Baydu (Mongolian script:ᠪᠠᠶᠳᠦ; Mongolian: Байду) (died 1295) was the sixth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate division in Iran. He was the son of Taraqai, who was in turn the fifth son of Hulagu Khan.[3] He succeeded his cousin Gaykhatu as khan of the Ilkhanate state in 1295.

Baydu
Négociations entre représentants de Ghazan et de Baydû.jpeg
Negotiations between representatives of Ghazan and Baydu. Miniature from the manuscript of Jami' al-tawarikh. 15th century, Herat
Ilkhan
Reign24 March 1295 - 4 October 1295
PredecessorGaykhatu
SuccessorGhazan
VizierJamal ud-Din Dastgerdani
Born1255/1256
Mongolia
Died(1295-10-04)4 October 1295
Outside Tabriz[1]
DynastyBorjigin
FatherTaraqai
MotherQaraqcin[2]

LifeEdit

He was born in Mongolia to Taraqai and Qaraqcin.[4] His father was Hulagu's fifth son but he was killed by lightning strike on his way to Iran. Baydu and his mother arrived at Iran with Qutui Khatun's camp alongside Tekuder and other princes in 1269. Reportedly, he never commanded an army and was considered to be easy to be controlled by Mongol emirs.[5] He participated in Abaqa Khan's invasion of Syria in 1281.[6] During his predecessors reigns, he was a viceroy in Jazira.[7]

Under GaykhatuEdit

He was considered as one of candidates to Ilkhanid throne after death of Arghun. Nobles like Taghachar, Qoncuqbal, Toghan and Tuqal supported Baydu, however he refused throne stating throne belongs to the brother or a son according to yassa,[8] while Mahmud Aqsarai simply states that when Baydu didn't appear at the quriltai, Gaykhatu was enthroned instead.[9] Baydu stood stationed in Baghdad and even travelled to coronation feast of new khan Gaykhatu. However, after getting drunk Gaykhatu insulted Baydu telling one of his servants to hit Baydu. This grew a resentment in Baydu towards him. Baydu left hastily towards to his appanage near Baghdad leaving his son Qipchak as a hostage in Gaykhatu's court. He was supported by Oirat emir Chichak (son of Sulaimish b. Tengiz Güregen), Lagzi Küregen (son of Arghun Aqa), El-Temur (son of Hinduqur Noyan) and Todachu Yarquchi, who followed him to Baghdad. He was also aided by his vizier Jamal ud-Din Dastgerdani. According to Hamdullah Qazwini, Baydu's main motivation on moving against Gaykhatu was his sexual advances against Qipchak.[10]

RevoltEdit

When son-in-law Ghurbatai Güregen brought him news of treachery, Gaykhatu ordered arrest of several amirs including his personal keshig Tuladai, Qoncuqbal, Tukal, Bughdai, including Kipchak and put into jail in Tabriz. While his followers Hasan and Taiju demanded their executions, Taghachar advised against it. Baydu on his side, moved to kill Muhammad Sugurchi, governor of Baghdad and arrested governor Baybuqa of Diyar Bakr. Gaykhatu sent his father-in-law Aq Buqa and Taghachar against Baydu on 17 March 1295, himself arriving at Tabriz 4 days later. Little he knew that Taghachar already shifted allegiance to Baydu who left for his encampment at night. While he wanted to flee to Anatolia, his councillors advised to fight against Baydu. Nevertheless, Gaykhatu fled to Mughan. Arriving in Tabriz, Taghachar set Qoncuqbal and Tuladai free, while Gaikhatu desperately begged for mercy. Despite his appeal, he was strangled by a bowstring so as to avoid bloodshed on 21 March 1295. However, some sources put this event on 5 March or 25 April.[8]

ReignEdit

Baydu was considered easygoing and controllable, and under him, the Ilkhanate was divided among the co-conspirators.[4] However, Gaykhatu's death wasn't without consequences, especially Prince Ghazan in Khorasan grew restless. Baydu explained the fact that Ghazan was away during events leading to Gaykhatu's fall, therefore nobles had no choice but to raise him to throne.[5] Nevertheless, Amir Nowruz encouraged Ghazan to take steps against Baydu, because he was nothing but a figurehead under grips of nobles. Mar Yahballaha III also noted Baydu being a weak khan.[11] Conspirators divided the empire between themselves: Taghachar took governorate of Anatolia, Tuladai gained Persian Iraq and Lorestan, while Qoncoqbal took Shiraz and Shabankara to himself Tukal went back to his ancestral lands in Georgia. Meanwhile, his mother-in-law Kurdujin Khatun was installed as governor of Kerman and had Padishah Khatun executed. Aq Buqa Jalair, chief commander of Gaykhatu was also killed[12] on demands of Qoncuqbal.[13]

Ghazan started to move against Baydu towards his headquarters in Azerbaijan. Baydu's forces commanded by Ildar Oghul (his cousin and Prince Ajay's son) met him near Qazvin. First battle was won by Ghazan but he had to fall back after realising Ildar's contingent was just a fraction of whole army, leaving Nowruz behind. After a short truce, Baydu offered Ghazan co-ruling of ilkhanate and Nowruz the post of sahib-i divan to which as a counter-condition Ghazan demanded the revenues of his father's hereditary lands in Fars, Persian Iraq and Kerman. Nowruz denied conditions, which led to its arrest. According to an anecdote, he promised to bring Ghazan back tied-up on condition of his release. Once he reached Ghazan, he sent back a cauldron to Baydu; a word play on the Turkish word kazan.

Amir Nowruz promised him the throne and his help on a condition of Ghazan's conversion to Islam. Nowruz entered Qazvin with 4000 soldiers and claimed an additional number of 120.000 on his way towards Azerbaijan which caused panic among masses which was followed by defections of Taghachar's subordinates and other powerful emirs like Qurumishi and Chupan. Seeing imminent defeat, Baydu fled to Tukal in Georgia. Baydu attempted to escape and flee from Azerbaijan to Georgia, but was taken prisoner near Nakhichevan[3][14] he was taken to Tabriz and executed on the 5 October 1295, ending the civil war with his successor.[6] Relatives, including his son Qipchaq (d. 26 September 1295) and Ildar Oghul were also executed.

PersonalityEdit

Baydu had strong sympathies to Christianity,[15][16] but was required to act outwardly as a Muslim.[17][18] Some sources state he didn't act even as Muslim.[19] According to Saunders in Mongol Conquests, Baydu allowed churches on his ordo and wore a cross around his neck.[20] He was urged by his followers to rid himself of Ghazan, the son of Arghun Khan, but refused out of affection.

 
A coin from the reign of Baydu with Uyghur script

FamilyEdit

Baydu had three consorts, two of them from Qutlugkhanid dynasty:

ChildrenEdit

  • Qipchaq[22] — from Shah Alam Khatun,[23] executed together with his father:
    • Qipchaq
    • Muhammad
  • Ali;[22]
  • Muhammad;[22] with the daughter of Tuladai
  • Yol Qutlugh Khatun, married on 3 July 1295 to Qunchuqbal;[24]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ William Bayne Fisher, J. A. Boyle, John Andrew Boyle, Ilya Gershevitch, Richard Nelson Frye, Peter Avery, Peter Jackson, Laurence Lockhart, Charles Peter Melville, Gavin Hambly, The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 5 (1968), p. 379.
  2. ^ Rybatzki, Volker (2006). "Genealogischer Stammbaum der Mongolen". Florilegia Altaistica: Studies in Honour of Denis Sinor on the Occasion of his 90th Birthday. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. pp. 135–192 [p. 177]. ISBN 3-447-05396-8.
  3. ^ a b Stevens, John. The history of Persia. Containing, the lives and memorable actions of its kings from the first erecting of that monarchy to this time; an exact Description of all its Dominions; a curious Account of India, China, Tartary, Kermon, Arabia, Nixabur, and the Islands of Ceylon and Timor; as also of all Cities occasionally mention'd, as Schiras, Samarkand, Bokara, &c. Manners and Customs of those People, Persian Worshippers of Fire; Plants, Beasts, Product, and Trade. With many instructive and pleasant digressions, being remarkable Stories or Passages, occasionally occurring, as Strange Burials; Burning of the Dead; Liquors of several Countries; Hunting; Fishing; Practice of Physick; famous Physicians in the East; Actions of Tamerlan, &c. To which is added, an abridgment of the lives of the kings of Harmuz, or Ormuz. The Persian history written in Arabick, by Mirkond, a famous Eastern Author that of Ormuz, by Torunxa, King of that Island, both of them translated into Spanish, by Antony Teixeira, who liv'd several Years in Persia and India; and now render'd into English.
  4. ^ a b Atwood, p. 525.
  5. ^ a b Hope, Michael. Power, politics, and tradition in the Mongol Empire and the Ilkhanate of Iran. Oxford. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-19-108107-1. OCLC 959277759.
  6. ^ a b "BĀYDŪ – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2020-03-30.
  7. ^ Kolbas, Judith (2013-10-11). The Mongols in Iran: Chingiz Khan to Uljaytu 1220–1309. Routledge. p. 261. ISBN 978-1-136-80289-8.
  8. ^ a b Ekici, Kansu (2012). İlhanlı hükümdarı Geyhatu ve zamanı= Ilkhanid ruler Gaykhatu and his era (Thesis) (in Turkish). Isparta: SDÜ Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü. OCLC 865111740.
  9. ^ Atwood, p. 234
  10. ^ L. J. Ward, “The Ẓafar-nāmah of Ḥamd Allāh Mustaufi and the Il-Khān dynasty of Iran,” Ph.D. diss, 3 vols., University of Manchester, 1983, pp. 354-355
  11. ^ "The Monks of Kublai Khan". www.aina.org. Retrieved 2020-03-30.
  12. ^ D.G.Maitland Muller - A STUDY AND TRANSLATION OF THE FIRST BOOK OF THE FIRST VOLUME OF "THE COMPENDIUM OF HISTORIES" BY RASHID AL-DIN FADL ALLAH CONCERNING THE TURKISH AND MONGOL TRIBES, p. 40
  13. ^ al-Ahrǐ, Abū Bakr al-Qutbī (1954). Ta'rikh-i Shaikh Uwais: (History of Shaikh Uwais) an important source for the history of Adharbaijān in the fourteenth century (in Arabic). Excelsior. p. 45.
  14. ^ Steppes, pp. 377–378.
  15. ^ Kamola, Stefan (2013-07-25). Rashīd al-Dīn and the making of history in Mongol Iran (Thesis thesis).
  16. ^ Jackson, p. 176.
  17. ^ May, Timothy (2013-02-15). The Mongol Conquests in World History. Reaktion Books. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-86189-971-2.
  18. ^ Atwood, p. 253.
  19. ^ Boyle, John Andrew (2008). The Cambridge history of Iran. Vol. 5, Vol. 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 378. ISBN 978-0-511-46777-6. OCLC 457145670.
  20. ^ Saunders, p. 135.
  21. ^ a b Lambton, Ann K. S. (January 1, 1988). Continuity and Change in Medieval Persia. SUNY Press. p. 286. ISBN 978-0-887-06133-2.
  22. ^ a b c Ghiyās̲ al-Dīn ibn Humām al-Dīn Khvānd Mīr (1994). Habibü's-siyer: Moğol ve Türk hâkimiyeti. Harvard University. p. 82. OCLC 34067458.
  23. ^ Sinor, Denis; Boĭkova, Elena Vladimirovna; Stary, Giovanni (2006). Florilegia Altaistica: Studies in Honour of Denis Sinor on the Occasion of His 90th Birthday. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 190. ISBN 978-3-447-05396-9.
  24. ^ Rashid al-Din Tabib (1999). Compendium of Chronicles. Harvard University. p. 622.

ReferencesEdit

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Gaykhatu
Ilkhan
1295
Succeeded by
Mahmud Ghazan