Brosh McKenna (February 1, 2014). "Episode 128: Frozen with Jennifer Lee — Transcript". Scriptnotes. johnaugust.com. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- "A Thousand Words (Full Cast & Crew)". IMDb. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Laporte, Nicole (February 28, 2014). "How "Frozen" Director Jennifer Lee Reinvented the Story of the Snow Queen". Fast Company. Archived from the original on March 14, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
- ""Wonder Woman" Is Now the Top Female-Helmed Film at the Domestic Box Office". Blog.womenandhollywood.com. Archived from the original on July 24, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
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- Lee, Jennifer (May 17, 2014). "Jennifer Lee '92 UNH Commencement Speech 2014" (Video). University of New Hampshire. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
- Anonymous (May 17, 2014). "Honorary degrees conferred at UNH". New Hampshire Union-Leader. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
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- "Big Hero 6 (2014) Production Credits". New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2016.
- "Moana screen credits". hollywood.com. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- "'Frozen' Director Jennifer Lee to Adapt 'A Wrinkle in Time' for Disney". Variety. August 6, 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- Jacobs, M. (August 5, 2014). "'Frozen' Scribe Jennifer Lee Signs On To Write Big-Screen Adaptation Of 'A Wrinkle In Time'". Huffington Post. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- Rivera, Zayda (August 5, 2014). "'Frozen' director Jennifer Lee set to adapt 'A Wrinkle in Time' for Disney". New York Daily News. Daily News, L.P. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- McNary, Dave (February 23, 2016). "Ava DuVernay to Direct 'A Wrinkle in Time' Movie Adaptation". Variety. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (November 14, 2016). "Ava DuVernay's 'A Wrinkle In Time' To Hit Theaters In Spring 2018". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
- Graser, M. (March 12, 2015). "Disney Announces 'Frozen 2'". Variety. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- Brent Land (June 19, 2018). "Jennifer Lee, Pete Docter to Run Disney Animation, Pixar". Variety. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- Wilson Hunt, Stacey (December 12, 2014). "'Frozen' Director Apologizes to Parents for "Let It Go"". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- Anonymous (June 25, 1999). "Weddings". Providence Journal. A.H. Belo Corporation. p. J-10. Available via ProQuest NewsStand.
- Chai, Barbara (November 27, 2013). "Listen to Songs From Disney's 'Frozen' and Hear How They Were Written". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- "Disney Animations Next Film: 'Raya and The Last Dragon'". The DisInsider. Retrieved August 24, 2019.