Ishaq ibn Sulayman al-Hashimi
Abu Ya'qub Ishaq ibn Sulayman ibn Ali al-Hashimi (Arabic: إسحاق بن سليمان الهاشمي) was an 8th–9th-century AD Abbasid prince and historian. He held several official positions during his lifetime, including the governorships of Sind, Egypt, and Arminiyah.
Ishaq ibn Sulayman al-Hashimi
إسحاق بن سليمان الهاشمي
|Governor of Mosul|
|Preceded by||Khalid and Musa|
|Succeeded by||Hassan al-Sarawi (776–777)|
|Governor of Medina|
|Preceded by||Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz ibn Abdallah (785-786)|
|Succeeded by||Abd al-Malik ibn Salih|
|Governor of Sindh and Makran|
|Preceded by||Ibrahim ibn Salim|
|Succeeded by||Muhammad ibn Tayfur al-Himyari|
|Governor of Egypt|
|Preceded by||Abdallah ibn al-Musayyab al-Dabbi|
|Succeeded by||Harthama ibn A'yan|
|Governor of Arminiya|
|Preceded by||Asad ibn Yazid al-Shaybani (c. 810-813)|
|Succeeded by||Tahir ibn Muhammad then Khalid ibn Yazid al-Shaybani|
Baghdad, Abbasid Caliphate
|Father||Sulayman ibn Ali al-Hashimi|
|Relatives||Muhammad (brother) |
Ishaq was a member of a collateral branch of the Abbasid royal dynasty, being a first cousin of the first two Abbasid caliphs al-Saffah (r. 750–754) and al-Mansur (r. 754–775). His father, Sulayman ibn Ali, had been a senior member of the family during his lifetime and had held the important governorship of Basra during the initial years following the Abbasid Revolution. He was also connected to the ruling line by his marriage to Aliyah, the daughter of al-Mansur and an Umayyad woman.
During the caliphates of al-Mahdi (r. 775–785), Harun al-Rashid (r. 786–809), and al-Amin (r. 809–813) Ishaq was posted to various provinces throughout the empire. In 776/7 he was appointed as governor of Mosul, and in 786–787 he was in charge of Medina. According to some sources he oversaw the summer raid (sa'ifa) against the Byzantines in 787/8 or 788/9, either leading it himself or dispatching Yazid ibn Anbasah al-Harashi to conduct it on his behalf. In 790/1 he was governor of Sind and Makran.
In 793 Ishaq was appointed as governor of Egypt. While there, he attempted to increase taxes on the local sharecroppers (muzari'un), which provoked the residents of the Hawf district to rise up in revolt. After Ishaq requested reinforcements from the caliph, the general Harthamah ibn A'yan arrived in Egypt with a large army and forced the rebels to submit. A short time afterwards Ishaq was dismissed in favor of Harthamah, having held the governorship for about a year.
In 795 Ishaq was appointed to his father's old power base at Basra. Around 809/10 he was the governor of Homs, but after a series of disturbances forced him to retreat from the city to Salamiyah he was dismissed and replaced with Abdallah ibn Sa'id al-Harashi.
By around 811/2 Ishaq was appointed by al-Amin as governor of Arminiyah, with his son al-Fadl serving as his deputy there. Following the commencement of the civil war between al-Amin and al-Ma'mun he decided to take a stand in the province and oppose al-Ma'mun's lieutenant Tahir ibn Muhammad al-San'ani, who had been sent to seize Arminiyah and Adharbayjan on behalf of his patron. After gathering the support of several local notables he set out for Barda, but was soon met by a large force led by Zuhayr ibn Sinan al-Tamimi that al-San'ani had dispatched against him. Following a battle that lasted for the greater part of a day Ishaq and his supporters were defeated, while his son Ja'far was captured and sent as a prisoner to al-Ma'mun.
- Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi 2001, p. 430.
- Gordon et al. 2018, p. 598 n. 5.
- Yarshater 1985–2007, v. 30: p. xxiv.
- Bosworth 1997, p. 381.
- Yarshater 1985–2007, v. 29: p. 149; Forand 1969, p. 95.
- Forand 1969, p. 95.
- Yarshater 1985–2007, v. 30: pp. 97, 100; Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi 2001, p. 430.
- Yarshater 1985–2007, v. 30: p. 104 (for AH 172 (788/789)); Gordon et al. 2018, p. 1184 (for AH 171 (787/788)). Khalifah ibn Khayyat 1985, p. 448, does not list him for either year.
- Yarshater 1985–2007, v. 30: p. 109; Gordon et al. 2018, p. 1155; Khalifah ibn Khayyat 1985, p. 463; Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi 2001, p. 430.
- Al-Kindi 1912, p. 136; Ibn Taghribirdi 1930, pp. 87–88; Yarshater 1985–2007, v. 30: p. 141; Morimoto 1981, pp. 153–54; Khalifah ibn Khayyat 1985, p. 463; Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi 2001, p. 430.
- Yarshater 1985–2007, v. 30: p. 305; Khalifah ibn Khayyat 1985, p. 462; Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi 2001, p. 430.
- Yarshater 1985–2007, v. 31: pp. 21, 45; Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi 2001, p. 430.
- Gordon et al. 2018, pp. 1193, 1227; Nicol 1979, p. 113. Vardanyan 2016, pp. 208–09 notes a fals which indicates that Ishaq was subordinate to al-Abbas ibn Zufar al-Hilali in Arminiyah.
- Bosworth, C.E. (1997). "Sulayman ibn 'Ali ibn 'Abd Allah". In Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W. P. & Lecomte, G. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume IX: San–Sze. Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 381. ISBN 978-90-04-10422-8.
- Forand, Paul G. (January–March 1969). "The Governors of Mosul According to al-Azdī's Ta'rīkh al-Mawṣil". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 89 (1): 88–105. doi:10.2307/598281. JSTOR 598281.
- Gordon, Matthew S.; Robinson, Chase F.; Rowson, Everett K.; et al., eds. (2018). The Works of Ibn Wadih al-Ya'qubi: An English Translation. 3. Leiden and Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-35621-4.
- Ibn Taghribirdi, Jamal al-Din Abu al-Mahasin Yusuf (1930). Nujum al-zahira fi muluk Misr wa'l-Qahira, Volume II (in Arabic). Cairo: Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyya.
- Khalifah ibn Khayyat (1985). al-Umari, Akram Diya' (ed.). Tarikh Khalifah ibn Khayyat, 3rd ed (in Arabic). Al-Riyadh: Dar Taybah.
- Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Ali (2001). Ma'ruf, Bashshar Awwad (ed.). Tarikh Madinat al-Salam (in Arabic). 7. Beirut: Dar al-Gharb al-Islami.
- Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Yusuf (1912). Guest, Rhuvon (ed.). The Governors and Judges of Egypt (in Arabic). Leyden and London: E. J. Brill.
- Morimoto, Kosei (1981). The Fiscal Administration of Egypt in the Early Islamic Period. Kyoto: Dohosha. ISBN 9784810402124.
- Nicol, Norman Douglas (1979). Early 'Abbasid Administration in the Central and Eastern Provinces, 132-218 A.H./750-833 A.D. (PhD Dissertation). University of Washington.
- Vardanyan, Aram (2016). "The Administration of the 'Abbāsid North and the Evidence of Copper Coins (AH 142–218 / AD 759–833)". American Journal of Numismatics. 28: 201–30. JSTOR 90017158.
- Yarshater, Ehsan, ed. (1985–2007). The History of al-Ṭabarī (40 vols). SUNY Series in Near Eastern Studies. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7249-1.