Jalayirid Sultanate

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The Jalayirid Sultanate was a Persianate[4] Mongol Jalayir dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol khanate of Persia in the 1330s.[5] They lasted about fifty years, until disrupted by Timur's conquests and the revolts of the Kara Koyunlu ("Black Sheep") Turkmen. After Timur's death in 1405, there was a brief attempt to re-establish the sultanate in southern Iraq and Khuzistan. The Jalayirids were finally eliminated by the Kara Koyunlu in 1432.

Jalayirid Sultanate

1335–1432
Division of Ilkhanate territory
Division of Ilkhanate territory
Capital
Common languages
GovernmentMonarchy
History 
• Established
1335
• Disestablished
1432
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ilkhanate
Kara Koyunlu
Today part of
Jalairid coinage, Baghdad, 1382-1387.

GovernmentEdit

The Jalayirid administration and chancellery was modeled after Ilkhanate protocols, with documents in Persian and Mongolian.[3] Their diplomatic correspondence also copied the Ilkhanate's, using a red ink square seal with Islamic phrases in Arabic.[3]

RulersEdit

Title/Name[6] Personal name Reign
Taj-ud-Din
تاج الدین
Hasan Buzurg 1336–1356
Mu'izz-ud-duniya wa al-Din
معزالدنیا والدین
Bahadur Khan
بهادرخان
Shaikh Awais Jalayir 1356–1374
Jalal-ud-Din
جلال الدین
Shaikh Hasan Jalayir 1374
Ghiyas-ud-Din
غیاث الدین
Shaikh Hussain Jalayir 1374–1382
Shaikh Bayazid Jalayir
Ruler of Iraq-i 'Ajam at Soltaniyeh and contender for the throne
1382–1384
Sultan
سلطان
Sultan Ahmed Jalayir
Ruler of Iraq-i 'Arab at Baghdad and contender for the throne
1382–1410
Shah Walad Jalayir
son of Shaikh Ali Jalayir
1410–1411
Sultan
سلطان
Mahmud bin Shah Walad Jalayir
under tutelage of Tandu Khatun
1411 (1st reign)
Sultan
سلطان
Awais bin Shah Walad Jalayir 1411–1421
Sultan
سلطان
Muhammad bin Shah Walad Jalayir 1421
Sultan
سلطان
Mahmud bin Shah Walad Jalayir 1421–1425 (2nd reign)
Hussain bin Ala-ud-Daulah bin Sultan Ahmed Jalayir 1425–1432

Family treeEdit

Husein Gurkandaughter of Arghun
Hasan Buzurg
1336–1356
Dilshad Khatun
Uvais I
1356–1374
AlishahHusain I
1374–1382
Ahmad
1383–1410
Hasan
1374
Shah Valad
1410–1411
Tandura KhatunAl'a od-Dowleh
Mahmud
1411–1415
Uvais II
1415–1421
Mohammed
1421–1422
Husain II
1424–1432

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Jackson, edited by Peter; Lockhart, the late Laurence (1986). The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 6: The Timurid and Safavid periods (Repr ed.). Cambridge: New York. p. 978. ISBN 0521200946.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  2. ^ Wing 2016, p. 18.
  3. ^ a b c d Broadbridge, Anne F. Kingship and Ideology in the Islamic and Mongol Worlds, (Cambridge University Press, 2008), 157.
  4. ^ Wing 2016, p. 185.
  5. ^ Bayne Fisher, William. The Cambridge History of Iran, p.3: "From then until Timur's invasion of the country, Iran was under the rule of various rival petty princes of whom henceforth only the Jalayirids could claim Mongol lineage"
  6. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. The new Islamic dynasties: a chronological and genealogical manual. New Edinburgh Islamic Surveys Series; ISBN 0-7486-2137-7, 978-0-7486-2137-8

SourcesEdit