Jasmine rice (Thai: ข้าวหอมมะลิ; RTGSKhao hom mali; Thai pronunciation: [kʰâːw hɔ̌ːm malíʔ]) is a long-grain variety of fragrant rice (also known as aromatic rice). Its fragrance, reminiscent of pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) and popcorn,[2] results from the rice plant's natural production of aroma compounds, of which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline is the most salient.[3] A rapid loss of aromatic intensity leads many Southeast Asians and connoisseurs to prefer each year's freshly harvested "new crop" of jasmine rice.[4] Jasmine rice is a variety of Oryza sativa.[1]

Jasmine rice
Close-up of uncooked grains
SpeciesOryza sativa[1]
Cultivar groupJasmine
CultivarKDML105, etc.[1]

Jasmine rice is grown primarily in Thailand (Thai hom mali or Thai fragrant rice),[5] Cambodia (phka rumduol or Cambodian jasmine rice),[6] Laos, and southern Vietnam. It is moist and soft in texture when cooked, with a slightly sweet flavor. The grains cling and are somewhat sticky when cooked, though less sticky than glutinous rice (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa), as it has less amylopectin. It is about three times stickier than American long-grain rice.

To harvest jasmine rice, the long stalks are cut and threshed. The rice can then be left in a hulled form called paddy rice, de-hulled to produce brown rice, or milled to remove the germ and some or all of the bran, producing white rice.

Jasmine rice is not directly related to the shrub of the same name.



The origin of jasmine rice can be traced to Ban Laem Pradu in Phanat Nikhom District, Chonburi Province where the original Khao Dawk[A]Mali rice was discovered. The rice sample, known as "Sample 105," was selected for its slender, jasmine-white long grain and natural fragrance similar to pandanus leaf and was brought to Bang Khla District, Chachoengsao Province in mid-1940s to early 1950s. Eventually, the rice was officially named Khao Dawk Mali 105 (Thai: ข้าวดอกมะลิ 105, lit.'Jasmine flower rice 105'), which is often shortened to "Khao Hom Mali" (Thai: ข้าวหอมมะลิ, lit.'Jasmine rice') or simply "Hom Mali" (Thai: หอมมะลิ, lit.'Fragrant jasmine'), and is now grown primarily in the Northeast region of Thailand, specifically in Thung Kula Rong Hai.[7][8][9][10][11][12]



Thai jasmine rice and Cambodian rice share many of the same characteristics and grow mainly in neighboring geographic areas on opposite sides of the northeastern Thai-Cambodian border. Cambodian jasmine rice is cultivated in Cambodia and processed as white (milled and polished) and brown rice. Distinct Cambodian jasmine rice varieties include these three, phka rumduol, phka romeat, and phka rumdeng. Recent DNA fingerprint analysis, carried out with 18 markers, shows that all three varieties possess 18 known fragrance alleles.[13] Two varietals (phka rumduol and phka rumdeng) are distinctly Cambodian with 17 markers in identical positions, with Thai jasmine rice and one fragrance marker each in a different position.[citation needed] The analysis of Cambodian phka romeat shows all 18 markers in identical positions with the trademarked Thai jasmine rice Thai hom mali.[citation needed]

Jasmine rice, though grown in Laos and southern Vietnam, is not the predominant rice variety. Glutinous rice is grown in Laos, and regular Oryza sativa predominates in Vietnam.[citation needed]

Thai jasmine rice from Thailand has a slender shape.[14]: 12–13  The two types of Thai jasmine rice are white and brown.[15] The vast majority of jasmine rice exported overseas to North America and Europe is Thai jasmine rice, with a small minority from Vietnam. In Thailand it is thought that only Surin, Buriram, and Sisaket Provinces can produce high quality hom mali.[16]

White jasmine rice


White rice is often preferred for taste, texture, and ease of digestion. When cooked, white jasmine rice has a dry texture.[14]: 8–13  The aroma is caused by the evaporation of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline.[14]: 8–13 

Brown jasmine rice


Brown jasmine rice retains the light tan outer layer on the rice grain.[citation needed] It has greater health benefits than white jasmine rice because it still has the bran.[17] Brown jasmine rice has a flavor like oats and contains gamma oryzanol which can decrease cholesterol in blood vessels.[citation needed] Brown jasmine rice has vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin B, and beta-carotene[citation needed] and it contains antioxidants which support the working of the nervous system.[citation needed]

Glycemic index


Jasmine rice has a glycemic index of 68–80.[18] Foods with a glycemic index of 55 or lower are preferred in the diet of diabetics due to their slower absorption which prevents large spikes in blood sugar after consumption. Not all rice has a high glycemic index. Basmati rice, for example, has a relatively low glycemic index of 59. However, it is uncommon for rice to be eaten alone. It is usually eaten with other foods that can reduce its glycemic index by 20–40 percent.[19]

Culinary uses


Steamed jasmine rice is ideal for eating with stir fries, with grilled, fried, or braised food items, and in soups (when cooked slightly drier by adding a little less water during cooking).

Jasmine rice is frequently served at Thai and Vietnamese restaurants worldwide. It is not the rice traditionally used in Indian, Chinese, or European dishes.



At the 2017 World Rice Conference held in Macau, Thailand's hom mali 105 (jasmine) rice was declared the world's best rice, beating 21 competitors.[20] Thailand had entered three rice varieties in the competition. This marked the fifth time in the prior nine years that Thai jasmine rice has won the honour.[21] The judges of the competition were chefs from Macau restaurants. Criteria were taste and the shape of the rice grains. Cambodia finished second, Vietnam third.[22]

See also



  1. ^ a b c Yoolong, Suranan; Kruasuwan, Worarat; Thanh Phạm, Huyền Thị; Jaemsaeng, Ratchaniwan; Jantasuriyarat, Chatchawan; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip (2019-02-04). "Modulation of salt tolerance in Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML105) by Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10712 expressing ACC deaminase". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 1275. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-37987-5. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6361907. PMID 30718781.
  2. ^ Uraiwan Tanchotikul (1991). "An improved method for quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, a "popcorn"-like aroma, in aromatic rice by high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/selected ion monitoring". J. Agric. Food Chem. 39 (5): 944–947. doi:10.1021/jf00005a029.
  3. ^ S. Wongpornchai (2003). "Identification and quantitation of the rice aroma compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, in bread flowers (Vallaris glabra Ktze)". J. Agric. Food Chem. 51 (2): 457–462. doi:10.1021/jf025856x. PMID 12517110.
  4. ^ Gershenson, Lisa (Winter 2015). "New Crop Rice". Cook's Gazette. Retrieved February 2, 2016.
  5. ^ Somnuk, Weerawat; Buddhajak, Smanachan; Sunsuk, Donlawat; Saefad, Somchai (28 February 2021). "The Struggle of Thung Kula Rice Farmers to Grow Hom Mali Rice". Prachatai English. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  6. ^ Kossov, Igor (5 May 2015). ""World's Best Rice" Struggles for Recognition". Khmer Times. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  7. ^ Thai Rice for Life (PDF), Department of Foreign Trade, Ministry of Commerce, October 2016, p. 82 – via Sirivatana Interprint
  8. ^ Shiwen Lin; Songkoon Chantachon; Sastra Laoakka (December 2013). "The System of High-Qualified Thung Kula Ronghai Jasmine Rice Management for Export to the People's Republic of China". Asian Social Science. 10 (2): 166. doi:10.5539/ASS.V10N2P166. S2CID 167540903.
  9. ^ Nipaporn Chaisri; Kritsada Srituptim; Intira Khemmuang; Varuni Permsap (July 2021), Study efficiency of bio-fertilizer to increase growth and rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) yield in Sandy Loam soil, Surin Province (in Thai), Land Development Department, p. 7, archived from the original on 2023-02-19, retrieved 2023-02-19
  10. ^ Prof. Dr. Peeradej Thongampai (November 14, 2016). "ตำนานข้าวหอมไทย (จบ)". Komchadluek (in Thai).
  11. ^ Suksan Suthiphonphaiboon, ความหอมของข้าวหอมมะลิ (PDF) (in Thai), Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives
  12. ^ Vanavichit, Apichart; Kamolsukyeunyong, Wintai; Siangliw, Meechai; L.Siangliw, Jonaliza; Traprab, Suniyom; Ruengphayak, Siriphat; Chaichoompu, Ekawat; Saensuk, Chatree; Phuvanartnarubal, Ekapol; Toojinda, Theerayut; Tragoonrung, Somvong (2018). "Thai Hom Mali Rice: Origin and Breeding for Subsistence Rainfed Lowland Rice System". Rice. 11 (20): 20. doi:10.1186/s12284-018-0212-7. PMC 5891439. PMID 29633040. S2CID 255587543.
  13. ^ カンボジア農業開発研究所 (2013-11-12). "Aromatic Authenticity to Jasmine Rice Type and Fragrance Genes Analysis". Retrieved 2019-07-08.
  14. ^ a b c K. Khunket; A. Wutthanet; A. Prasertsak; S. Traprap. ข้าวขาวดอกมะลิ 105. กรมการข้าว สำนักวิจัยและพัฒนาข้าว.
  15. ^ W. Leanjumroon, N. Yuwanaboon. หอมกลิ่นข้าวมะลิหอม. BIOTHAI. p. 10.
  16. ^ Yongcharoenchai, Chaiyot (6 November 2016). "The Rice Man Cometh". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  17. ^ "Benefits of Brown jasmine rice". Manob Keawsanid. Archived from the original on December 28, 2013. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
  18. ^ Venn, Bernard J; Kataoka, Minako; Mann, Jim (2014). "The use of different reference foods in determining the glycemic index of starchy and non-starchy test foods". Nutrition Journal. 13: 50. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-50. PMC 4047427. PMID 24885045.
  19. ^ Sugiyama, M; Tang, A C; Wakaki, Y; Koyama, W (2003). "Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods with white rice as a reference food". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 57 (6): 743–52. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601606. PMID 12792658.
  20. ^ Arunmas, Phusadee (8 November 2017). "It's official: Thai rice is the world's best". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  21. ^ "The 9th Annual – World's Best Rice Contest 2017". 9th Annual World Rice Conference. The Rice Trader. Archived from the original on 28 August 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  22. ^ "Thai jasmine rice named the world's best rice". Samui Times. n.d. Archived from the original on 17 November 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
1. 1'Dawk' and 'Dok' are alternative spellings of the same Thai word, which is pronounced similarly. 'Dawk' is more commonly used than 'Dok' and both mean 'flower' in Thai.