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A national general election was held in Italy on 13 May 2001 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic. The 14th Parliament of the Italian republic was chosen.

2001 Italian general election

← 1996 13 May 2001 2006 →

All 630 seats in the Italian Chamber of Deputies
315 seats in the Italian Senate
Turnout81.4%
  Silvio Berlusconi 2001.jpg Francesco Rutelli 2001 crop.jpg
Leader Silvio Berlusconi Francesco Rutelli
Alliance House of Freedoms The Olive Tree
Leader's seat Milan Centre Rome Praenestine
Seats won 368 C / 176 S 241 C / 128 S
Seat change Increase96 C / Increase33 S Decrease82 C / Decrease29 S
Coalition vote 18,398,246 C
14,406,519 S
13,023,651 C
13,106,860 S
Percentage 49.6% (C)
42.5% (S)
35.1% (C)
38.7% (S)

Italian 2001 elections.png
Election results maps for the Chamber of Deputies (on the left) and for the Senate (on the right). On the left, the color identifies the coalition which received the most votes in each province. On the right, the color identifies the coalition which won the most seats in respect to each Region. Blue denotes the Centre-right coalition, Red the Centre-left coalition and Gray regional parties.

Prime Minister before election

Giuliano Amato
The Olive Tree

Elected Prime Minister

Silvio Berlusconi
House of Freedoms

The election was won by the centre-right coalition House of Freedoms led by Silvio Berlusconi, defeating Francesco Rutelli, former Mayor of Rome, and Prime Ministerial candidate of the centre-left coalition The Olive Tree, and rising back to power after Berlusconi's first victory, in the 1994 general election.

Contents

Electoral systemEdit

The intricate electoral system, called scorporo, provided 75% of the seats on the Chamber of Deputies (the Lower House) as elected by first-past-the-post system, whereas the remaining 25% was assigned on a proportional way with a minimum threshold of 4%.

The method used for the Senate was even more complicated: 75% of seats by uninominal method, and 25% by a special proportional method that assigned the remaining seats to minority parties. Formally, these were examples of additional member systems.

General electionEdit

CampaignEdit

For this election Berlusconi again ran as leader of the centre-right coalition the House of Freedoms (Italian: La Casa delle Libertà), which included the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats, the Northern League, the National Alliance and other parties.

On the television interviews programme Porta a Porta, during the last days of the electoral campaign, Berlusconi created a powerful impression on the public by undertaking to sign a so-called Contratto con gli Italiani (English: Contract with the Italians), an idea copied outright by his advisor Luigi Crespi from the Newt Gingrich's Contract with America introduced six weeks before the 1994 US Congressional election,[1] which was widely considered to be a creative masterstroke in his 2001 campaign bid for prime ministership. In this solemn agreement, Berlusconi claimed his commitment on improving several aspects of the Italian economy and life. Firstly, he undertook to simplify the complex tax system by introducing just two tax rates (33% for those earning over 100,000 euros, and 23% for anyone earning less than that figure: anyone earning less than 11,000 euros a year would not be taxed); secondly, he promised to halve the unemployment rate; thirdly, he undertook to finance and develop a massive new public works programme. Fourthly, he promised to raise the minimum monthly pension rate to 516 euros; and fifthly, he would suppress the crime wave by introducing police officers to patrol all local zones and areas in Italy's major cities.[2] Berlusconi undertook to refrain from putting himself up for re-election in 2006 if he failed to honour at least four of these five promises.

Main coalitions and partiesEdit

Coalition Party Main ideology Leader
House of Freedoms Forza Italia (FI) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
National Alliance (AN) Conservatism Gianfranco Fini
Northern League (LN) Regionalism Umberto Bossi
White Flower (CCDCDU) Christian democracy Pier Ferdinando Casini
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) Social liberalism Gianni De Michelis
Italian Republican Party (PRI) Liberalism Giorgio La Malfa
Tricolour Flame (FT) Neo-fascism Pino Rauti
The Olive Tree Democrats of the Left (DS) Social democracy Massimo D'Alema
The Daisy (DL) Christian left Francesco Rutelli
The Sunflower (FdVSDI) Eco-socialism Enrico Boselli
Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) Communism Oliviero Diliberto
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) Regionalism Luis Durnwalder
Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) Communism Fausto Bertinotti
Italy of Values (IdV) Populism Antonio Di Pietro
European Democracy (DE) Christian democracy Sergio D'Antoni
Bonino List (LB) Liberalism Emma Bonino

Coalitions' leadersEdit

Portrait Name Most recent position Refs
  Silvio Berlusconi
(1936– )
Prime Minister of Italy
(1994–1995)

[3][4]
  Francesco Rutelli
(1954– )
Mayor of Rome
(1993–2001)

[5][6]
  Fausto Bertinotti
(1940– )
Secretary of the Communist
Refoundation Party

(1994–incumbent)

[7][8]
  Antonio Di Pietro
(1950– )
Minister of Public Works
(1996–1996)

[9][10]
  Sergio D'Antoni
(1946– )
General Secretary of CISL
(1991–2000)

[11][12]
  Emma Bonino
(1948– )
European Commissioner for Health
and Consumer Protection

(1995–1999)

[13][14]

Results for the Chamber of DeputiesEdit

Overall resultsEdit

Summary of the 13 May 2001 Chamber of Deputies election results
Coalition Party Proportional First-past-the-post Total
seats
+/–
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
House of Freedoms Forza Italia (FI) 10,923,431 29.43 62 16,915,513 45.57 132 194[15] +71
National Alliance (AN) 4,463,205 12.02 24 75 99 +6
Northern League (LN) 1,464,301 3.94 0 30 30 −29
White Flower (CCDCDU) 1,194,040 3.22 0 40 40 +10
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) 353,269 0.95 0 3 3 New
Sardinian Reformers (RS) N/A N/A 0 1 1 +1
New Sicily (NS) N/A N/A 0 1 1 New
Total seats 86 282 368
The Olive Tree Democrats of the Left (DS) 6,151,154 16.57 31 16,019,388 43.15 105 136 −36
The Daisy (DL) 5,391,827 14.52 27 56 83 −12
The Sunflower (FdVSDI) 805,340 2.17 0 17 17
Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) 620,859 1.67 0 10 10 New
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 200,059 0.54 0 3 3 ±0
With Illy for Trieste 78,284 0.21 0 1 1 New
Aosta Valley (VdA) N/A N/A 0 25,577 0.07 1 1 ±0
Total seats 58 192 251
Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) 1,868,659 5.03 11 N/A N/A 0 11 −24
Total 630

ProportionalEdit

In 2001 the proportional list exhausted before all the deputies - which the winning party was entitled to - were declared elected.[16]

Party Votes % Seats
Forza Italia 10,923,431 29.43 62
Democrats of the Left 6,151,154 16.57 31
Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy 5,391,827 14.52 27
National Alliance 4,463,205 12.02 24
Communist Refoundation Party 1,868,659 5.03 11
Northern League 1,464,301 3.94 0
Italy of Values 1,443,725 3.89 0
White Flower (CCDCDU) 1,194,040 3.22 0
European Democracy 888,269 2.39 0
Bonino List 832,213 2.24 0
The Sunflower (FdVSDI) 805,340 2.17 0
Party of Italian Communists 620,859 1.67 0
New Italian Socialist Party 353,269 0.95 0
South Tyrolean People's Party 200,059 0.54 0
Tricolour Flame 143,963 0.39 0
Liga Fronte Veneto 74,353 0.20 0
Pensioners' Party 68,349 0.18 0
Sardinian Action PartySardinia Nation 34,412 0.09 0
New Country 34,193 0.09 0
Abolizione Scorporo 26,917 0.07 0
Southern Action League 23,779 0.06 0
National Social Front 22,985 0.06 0
Greens Greens 18,262 0.05 0
New Force 13,622 0.04 0
Amadu List 11,517 0.03 0
European Republicans Movement 7,997 0.02 0
We the Sicilians 7,637 0.02 0
Movement of Freedoms 6,754 0.02 0
Free and Strong 6,722 0.02 0
Autonomous Socialists 6,492 0.02 0
Stop! 6,332 0.02 0
Communism 5,244 0.01 0
Third Pole for Autonomy 2,915 0.01 0
Total 37,122,776 100.00 155
Invalid/blank/unassigned votes 2,962,621
Total 40,085,397
Registered voters/turnout 49,256,295 81.38
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Popular vote (Proportional)
FI
29.43%
DS
16.57%
DL
14.52%
AN
12.02%
PRC
5.03%
LN
3.94%
IdV
3.89%
CCD-CDU
3.22%
DE
2.39%
Bonino
2.24%
FdV-SDI
2.17%
PdCI
1.67%
Others
2.90%

First-past-the-postEdit

Parties and coalitions Votes % Seats
House of Freedoms 16,915,513 45.57 282
The Olive Tree 16,019,388 43.15 183
Italy of Values 1,487,287 4.01 0
European Democracy 1,310,119 3.53 0
Bonino List 457,117 1.23 0
South Tyrolean People's PartyThe Olive Tree 190,556 0.51 5
South Tyrolean People's Party 173,735 0.47 3
Liga Fronte Veneto 173,618 0.47 0
Tricolour Flame 121,527 0.33 0
With Illy for Trieste 78,284 0.21 1
La Bassa in Parliament 26,151 0.07 0
Aosta Valley 25,577 0.07 1
Autonomous Socialists 24,341 0.07 0
Democrats of the Left (Aosta Valley) 20,452 0.06 0
Southern League of Action 19,366 0.05 0
Buonanno 19,046 0.05 0
National Front 16,202 0.04 0
Forza Italia-Lega Nord (Aosta Valley) 16,049 0.04 0
European Republicans Movement 15,600 0.04 0
European Populars 13,447 0.04 0
Greens Greens 13,220 0.04 0
Amadu List 12,233 0.03 0
New Italian Socialist Party 9,663 0.03 0
Freedom Movement 9,006 0.02 0
Camonica Valley-Liberal Democrats 8,257 0.02 0
People's List 8,091 0.02 0
Communism 6,777 0.02 0
Alternative List 6,612 0.02 0
New Force 6,294 0.02 0
We the Sicilians 6,121 0.02 0
National Alliance (Aosta Valley) 4,464 0.01 0
Third Pole for Autonomy 3,491 0.01 0
Alto Milanese People 1,409 0.00 0
Total 37,259,705 100.00 475
Popular vote (First-past-the-post)
CdL
45.57%
Olive Tree
43.15%
IdV
4.01%
DE
3.53%
Bonino
1.23%
Others
2.89%

Results for the Senate of the RepublicEdit

Summary of the 13 May 2001 Senate of the Republic election results
Coalition Party First-past-the-post Proportional
(Seats)
Total
seats
+/–
Votes % Seats
House of Freedoms Forza Italia (FI) 16,915,513 45.57 152 24 82 +40
National Alliance (AN) 45 +2
White Flower (CCDCDU) 29 +4
Northern League (LN) 17 −10
Italian Republican Party (PRI) 1 +1
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) 1 New
Tricolour Flame (FT) 340,221 1.00 0 1 ±0
Total seats 176
The Olive Tree[17] Democrats of the Left (DS) 13,408,672[18] 39.59[19] 74 51 64 −38
The Daisy (DL) 43 −5
Federation of the Greens (FdV) 8 −6
Italian Democratic Socialists (SDI) 6
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 3 +1
Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) 2 New
Independent candidates 4
Aosta Valley (VdA) 32,429 0.10 0 1 1 ±0
Total seats 131
Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) 1,708,707 5.04 0 4 4 −6
European Democracy (DE) 1,066,908 3.15 0 2 2 New
Italy of Values (IdV) 1,140,489 3.37 0 1 1 New
League for Autonomy–Lombard Alliance–Pensioners League 308,559 0.91 0 1 1 +1
Bonino List (LB) 677,725 2.00 0 0 0 −1
Liga Fronte Veneto (LFV) 138,134 0.41 0 0 0 New
Va' pensiero Padania 119,058 0.35 0 0 0 New
National Social Front (FSN) 98,132 0.29 0 0 0 New
European Democracy–Autonomist Socialists (DE–SA) 79,002 0.23 0 0 0 New
Pensioners' Party (PP) 39,545 0.12 0 0 0 ±0
New Force (FN) 78,572 0.23 0 0 0 New
Greens Greens (VV) 35,743 0.11 0 0 0 ±0
Sardinian Action PartySardinia Nation (PSd'Az–SN) 32,822 0.10 0 0 0 −1
Others 160,025 0.46 0 0 0
Total 33,871,262 100.00 232 83 315
Popular vote
CdL
42.53%
Olive Tree
38.70%
PRC
5.04%
IdV
3.37%
DE
3.15%
Bonino
2.00%
Others
5.21%

Leaders' racesEdit

General Election 2001: Milan Centre
Party Candidate Votes % ±
House of Freedoms Silvio Berlusconi 42,098 53.6
The Olive Tree Giovanni Rivera 28,651 36.5
Radicals Benedetto Della Vedova 4,874 6.21
Italy of Values Adriano Ciccioni 2,835 3.6
Majority 13,447 17.1
Turnout 81,412 80.4
General Election 2001: Rome Praenestine
Party Candidate Votes % ±
The Olive Tree Francesco Rutelli 36,457 56.7
House of Freedoms Elio Vito 25,463 39.6
Italy of Values Pietro Tagliatesta 2,348 3.6
Majority 10,994 17.1
Turnout 66,479 77.4

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gingrich, Newt; Armey, Dick (1994). Contract With America: The Bold Plan.
  2. ^ Ricolfi, Luca (2005). Dossier Italia: a che punto è il 'contratto con gli italiani. Il mulino.
  3. ^ I manifesti elettorali di Silvio Berlusconi dal 1994 ad oggi
  4. ^ Berlusconi: il contratto del 2001
  5. ^ Rutelli ammette la sconfitta. "Ora opposizione dura"
  6. ^ Politiche 2001: manifestazione di chiusura della campagna elettorale per il nord Italia con Francesco Rutelli
  7. ^ Rutelli non convince Bertinotti. "Da soli alle elezioni"
  8. ^ Elezioni, Bertinotti: "Non ci sarà desistenza con l'Ulivo"
  9. ^ Elezioni 2001, navigando tra i siti della politica
  10. ^ Ministero dell'Interno – Archivio Storico Elezioni
  11. ^ Sergio D'Antoni – Enciclopedia Treccani
  12. ^ Il centrodestra dilaga in Sicilia: 61 collegi su 61
  13. ^ Radicali nelle istituzioni
  14. ^ Emma Bonino – Biografia
  15. ^ Including one deputy of the Italian Republican Party
  16. ^ Buonomo, Giampiero (2001). "Cercansi candidati per 14 seggi. La speranza della (lista) civetta". Diritto&Giustizia edizione online.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  17. ^ Including the results of SVP and SVP–Olive Tree
  18. ^ 13,106,860 votes for The Olive Tree, 175,635 votes for the SVP–Olive Tree and 126,177 votes for the SVP
  19. ^ 38.70% of the votes for The Olive Tree, 0.52% of the votes for the SVP–Olive Tree and 0.37% of the votes for the SVP

External linksEdit