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Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel

  (Redirected from Interstate 478 (New York))

The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel, officially known as the Hugh L. Carey Tunnel, is a toll tunnel in New York City that connects Red Hook in Brooklyn with Battery Park in Manhattan. The tunnel consists of twin tubes that each carry two traffic lanes under the mouth of the East River. Although it passes just offshore of Governors Island, the tunnel does not provide vehicular access to the island. With a length of 9,117 feet (2,779 m), the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel is the longest continuous underwater vehicular tunnel in North America.

Hugh L. Carey Tunnel
TBTA BROOKLYN BATTERY TUNNEL.svg
Logo of the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel
Overview
Other name(s) Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel
Location Brooklyn and Manhattan, New York, US
Coordinates 40°41′45″N 74°00′49″W / 40.695833°N 74.013611°W / 40.695833; -74.013611
Route I-478 (unsigned)
Crosses East River
Operation
Opened May 25, 1950; 68 years ago (1950-05-25)
Operator MTA Bridges and Tunnels
Traffic 54,076 (2016)[1]
Toll As of March 19, 2017, $8.50 (Tolls by Mail); $5.76 (New York E-ZPass)
Technical
Length 9,117 feet (2,779 m)
No. of lanes 4
Tunnel clearance 12 feet 1 inch (3.68 m)
Route map

Plans for the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel date to the 1920s. Official plans to build the tunnel were submitted in 1930, but were initially not carried out. The New York City Tunnel Authority, created in 1936, was tasked with constructing the tunnel. After unsuccessful attempts to secure federal funds, New York City Parks Commissioner Robert Moses proposed a Brooklyn–Battery Bridge. However, the public opposed the bridge plan, and the Army Corps of Engineers rejected the plan several times, concerned that the bridge would impede shipping access to the Brooklyn Navy Yard. This prompted city officials to reconsider plans for a tunnel. The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel started construction on October 28, 1940, but its completion was delayed due to World War II-related material shortages. The tunnel opened on May 25, 1950.

The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel is part of the Interstate Highway System, carrying the unsigned Interstate 478 (I-478) since 1971. Formerly, it carried New York State Route 27A (NY 27A). The tunnel was officially renamed after former New York Governor Hugh Carey in 2012. It is operated by MTA Bridges and Tunnels as one of the MTA's nine tolled crossings.

Contents

DescriptionEdit

The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel consists of two 2-lane tubes, one in each direction. They pass underneath the East River, connecting the Battery at the southern tip of Manhattan to the neighborhood of Red Hook in Brooklyn. Although the tubes do not pass directly under Governors Island, that island contains a ventilation building for the tunnel.[2] Vehicles over 12 feet 1 inch (3.68 m) and wider than 8 feet 6 inches (2.59 m) are prohibited from using the tubes.[3] The tubes stretch 9,117 feet (2,779 m) from portal to portal,[4] making them the longest continuous underwater vehicular tunnels in North America.[5][6] At the time of its opening, the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel was the longest underwater vehicular tunnel in the United States and the second-longest in the world, behind the Queensway Tunnel under the River Mersey in England.[7][8]

The tunnel was originally commissioned by the New York City Tunnel Authority, whose chief engineer Ole Singstad created the tunnel's original designs. Halfway through construction, the Tunnel Authority was merged into the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority (TBTA), whose chief engineer Ralph Smillie took over the design process.[9]

The "Battery" in the tunnel's name refers to an artillery battery originally located at that site during New York City's earliest days.[10] The tunnel was officially renamed after former Governor Hugh L. Carey in 2012,[11] since he had lived in Brooklyn.[12]

Governors Island vent tower
The parking garage above the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel's Manhattan portal

The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel is owned and operated by the TBTA's successor MTA Bridges and Tunnels, an affiliate agency of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA).[4][13] Until 2017, the agency collected tolls at a tollbooth on the Brooklyn side. The tollbooths have been demolished and replaced with electronic toll gantries on the Manhattan side.[14][15] As of 2016, the tunnel is used by 54,076 vehicles on an average weekday.[1]

The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel has a total of four ventilation buildings: two in Manhattan, one in Brooklyn, and one on Governors Island.[4] One of the Manhattan ventilation buildings is granite-faced and designed like a monument, due to objections to the building's design during the construction process.[16] The Governors Island ventilation structure, designed by McKim, Mead & White,[17] is an octagonal building located over the midpoint of the tunnel's route, at its lowest point. According to the MTA, the ventilation buildings can completely replace the tunnel's air every ninety seconds.[18] During construction, tunnel engineers touted the ventilation system as being so efficient that the ventilation towers could blow 25,000 tons of clean air into the tunnel every hour. The system consists of 53 fans that each had a diameter of 8 feet (2.4 m).[19][20][21]

At the Manhattan end, a 2,126-space parking garage sits above the approach to the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel from the West Side Highway.[22] When the garage opened in 1950, it had 1,050 spaces across seven levels, which were constructed at a cost of $3.5 million.[23] The parking facility was expanded in 1965–1968 due to its popularity among motorists.[22] The garage was the city's first publicly owned parking lot.[24]

The tunnel carries 26 express bus routes that connect Manhattan with Brooklyn or Staten Island. The MTA Bus Company operates the BM1, BM2, BM3, and BM4 between Manhattan and Brooklyn. MTA New York City Transit operates the SIM1, SIM1C, SIM2, SIM3, SIM3C, SIM4, SIM4C, SIM4X, SIM5, SIM5X, SIM6, SIM6X, SIM7, SIM10, SIM15, SIM31, SIM32, SIM33, SIM34, and SIM35 routes between Manhattan and Staten Island, and the X27, X28, X37, and X38 between Manhattan and Brooklyn.[25][26]

HistoryEdit

PlanningEdit

A vehicular tunnel under the East River between Manhattan and Brooklyn was proposed by the New York Board of Trade and Transportation in 1925, in response to growing truck traffic congestion in Lower Manhattan. The tunnel would have been located between the Manhattan Bridge and the Brooklyn Bridge.[27] A tunnel that specifically connected the Battery in Manhattan with Red Hook in Brooklyn, passing underneath the East River and Governors Island south of both the Manhattan and Brooklyn Bridges, was first proposed by Brooklyn Borough president J. J. Byrne in 1926. However, this plan initially did not receive support.[28] Albert Goldman, the New York City Commissioner of Plant and Structures, brought up the plan again in January 1929.[29] In February 1930, the city publicized plans for a six-lane vehicular tunnel from West Street, Manhattan, to Hamilton Avenue, Brooklyn.[30][31] At the time, ferry service along that path was slow and unreliable.[32] Real-estate speculators believed that land prices along Hamilton Avenue would appreciate as a result of the tunnel's construction, and that freight shipments could be delivered to Manhattan faster. The tunnel proposal also entailed widening Hamilton Avenue to 200 feet (61 m) and building a large bridge over the Gowanus Canal, south of the proposed tunnel's entrance.[33]

Brooklyn portal
Manhattan portal

In May 1930, the Terminal Bridge Corporation petitioned the New York City Board of Estimate for permission to build and operate a tunnel under the East River.[34] In November of that year, the Board of Estimate referred the Brooklyn-Manhattan tunnel plan to the New York City Board of Transportation, who was tasked with surveying the site of the tunnel. At the time, the tunnel would have cost $75 million, including land acquisition, if it included two 3-lane tunnels. The tunnels itself would have cost $58 million if they were three lanes, or $50 million if two lanes.[28][35] The next year, the Board of Transportation announced that the construction the proposed tunnel was estimated to cost $60 million, assuming that the tunnels were 31 feet (9.4 m) in diameter with 21-foot (6.4 m) roadways and a 13.5-foot (4.1 m) clearance.[36][37] In October 1933, the Board of Estimate approved funding for the tunnel in the city's capital outlay budget for 1934.[38] Two months later, the Board of Estimate approved the Brooklyn-Manhattan tunnel in conjunction with a Staten Island-Brooklyn tunnel under the Narrows.[39] The city was set to ask for $50 million in federal funding,[40] but this request was dropped from the final vote.[39]

Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia set up a public-works authority in February 1935 so the city could apply for loans from the federal Public Works Administration (PWA). This authority was set to receive $60 million in funds for the Brooklyn-Manhattan tunnel.[41] The same month, city officials hired temporary workers to survey sites for the proposed tunnel, so that they could create a report for the PWA application.[42] Civic groups and Brooklyn politicians petitioned the city to commence construction immediately so traffic congestion could be reduced.[43] However, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had stipulated that PWA funding only be given to projects that could be finished within a year of the grant being awarded. Since the Brooklyn-Manhattan tunnel project would take longer, it and other New York City highway projects were ineligible for PWA funding.[44]

In January 1936, the New York State Legislature created the New York City Tunnel Authority to oversee the construction of a tunnel between Midtown Manhattan and Queens. The bill also provided the authority with the power to build the Brooklyn-Manhattan tunnel if funds became available.[45] By this time, the construction cost of the Brooklyn-Manhattan tunnel was now projected to be $58 million.[46] Detailed plans for the tunnel were released in May 1936. The project now consisted of a $60.3 million twin-tube bore from Red Hook, Brooklyn, to the Battery, Manhattan, as well as a $2.3 million bridge over the Gowanus Canal.[47] The city approved these plans in January 1936.[48] One civic group wanted to plan for future traffic volumes, so it asked the city to conduct further studies of the Brooklyn-Manhattan tunnel project.[49] The tunnel was officially renamed the "Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel" in July 1936.[50] In November of that year, Brooklyn Borough President Raymond Ingersoll and New York City Parks commissioner Robert Moses revealed a plan to connect the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel to Long Island's parkway system via a new Gowanus Parkway and Circumferential (Belt) Parkway.[51] The planned tunnel was also part of the Regional Plan Association's proposed parkway system around New York City.[52] The next month, the New York City Tunnel Authority advertised for bids to create test bores for the tunnel.[53][54]

Copies of the plans for the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel were submitted to La Guardia's mayoral administration in February 1937. Two tunnels, one in each direction, would connect to the West Side Highway and the East River Drive on the Manhattan side, and to Hamilton Avenue on the Brooklyn side.[55][56] In the future, the West Side Elevated Highway would be extended from the north, connecting to the new tunnel.[57] There would be a ventilation tower at the midpoint on Governors Island because the tunnels would stretch 8,800 feet (2,700 m) between the two portals,[55] and it was thought that the ventilation towers at either end might not pull in sufficient air.[58] The tunnels would be designed to carry a maximum of 15 million vehicles per year, but it was projected that only 9 million would use the tunnels during their first year of operation, and that the tunnels would not reach their full capacity for another sixteen years. The cost of the project had increased to $70 million, and La Guardia wanted a $30 million federal grant so construction could start quickly. A toll of 25 cents per motorist, collected at the Brooklyn end, would help finance the rest of the tunnel and make it profitable.[55][59] The tunnel would also halve travel time between southern Brooklyn and lower Manhattan, since at the time, there was no direct route for traffic between these two areas.[59] This, in turn, was expected to expedite cargo deliveries between these areas, thereby reviving Brooklyn's declining cargo industry.[60] The route between Hamilton Avenue and the West Side Highway was determined to be the cheapest route that could be constructed.[59]

Although preliminary borings were set to start in February 1937, United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) officers on Governors Island opposed the placement of a ventilation tunnel there.[58] The Tunnel Authority let contracts for borings in April 1938.[61] The United States Army, which held a hearing for public opinions on the tunnel propsal, gave its permission to the tunnel plan in September 1938.[62]

The Tunnel Authority suggested that federal funding could be used to pay for the tunnel, and that private financing could also be provided if it was needed.[61] In June 1938, the city requested a $70.9 million PWA grant for the construction of the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel.[63] The next month, La Guardia met with PWA chairman Harold L. Ickes and Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) chairman Jesse H. Jones, to convince them to help fund the tunnel because the project could now be completed within a year.[64] The city government then published a new financial plan in September 1938, wherein the cost of the tunnel would increase to $77.3 million. The city would reduce its request from the PWA by $19.82 million and raise that money by selling bonds instead, and it would also apply for $45 million from the RFC.[65] Manhattan Borough President Stanley M. Isaacs objected to the tunnel plan because he thought the proposal would not be able to adequately handle traffic on the Manhattan side.[66] In response, Parks Commissioner Moses asked Isaacs to think of a better idea to deal with the traffic.[67] Ickes later rejected the city's request for PWA funds, saying that there were "tremendous financial and practical obstacles" for any further PWA involvement. These impediments included a lack of money, because although the PWA had given the city an appropriation for the Belt Parkway, the money had been used up.[68] Due to the PWA's refusal to grant a loan for the Battery Tunnel's construction, the project was temporarily put on hold.[69]

Bridge proposalEdit

 
A view of the tunnel without any vehicles in it

In January 1939, after the failure to allocate federal funds to the tunnels, Moses (now the chairman of the Triborough Bridge Authority) proposed a Brooklyn-Battery bridge. He stated that constructing a bridge would be cheaper, faster, and more efficient than building a tunnel.[32][70] The bridge would consist of a six-lane tandem suspension bridge span with two back-to-back suspension bridges, and it could be built in 27 months, compared to 46 months for a tunnel. One of the other benefits, in Moses's opinion, was that the $41 million bridge would not require any federal money.[70] Isaacs stated that a bridge would cause as much congestion as a tunnel would, so he did not favor the bridge plan.[71] The Tunnel Authority also opposed the Brooklyn-Battery bridge because a bridge would lower property values.[72] In response, Moses predicted that the Tunnel Authority's Queens-Midtown Tunnel would not be profitable, and that the Tunnel Authority should organize its existing affairs before deciding to build a new tunnel.[73]

Moses was able to garner support for the bridge from influential city and state politicians, including four of five borough presidents, Mayor La Guardia, and U.S. Senator Robert F. Wagner.[74] In early March 1939, the New York City Planning Commission endorsed plans for the Battery Bridge,[75] and a bill for the bridge was moved to a vote in the state legislature.[76] The bill was proposed for a vote in the City Council, but this was blocked due to concerns that the bridge's connection to the East River Drive would not be able to accommodate future traffic volumes.[77] The American Institute of Architects asked that the city reconsider the bridge, as it would obstruct the dramatic view of the Manhattan skyline, reduce Battery Park to minuscule size, and destroy what was then the New York Aquarium at Castle Clinton.[78] There was significant opposition from the public, and so the City Council Committee on State Legislation did not approve the plan.[79] In response, Moses changed the Brooklyn-Battery bridge plans to include landscaping work at Battery Park.[80] La Guardia believed that if this revised plan were passed, Ickes would finally allocate a PWA grant to the bridge project.[81] On March 28, the City Council voted to approve the bridge project, with 19 members in favor and 6 opposed.[82] Two days later, both chambers of the New York State Legislature passed bills that permitted the construction of the Brooklyn-Battery bridge,[83][84] and Governor Herbert H. Lehman signed the bills within the week.[85][86]

Moses quickly sought to obtain approval from the United States Department of War, which needed to approve the plan.[86] He also started looking for PWA and RFC financing so the bridge could be completed by July 1941.[87] As part of the approval process, the United States Army held a public hearing to solicit opinions on the bridge plan.[88] Seventeen civic groups formed a committee to solidify their opposition to the bridge plans,[89] and the Municipal Art Society criticized the proposed bridge as an act of "vandalism" toward the city's public parks.[90] Opponents claimed that the bridge would block naval traffic, a suggestion that La Guardia and Moses refuted.[91]

The Department of War ultimately declined to endorse the Brooklyn-Battery Bridge. In May 1939 Robert Woodring, the United States Secretary of War, blocked the construction of the bridge due to concerns over the span's potential to become a naval obstruction during a war, since the Brooklyn Navy Yard was located shoreward of the proposed bridge.[32][92][93] In response, Moses submitted a revised plan for the bridge and asked the Department of War to reconsider.[94] Moses and Brooklyn politicians declared that they would not accept anything other than an endorsement of the second plan.[95] However, in July, the War Department also rejected the second plan, since the new plan would also pose a wartime hazard.[96][97] Advocates for the bridge called the rejection a "setback to business".[98] They also discounted the decision as hypocritical since numerous other bridges (including the Manhattan Bridge and Brooklyn Bridge, which stood between the proposed bridge and the Navy Yard) would also constitute wartime hazards by the Army's reasoning.[98][99]

Moses continued to support the bridge, praising it as less intrusive and cheaper than a tunnel, despite great public opposition to a bridge.[100] In October, in a last effort to garner official acceptance for the Battery Bridge plan, Moses and La Guardia appealed directly to President Roosevelt to form an independent committee to study the proposal.[101][102] Moses again revised the plan, adding a ramp to Governors Island so the Army forces could also use the bridge, in a fashion similar to the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge's connection to the Army reservation on Yerba Buena Island in California.[102] However, Roosevelt upheld the Department of War's decision and declined to create such a committee.[103][4]

Tunnel plans finalizedEdit

 
Variable-message sign at the tunnel's entrance

In July 1939, after the bridge plan was canceled, the proposal for the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel was revisited. Around this time, Roosevelt's administration was considering loosening PWA requirements and lowering interest rates so that the Battery Tunnel could qualify for these funds.[104] By November, La Guardia was arranging to obtain financing for the tunnel, even if it had to come from private sources.[105][106] After a meeting with La Guardia, RFC Chairman Jones announced that there were no obstacles to granting a $70 million loan toward the tunnel project. The city was expecting to start construction once the loan was received.[107][108] The tunnel plans were completed and sent to federal agencies for approval that month.[109]

The New York City Tunnel Authority announced in March 1940 that it would start construction within forty days. Preliminary construction and land acquisition for the Brooklyn approach was already underway. The Army had already approved the tunnel, but due to a minor change in the plan, had to hold another hearing, and the Army was expected to uphold the permit.[110] In May, La Guardia signed a preliminary contract to start construction.[111] Moses stated that he wanted to complete the tunnel, a crucial link in the Circumferential Parkway System, as soon as possible.[112] The RFC granted the city $57 million for the tunnel project later that month.[113][114] Ole Singstad, the chief engineer of the New York City Tunnel Authority, was commissioned to design the tunnel.[4] As a cost-saving measure, the Tunnel Authority briefly considered constructing the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel by digging a trench under the East River and then covering it up.[115]

In summer 1940, 400 Brooklyn residents living in the tunnel's right-of-way were evicted.[116] On the Manhattan side, a large part of Little Syria, a mostly Christian Syrian/Lebanese neighborhood centered around Washington Street, was razed to create the entrance ramps for the tunnel.[117] Many of the shops and residents of Little Syria later moved to Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn.[118] The city ultimately spent $4 million on land acquisition.[119]

Construction startsEdit

 
"Informal Remarks At The Ceremonies Incident To Ground Breaking For The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel", which was read at the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel's groundbreaking ceremony

The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel's groundbreaking ceremony was supposed to be held on October 8, 1940, with President Roosevelt in attendance.[120] At the time, the president was in the final weeks of his re-election campaign for the 1940 presidential election, and he was expected to campaign at several places around New York City.[121] The groundbreaking was ultimately pushed back to October 28. At the ceremony, Roosevelt extolled the benefits of a tunnel as opposed to a bridge, while Mayor La Guardia invited the president to return for the opening ceremony in four years.[122][123] Three days later, the city approved a motion to widen Hamilton Avenue from 80 to 300 feet (24 to 91 m) to make way for the Brooklyn tunnel approach, as well as awarded a contract for the tunnel's lining to Bethlehem Steel.[124][125]

The start of actual tunneling was delayed due to dispute between a dockworkers' union, which was commissioned to dig the tunnel, and a sandhogs' union, which claimed that its members were entitled to work on the project because the sandhogs specialized in building tunnels.[126][127] This disagreement turned into a violent protest[128] and multi-day strike in February 1941.[129] The next year, some union sandhog workers were banned from working on the Battery Tunnel project due to a disagreement with their union's parent union.[130]

Another issue arose when it was revealed that the New York Aquarium at Castle Clinton, in Battery Park on the Manhattan side, would need to be demolished to make way for the tunnel.[131] The aquarium considered moving to Coney Island on the southern shore of Brooklyn.[132] To expedite construction of the tunnel, the city closed the New York Aquarium and moved its fish to other aquariums in September 1941.[133] Moses advocated for the demolition of Castle Clinton,[134] but preservationists who opposed Moses's proposed action asked federal judge to grant an injunction to prevent demolition.[135] Even though Moses initially had the injunction dismissed,[136] the federal government later designated the castle a U.S. historic monument, which prohibited him from demolishing the castle.[137] The tunnel project would also require demolishing two acres of Battery Park in order to build a seawall,[138] and as a result of the downsizing of Battery Park, an architect was hired to study the redesign of the park.[139] This, in turn, led to a public competition for potential park redesigns.[140]

In August 1940, the city filed plans for two drawbridges across the Gowanus Canal as part of the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel approach project.[141] The U.S. Army officially approved plans for the Gowanus Canal bridge in October, just before the tunnel was set to begin construction.[142] The Gowanus bridge's contract was awarded in December 1940.[143] A contract for the Gowanus Parkway approach to the tunnel and bridge was awarded the next month.[144] In mid-1941, planners realized that Hicks Street, on the Brooklyn side, would also need to be widened so that traffic from the north could enter the tunnel, whose Brooklyn portal faced southeast.[145] By May 1942, the Gowanus Parkway was completed between Hicks Street and the Belt Parkway. The parkway also included a bridge over the Gowanus Canal, a fixed span rising 90 feet (27 m) above the waterway before descending to Hicks Street.[146] Construction on an extension of the highway along Hicks Street did not start until 1946.[147]

A new plan for the Manhattan approaches was released in mid-1941. This plan, which would reduce traffic congestion, consisted of extending the West Side Elevated Highway south to the Battery with a ramp from the southbound highway leading directly into the tunnel. The Battery Park Underpass would be built between the West Side Highway and the East River Drive. As a result, the approaches to the tunnel would only need to connect to the west side of the Battery, and traffic accessing the North River piers on the West Side would not be interrupted by tunnel traffic.[148] However, this was not the case for traffic from Brooklyn, which would have to go through a traffic light before accessing the ramp for the elevated highway.[7]

The tunnel-boring project consisted of digging two separate bores from each end.[32] Bids for digging the tunnel's shafts from the Brooklyn side were advertised and let the same month.[149][150] Contracts for boring the tunnels from the Manhattan side were opened in May 1941.[151] The Manhattan contract was awarded to Mason Hangar in October of the same year.[152][153] A contest for designing the Governors Island ventilation building was also held, and the contract was ultimately given to the architectural firm McKim, Mead & White.[17] The last tunneling project, a contract to dig in either direction from Governors Island until the tubes connected to each other, was advertised in December 1941.[154]

Construction halts and restartsEdit

The tunnel was originally expected for completion by 1944.[120] La Guardia had promised that during World War II, the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel would be given priority status over other construction projects, due to its importance to the Brooklyn economy.[155] However, the Battery Tunnel project was not deemed a high-importance destination for steel, so the tunnel's priority status for the receipt of steel was revoked in February 1942. Although digging work continued, the tunnel could not be finished until after the war.[156] In October 1942, Moses recommended that tunnel work be halted completely to conserve steel and other metals that were needed for the war.[157] At this time, the federal War Production Board (WPB) released an order to stop work on the Brooklyn end, although digging from the Manhattan side was allowed to continue, because that work consisted solely of digging through solid rock.[158] By the end of the month. the WPB ordered a halt to all construction work on the tunnel's Manhattan end as well.[159] Due to opposition over potentially firing the sandhogs, they were allowed to continue working until a final review of the WPB's action was conducted.[160][161] At the time, the bores from Manhattan and Brooklyn were in various stages of completion.[32]

 
The granite-faced monumental ventilation building on the Manhattan side

By September 1944, the war was winding down and Mayor La Guardia was petitioning the U.S. government to allow the manufacture of washers, nuts, and screws for the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel construction effort.[162] The federal government gave its permission the next month.[163] During the war, the tunnel shafts had flooded, so they had to be drained first before construction could continue.[164] In mid-1945, after the war ended, the Triborough Bridge Authority was merged with the Tunnel Authority, allowing the new Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority (TBTA) to take over the project.[165] Moses, the TBTA head, promptly fired Singstad and replaced him with TBTA Chief Engineer Ralph Smillie, who designed the remainder of the tunnel.[166] The WPB approved the resumption of tunnel work in September of that year.[164] The TBTA advertised for bids to construct the Brooklyn toll plaza in May 1946.[167] Because of objections to the proposed Manhattan ventilation building's design, the TBTA changed the plans so that the tower would look like a granite monument rather than a simple ventilation tower.[16]

Moses directed the tunnel be finished with a different method for finishing the tunnel walls. This resulted in leaking and, according to Moses biographer Robert Caro, the TBTA fixed the leaks by using a design almost identical to Singstad's original.[168]:696-697 Singstad later claimed that Smillie had caused "excessive" leakage by not using Singstad's experimental caulking design to prevent leaks. Smillie denied that the leakage was excessive and that Singstad's caulking method had been replaced because that method was actually the cause of the leak.[9]

Workers from both sides continued working on the tunnel, mining caverns until the tubes from each side connected with each other.[169] In July 1947, the eastern tube for future northbound traffic was the first to be holed-through, with workers from each side shaking hands as a small pipe was passed through from one side to another. The pipe was then removed, and the openings covered up, to prevent drastic changes in pressure at either end of the tube.[170][171] The tunnels from Manhattan and Brooklyn had connected at a point under Governors Island, with an error of 0.375 inches (0.95 cm), and work continued until there was enough assurances that the tunnels had equal pressure readings.[172]

After the tunnel was holed through, the TBTA awarded contracts for the construction of the Governors Island ventilation building.[173] Construction on this ventilation building started in January 1949.[174] The plans for the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel also included a seven-story parking garage alongside the Manhattan portal, which broke ground in August 1948. The garage was slated to be the first publicly owned parking complex in the city, and so the city government proposed offering lower parking rates compared to privately-owned garages.[24]

The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel was slated to be connected with several parkways and highways on either side, which were built in tandem with the tunnel. On the Brooklyn side, the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway was under construction, providing a connector to the tunnel from the north. Although it was substantially complete by December 1948, the expressway could not open until the tunnel was complete.[175] On the Manhattan side, the southernmost section of the West Side Elevated Highway, which connected to Battery Park and the future tunnel, opened in November 1948.[176] An extension of the East River Drive (by now renamed the FDR Drive[177]) to the future Battery Park Underpass and Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel was approved in 1949.[178] Eventually, the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel was also slated to connect to the Narrows Bridge to Staten Island.[179] However, the Battery Park Underpass was not expected to be completed until 1952, and the FDR Drive extension would take even longer to be completed. Additionally, although a direct ramp from the Brooklyn-bound tunnel to the northbound Brooklyn-Queens Expressway was planned, construction was being delayed due to the difficulty of evicting tenants within the path of the ramp.[7] Moreover, the Narrows Bridge could not be financed, let alone started, until the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel was completed.[180]

Due to extra costs caused by delays and striking sandhogs, the authority petitioned the RFC for $14 million in funds in August 1947,[181] and in December of the same year, asked for another $2 million.[182] In February 1948, the RFC agreed to extend another $28 million toward the completion of the tunnel.[183] By mid-1948, the tunnel was 70% complete, despite material shortages and cost overruns, and was expected to open to traffic in early 1950.[184] Work on the tunnel progressed, and the tunnel was 94% complete by late 1949.[185] A reporter for the Brooklyn Daily Eagle made an unsanctioned drive between the two ends of the tunnel, noting that tiles, lighting, and a road surface had yet to be added, although the bores themselves were complete.[186] The tubes included four fluorescent-lighting installations with a total of 5,776 bulbs. At the time, it comprised the world's largest continuous fluorescent installation in the world, and was the first crossing in the city to have fluorescent lights.[187] The strips of clay tiles on the tubes' ceilings were advertised as the United States' longest continuous uses of clay tiles.[188]

OpeningEdit

 
The tunnel, seen in 1973

The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel opened to traffic on May 25, 1950, with a ceremony officiated by Mayor William O'Dwyer.[8][189] Part of the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway, along Hicks Street from the Battery Tunnel north to Atlantic Avenue, opened the same day.[190] At the time, the Brooklyn Daily Eagle described the Battery Tunnel as "the nation's largest, most modern underwater vehicular tunnel", which took three minutes to traverse from end to end. The Eagle also estimated that the tunnel cost $736 for every linear inch that was built.[32] With a cost of $80 million, the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel was also dubbed the most expensive tunnel in the United States.[191] It was expensive enough that the TBTA had been forced to look around the world for a company that could cover the tunnel's $33.5 million insurance policy.[192] However, the cost was expected to be counterbalanced, in part, through the 35-cent tolls and the time savings afforded. Truckers at Bush Terminal, located south of the tunnel's portal, predicted that they would save 35 minutes a day and $1 million a year by driving through the tunnel.[191]

Within the first five and a half hours of its opening, 10,563 motorists had paid a toll to use the tunnel.[8] Forty thousand motorists used the tunnel within the first day, and at that rate, it was estimated that the tunnel might see 14 million vehicles per year, 40% more than originally estimated. This was in spite of the fact that traffic speeds were limited to 40 miles per hour (64 km/h), which reduced throughput.[192] The 1,050-spot garage above the tunnel's northern portal opened a little more than a month after the tunnel opened.[23] During the Battery Tunnel's first year of operation, the tunnel grossed nearly $5.5 million in toll revenues, and according to Caro, exceeded its 15-million-annual-vehicle capacity.[168]:698 Another analysis by the Brooklyn Daily Eagle found that 13.86 million vehicles had used the tunnel in its first year; this was lower than Caro's estimate, but higher than both the TBTA's initial estimate of 10 million vehicles per year, and expert forecasts of 8 million annual vehicles.[193]

Some road infrastructure projects at both ends of the tunnel were completed shortly after the tunnel opened. The first associated project to be completed was the Battery Park Underpass on the Manhattan side, which opened in April 1950.[194] Two months later, officials opened a ramp on the Brooklyn side, which led from the southbound tunnel lanes to the northbound Brooklyn-Queens Expressway.[195] The Battery Park Underpass was connected to the East River Drive elevated viaduct, and thus to the FDR Drive, in May 1954.[196] The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel project also entailed the restoration of Battery Park, which reopened in 1952 after a 12-year shutdown.[197]

Later yearsEdit

The tubes were designed for two lanes in each direction. This was changed in 1956, when the Brooklyn-bound western tube was changed to handle bidirectional traffic during morning rush hours, owing to heavy rush-hour traffic congestion.[198] A northbound high-occupancy vehicle lane was later added during the morning rush hours. It led from Staten Island to Manhattan via the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, the Gowanus Expressway, and the Battery Tunnel.[199] A large volume of tunnel drivers also used the garage on the Manhattan side, so in 1965, plans were made to expand the garage.[200] The expanded garage, which was completed in 1968, had 2,126 spots.[22] The city also built a new 278-spot garage nearby for short-term parking.[201]

In 1971, the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel was designated Interstate 478 in preparation for the "Westway" project, which would reconstruct the West Side Highway to Interstate Highway standards.[202] Although the project was canceled in 1985,[203][204] the I-478 designation still exists and is contiguous with the entirety of the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel. However, I-478 is not posted on any public signage.[205]

The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel was closed completely after the September 11, 2001, attacks, due to the proximity of the Manhattan portal to the World Trade Center site. Although many major crossings within the city were also closed following the attacks, they reopened relatively quickly, albeit with high-occupancy vehicle restrictions during rush hours.[206] The western tube of the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel was the first part of the tunnel to reopen, in October 2001, and carried only southbound traffic.[207] However, the West Side Highway was closed to traffic south of Canal Street, some 30 blocks north of the tunnel portal, and part of the highway had been destroyed during the attacks. Consequently, it was feared that traffic in the tunnel would be backed up at least 40 blocks if the highway was reopened.[208] As a result, work started on a temporary roadway leading from the highway to the tunnel.[209] The eastbound tube, which reopened in March 2002, was the last crossing into Manhattan to reopen.[206]

 
During Hurricane Sandy

In 2010, New York State legislators voted to rename the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel after former Governor Hugh Carey.[12] The tunnel was officially renamed the Hugh L. Carey Tunnel on October 22, 2012.[11] Less than a week after the tunnel was officially renamed, it was closed in preparation for Hurricane Sandy, marking the first-ever weather-related-closure for the tunnel.[210] It was subsequently flooded after a severe storm surge.[211][212] The Hugh L. Carey Tunnel reopened on November 13[213][214] following a cleanup process that included the removal of an estimated 86,000,000 US gallons (330,000,000 L).[6] It had been the last New York City river crossing to reopen.[213]

The flooding resulting from Hurricane Sandy demonstrated how flood-prone the tunnel was, since the sea level around the tunnel had risen 9 inches (23 cm) since its opening in 1951, and the portals were located on very low land to begin with.[210] The MTA subsequently began testing inflatable dams at the tunnel's portals.[215] In October 2017, a pair of 25-ton floodgates were installed on the Manhattan-side openings of the Hugh L. Carey Tunnel. The Manhattan floodgates were supposed to be accompanied by a pair on the Brooklyn side,[216] as well as a seawall. This combined project was 63% complete as of a March 2018 MTA report.[217] In 2017–2018, the tiled walls in the Queens–Midtown and Brooklyn–Battery Tunnels were replaced due to damage suffered during Hurricane Sandy. The re-tiled white walls have gold-and-blue stripes, representing the official state colors of New York. Controversy arose over the cost of re-tiling the tunnels, which cost a combined $30 million, because of the ongoing transit crisis at the time.[218]

TollsEdit

As of March 19, 2017, drivers pay $8.50 per car or $3.50 per motorcycle for tolls by mail. E‑ZPass users with transponders issued by the New York E‑ZPass Customer Service Center pay $5.76 per car or $2.51 per motorcycle. All E-ZPass users with transponders not issued by the New York E-ZPass CSC will be required to pay Toll-by-mail rates.[219]

Open-road cashless tolling started on January 4, 2017.[14][15] The tollbooths were dismantled, and drivers were no longer allowed to pay cash at the tunnel. Instead, cameras mounted onto overhead gantries located on the Manhattan side take photos of license plates of cars that do not have E-ZPass transponders, and tolls are mailed to them.[220][221] For E-ZPass users, sensors detect their transponders wirelessly.[220][221]

Interstate 478Edit

 

Interstate 478
Route information
Maintained by MTA Bridges and Tunnels
Length 2.14 mi[205] (3.44 km)
Existed 1971 – present
Major junctions
South end   I-278 in Brooklyn
North end   NY 9A in Manhattan
Highway system
  NY 474I-481  

I-478 is the official route designation for the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel and its approaches, although it is not signed as such. I-478's south end is at the tunnel's south end, I-278 in Brooklyn, and the highway extends 2.14 miles (3.44 km) to the tunnel's north end at NY 9A (West Side Highway) in Lower Manhattan.[222][205][223] The entirety of I-478 is concurrent with the tunnel.[222] Before receiving the I-478 designation, the tunnel had been part of New York State Route 27A from the 1950s to 1970.[224][225] NY 27A still exists, but since 1970, it only runs within eastern Long Island.[226]

The I-478 number was originally considered for other routes. In 1958, the I-478 route number was proposed for the Lower Manhattan Expressway branch along the Manhattan Bridge.[227] This highway would have run between I-78 (which would have split to another branch that used the Williamsburg Bridge) and I-278.[228] After the Lower Manhattan Expressway project was canceled in March 1971,[229] the I-478 designation was also briefly proposed for an upgrade of the Grand Central Parkway between I-278 and I-678, as part of an effort to upgrade the Belt Parkway with truck lanes. This proposal was also canceled in May 1971.[230]

The Westway project was proposed in early 1971[231] as part of an effort to replace the West Side Elevated Highway, a narrow and dangerously obsolete structure on Manhattan's west side.[232]:10 By mid-1971, the, I-478 designation had been moved over to the Westway project.[202] As originally planned, I-478 would have continued north to I-78 at the Holland Tunnel and I-495 at the Lincoln Tunnel via the Westway project.[232]:10 An extension to I-95 at the George Washington Bridge via the Henry Hudson Parkway was initially considered.[233] This was ultimately dropped from the final plan due to a state law that prohibited the conversion of the Henry Hudson Parkway to an Interstate Highway.[232]:10 The project was approved by the U.S. government in 1977.[234]

If fully completed, I-478 would have run along the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel and West Side Highway, completing the portion of the Interstate Highway System within New York City.[235] However, the Westway project was officially abandoned in 1985 after a series of lawsuits from environmental advocates.[203][204] Although the I-478 designation was formally withdrawn from all public signage and plans,[236] the route number still applies to the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel, albeit as an unsigned highway that is not marked on public signs.[205]

Major intersectionsEdit

All exits are unnumbered.

CountyLocationmi[223][2]kmDestinationsNotes
BrooklynRed Hook0.00.0    I-278 west (Brooklyn–Queens Expressway) to NY 27 / Belt Parkway – Verrazano BridgeExit 25 on I-278
0.10.16HOV3+ to Verrazano Bridge / Belt ParkwaySouthbound exit evenings, northbound entrance mornings
0.20.32Hamilton Avenue (I-278 Alternate east)Exit 26 on I-278
0.40.64  I-278 east (Brooklyn–Queens Expressway) / Atlantic AvenueSouthbound exit only
East River0.5–
2.2
0.80–
3.5
Hugh L. Carey Tunnel (toll gantry in Manhattan)
ManhattanBattery Park City2.33.7Trinity PlaceNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
2.43.9  FDR Drive – East Side, Staten Island Ferry
  NY 9A north (West Street) to Holland Tunnel / Lincoln Tunnel / George Washington Bridge
At-grade intersection except southbound entrance ramp;
exit 2 on NY 9A / West Street
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ a b Google (March 19, 2018). "Hugh L. Carey Tunnel, Brooklyn, NY 11231" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved March 19, 2018. 
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  4. ^ a b c d e Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010), The Encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed.), New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 869, ISBN 978-0-300-11465-2 
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  29. ^ "PROPOSES TUNNEL UNDER UPPER BAY; Goldman Wants a Vehicular Tube From Battery to Hamilton Avenue, Brooklyn.TO RELIEVE THE WEST SIDEPuts Cost of Bore, 2 Miles Long, at$50,000,000--Submits Planto McLaughlin. Would Ease Tube Traffic. McLaughlin to Study Plan". The New York Times. 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 19, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. 
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  39. ^ a b "ROCKAWAY SUBWAY APPROVED BY CITY; Long Island Road's Route Held Best of 3 Proposed -- Buying of Line Up to LaGuardia. COST PUT AT $34,114,000 Estimate Board Also Passes on Site of Staten Island Tube and Brooklyn Tunnel". The New York Times. December 30, 1933. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018. 
  40. ^ "$92,669,000 WORKS APPROVED BY CITY; Board Sanctions Narrows and Manhattan-Brooklyn Tubes and Water Tunnel. FEDERAL AID IS SOUGHT Protests by Controller and Engineer Ignored in Action on Program. $92,669,000 WORKS APPROVED BY CITY". The New York Times. December 27, 1933. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 14, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018. 
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  63. ^ "$70,850,000 ASKED FOR RED HOOK TUBE; City's Plea for Loan and Grant Presented to PWA for Linking Battery to Brooklyn 48TH PROJECT URGED HERE Total Cost of Municipal Public Works Program Rises to $201,172,814 45% Asked as Grant First Application in 1937". The New York Times. June 4, 1938. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
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  73. ^ "MOSES TAKES FLING AT QUEENS TUNNEL; Predicts Financial Straits for It Soon, in New Attack on Battery Tube Plan REPLIES TO BRIDGE CRITICS No Danger to Realty Values, He Says--Friedman Scoffs at Arguments on Costs". The New York Times. February 8, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  74. ^ David, Lester (March 2, 1939). "Boro-Battery Bridge Forced Quickest Action in Decades". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. p. 15. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  75. ^ "BRIDGE AT BATTERY FAVORED BY BOARD; Planning Commission Backs Mayor and Moses on Span, Overriding Foes Past Efforts Reviewed BRIDGE AT BATTERY FAVORED BY BOARD No Naval Objection Seen Objections Are Conceded". The New York Times. March 2, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  76. ^ "Battery Span Bill Moves to Vote in Albany". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. March 3, 1939. p. 8. Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2017 – via newspapers.com. 
  77. ^ "BRIDGE PLAN VOTE BLOCKED BY QUILL; He Objects to Mayor's Plea to Council to Act at Once on Battery-to-Brooklyn Span CITIZENS GROUP FOR DELAY Planning Board Will Meet Today on Questions Raised Over Manhattan Approaches". The New York Times. March 15, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  78. ^ "ARCHITECTS WARY ON BATTERY SPAN; Institute Warns Against Haste, Fearing Marring of Famous View". The New York Times. March 18, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  79. ^ "FOES WIN A POINT ON BATTERY SPAN; Council Committee on State Legislation Withholds Its Approval of Plan". The New York Times. March 21, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  80. ^ "CHANGES PLANNED FOR BATTERY PARK; Moses Gives Proposals for Reconstruction of Area to Fit In With a Bridge 2-LEVEL BAY PROMENADE Road Links and Land Additions Listed--No Provision for Elevated Terminal". The New York Times. March 21, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  81. ^ "MAYOR SURE ICKES WILL BACK BRIDGE; He Is Confident Administrator Will Approve Brooklyn-to Battery Span if Passed CITES COOPERATIVE SPIRIT PWA Head Is Opposed to Link as Competition for the New Queens-Midtown Tunnel". The New York Times. March 26, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  82. ^ "BRIDGE AT BATTERY WINS IN COUNCIL; VICTORY FOR MOSES; Way Cleared for Adoption of Albany Bills as Park Head Looks On With Smile ONLY 6 MEMBERS OPPOSED Cashmore Quits His Sickbed to Vote for Plan--Relief Fund Plea Blocked by Baldwin Cashmore Leaves Sickbed BRIDGE AT BATTERY WINS IN COUNCIL". The New York Times. March 29, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  83. ^ "MOSES BRIDGE BILL IS VOTED AT ALBANY; Legislature Grants Power for Battery Span--Bars Civil Service Amendments". The New York Times. March 30, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  84. ^ David, Lester (March 30, 1939). "Spur Lehman on Bridge Bill". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  85. ^ "BATTERY SPAN BILL SIGNED BY LEHMAN; Governor Gives No Opinion on Merits of Plan, Saying He Is Just Acting on Request ARMY IS THE NEXT HURDLE It Must Approve Moses Plan -Curb on Advertising on Bridges Now a Law". The New York Times. April 5, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  86. ^ a b David, Lester (April 4, 1939). "Moses Girds Forces for Hearing on Brooklyn-Battery Bridge". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. p. 10. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  87. ^ "MOSES EXPEDITES PLANS FOR BRIDGE; Moves to Get War Department's Consent to Build Span From Battery to Brooklyn ALREADY SEEKS FINANCING Hopes for Completion by July 1, 1941--Isaacs Continues to Oppose Project". The New York Times. March 30, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  88. ^ "HEARING ON BRIDGE TODAY; Backers and Opponents of Span at Battery to Appear". The New York Times. April 25, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  89. ^ "17 GROUPS TO UNITE IN FIGHT ON BRIDGE; Civic and Realty Officials Form Committee to Oppose Battery Span at Army Hearing PROGRAM BEING PREPARED Many Chances Still Open to Block Moses Project, Heads of Campaign Declare". The New York Times. April 17, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  90. ^ "ART GROUP CONTINUES FIGHT ON BRIDGE PLAN; Municipal Society Makes New Attack on Battery Span". The New York Times. April 23, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  91. ^ "Mayor at Hearing Pleads for Bridge; Mayor, Park Commissioner in Action at Bridge Hearing". The New York Times. April 26, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  92. ^ Maeder, Jay (July 13, 2000). "Squared Accounts The Battery Bridge July 1939 Chapter 137". NY Daily News. Archived from the original on May 24, 2018. Retrieved May 24, 2018. 
  93. ^ "ARMY BARS PLANS FOR BATTERY SPAN; REVISION IS READY; Finds Present Proposal for Bridge to Brooklyn Would Bring Navigation Perils BUT WAY IS LEFT OPEN Mayor and Moses Are Confident Modified Program Will Meet Objections". The New York Times. May 19, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  94. ^ "CONTRACT IS DRAWN FOR BATTERY SPAN; Board Fixes Public Hearing for June 8 on Proposed Compact if Army Approves Bridge ITS TERMS ARE GENERAL Delegates Powers to Moses Body--Isaacs Sees Park Neglected in Plans". The New York Times. May 26, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  95. ^ David, Lester (June 7, 1939). "Boro Ultimatum on Battery Bridge Is Placed Before Army Engineers". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. pp. 1, 12. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  96. ^ "BATTERY BRIDGE REJECTED BY WOODRING AS WAR PERIL; MAYOR REVIVES TUBE PLAN; NAVY YARD DANGER Army Head Says It Would Be Cut Off by Wrecking of SpanMOSES IS NOT SURPRISEDSees 'Sabotaging' of Protect inWashington--La Guardiato Work for Tunnel". The New York Times. July 18, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  97. ^ "Battle for New Boro-Battery Traffic Link". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 18, 1939. pp. 1, 4. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  98. ^ a b "Moses, Ingersoll and Crews Attack Rejection of Brooklyn-Battery Span". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 18, 1939. pp. 1, 4. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  99. ^ Schmalacker, Joseph (July 31, 1939). "Why Mr. Woodring, Look at Bridges You would Have to Tear Down". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. p. 11. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  100. ^ "MOSES CONTINUES FIGHT ON TUNNEL; Gives Engineer's Views to Show Tube Would Mar Battery Park More Than Bridge OFFERS COST ESTIMATES Span Is Figured at $44,000,000, Compared with $89,000,000 for Rival Project". The New York Times. July 27, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  101. ^ "BATTERY BRIDGE UP TO ROOSEVELT; La Guardia Goes Over Head of War Department to Ask for an Independent Survey". The New York Times. October 24, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  102. ^ a b David, Lester (October 30, 1939). "Moses Bares Final Plea for Battery Span". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. pp. 1, 9. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  103. ^ "Roosevelt Rejects Battery Bridge Plan, But Mayor Says He Will Never Give It Up". The New York Times. November 1, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  104. ^ "PLANS FOR TUNNEL AT BATTERY RUSHED; Agencies Move to Ask Funds as Soon as Federal Lending Facilities Are Ready LEGAL PROBLEM STUDIED Effect of Rejection of Bridge an Authority Questioned-- Highways Discussed". The New York Times. July 20, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 14, 2018. Retrieved March 13, 2018. 
  105. ^ "FUNDS ARE SOUGHT TO FINANCE TUNNEL; Possibility of Getting Cash for Brooklyn-Battery Tube to Be Taken Up in Few Days NO CITY MONEY AVAILABLE La Guardia Defends Recent Improvements--Asks Parents to Fight for School Aid Belt Parkway Praised Literacy Not Enough". The New York Times. November 5, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  106. ^ "Battery Tunnel Funds Sought". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. November 5, 1939. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  107. ^ "U.S. LOAN FORECAST FOR BATTERY TUBE; Jesse Jones Sees No Obstacles to Financing After 2-Hour Parley With La Guardia". The New York Times. November 16, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  108. ^ "Battery Tube Plans Ready for Approval". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. November 16, 1939. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  109. ^ "PLANS COMPLETED FOR BROOKLYN TUBE; Sent to Washington at Once for Federal Approval, the Mayor Reveals READY TO START QUICKLY Work Can Begin 21 Days After U.S. Sanctions the Project, He Declares". The New York Times. November 22, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  110. ^ "Borough Rushes Battery Tube Plans". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. March 12, 1940. pp. 1, 2. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  111. ^ "MAYOR CLEARS WAY FOR BATTERY TUNNEL; Signs Preliminary Agreements to Speed Construction". The New York Times. May 23, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. 
  112. ^ "MOSES WILL PRESS TUNNEL LINK WORK; Going Ahead With Plan Despite Lack of Final Approval of Brooklyn Project CALLS HIGHWAY ESSENTIAL $4,000,000 Worth of Land Obtained by Bridge Authority for Wider Right of Way". The New York Times. June 12, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  113. ^ "BATTERY TUBE LOAN APPROVED BY RFC; $57,000,000 of Project's Cost Provided as Mayor Opens 33-Mile Belt Parkway". The New York Times. June 30, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  114. ^ "30-Year Clamor for the Tube is All Over But the Digging". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. June 30, 1940. p. 3. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  115. ^ "TUNNEL BUILDING BY TRENCH STUDIED". The New York Times. May 10, 1940. Archived from the original on April 20, 2018. Retrieved April 19, 2018. 
  116. ^ "400 ARE TO BE EVICTED; Deputy Sheriffs Begin Serving Orders in Brooklyn". The New York Times. July 9, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  117. ^ Dunlap, David W. (August 24, 2010). "When an Arab Enclave Thrived Downtown". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012. Retrieved March 23, 2018. 
  118. ^ Benson, Kathleen; Kayal, Philip M. (2002). Community of Many Worlds: Arab Americans in New York City. New York: Museum of the City of New York. p. 18. ISBN 0-8156-0739-3. 
  119. ^ "Condemnation for Tube Costs City $3,264,142". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. October 29, 1940. p. 2. Archived from the original on July 8, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  120. ^ a b "President to Break Ground Oct. 8 For the $57,000,000 Battery Tube; Exercises in Brooklyn to Start Work on Link Scheduled for Completion in 1944 With Capacity of 16,000,000 Cars a Year". The New York Times. September 23, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  121. ^ "Roosevelt to Make Political Tour, With 5 Major Speeches, One Here; President to Swing Through Crucial Eastern States in Last Fortnight of Campaign-- Will Address Garden Rally Oct. 28". The New York Times. October 18, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  122. ^ "FDR Launches Boro Tunnel in Campaign Swing of City". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. October 28, 1940. pp. 1, 3. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  123. ^ "PRESIDENT BREAKS GROUND FOR TUNNEL; Invited by Mayor to Return to the City in His 'Official Capacity' in 1944 HOPES HE 'CAN' ACCEPT Says Defense Reasons Rules Out Bridge--Predicts Project Will Pay for Itself". The New York Times. October 29, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  124. ^ "City Acts to Pave Way for Tunnel Approach". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. October 31, 1940. p. 3. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  125. ^ "TUNNEL LINING BIDS IN; Bethlehem Units Lowest on Iron for Battery-Brooklyn Tube". The New York Times. October 31, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  126. ^ "CARPENTERS PASS PICKETS AT TUNNEL; 10 Resume Jobs at BrooklynBattery Project DespiteOpposition of SandhogsA.F.L. RULING IS DEFIEDUnderground Workers InsistThey Have Right to AllPreliminary Construction". The New York Times. December 10, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  127. ^ "Battery Tunnel Work Halted by Union Row". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. December 2, 1940. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  128. ^ "2 POLICEMEN HURT IN SANDHOG FIGHTS; 9 Pickets Arrested in Day of Strife at Battery End of Brooklyn Tunnel Job AREA IS HEAVILY GUARDED Jurisdictional Dispute Leads to Attacks on Men Leaving Work -- One Is Sentenced". The New York Times. February 11, 1941. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  129. ^ "SANDHOGS TO CEASE PICKET-LINE FIGHTS; But Interunion Row Is No Nearer Settlement". The New York Times. February 14, 1941. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  130. ^ "NO DELAY IN BATTERY TUBE; But Authorities Fear Sandhog Row Will Cause Snag Soon". The New York Times. March 2, 1942. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  131. ^ "BATTERY AQUARIUM TO BE DEMOLISHED; Doomed by Brooklyn Tunnel, It Will Be Replaced by a Modern One in Bronx COST PUT AT $2,000,000 Modern Exhibition Technique to Be Utilized to Mirror Nature, Osborn Says". The New York Times. February 8, 1941. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  132. ^ "AQUARIUM WEIGHS CONEY ISLAND SITE; City Considers Erection of New $2,000,000 Exhibition Hall Fronting on Boardwalk". The New York Times. May 3, 1941. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  133. ^ "FISH TO LEAVE OLD HOME; Aquarium to Start Dispersing Thousands of Specimens". The New York Times. September 23, 1941. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  134. ^ "AQUARIUM DOOMED BY ESTIMATE BOARD; Moses Scoffs at Proposal to Restore Old Fort, Saying It 'Never Fired a Shot' MANY PLEAD FOR SAVING IT But the Vote Is 11 to 5 for Demolition to Make Way for Battery Tunnel". The New York Times. June 26, 1942. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  135. ^ "INJUNCTION SOUGHT TO SAVE AQUARIUM; Suit Today Will Ask Court to Restrain Moses From Razing Fort Clinton". The New York Times. August 20, 1942. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  136. ^ "MOSES WINS FIGHT TO RAZE AQUARIUM; Court of Appeals Has Denied Injunction Sought by Civic Groups Opposing Him ACTION WAS BEGUN IN 1941 Contest Was Marked by Fierce Exchange Between Park Chief and Pierce T. Wetter". The New York Times. April 25, 1943. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  137. ^ "AQUARIUM BLOCK MADE A MONUMENT; Truman Signs Bill Designating Castle Clinton, Battery Park, a National Shrine". The New York Times. August 13, 1946. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  138. ^ "NEW MOSES PLAN DOOMS AQUARIUM; He Also Would Take 2 More Acres From Sea for Battery Park as Tube Is Built MAYOR SEEMS TO AGREE Asks Department Heads to Study Details -- Disguised Air Shafts Suggested". The New York Times. May 13, 1941. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  139. ^ "BATTERY PLAN ORDERED; Architect Is Commissioned to Study Its Redesigning". The New York Times. April 7, 1941. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  140. ^ "37 PLANS OFFERED FOR BATTERY PARK; Judges to Meet Next Week to Pass on Drawings in Contest". The New York Times. August 13, 1942. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  141. ^ "GOWANUS CANAL TO GET NEW BRIDGE; Triborough Authority Files Plans for Twin Single-Leaf Bascule at Hamilton Ave. PROVIDES DIVIDED ROADS Represents Change in Link to Belt Parkway, as High Level Span Was Contemplated". The New York Times. August 5, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  142. ^ "Army Approves Gowanus Bridge". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. October 22, 1940. p. 4. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  143. ^ "BIDS FOR BRIDGE OPENED; $1,910,501 Is Lowest to Span the Gowanus Canal". The New York Times. December 11, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  144. ^ Mathieu, George M. (1941). "'EL' TO LINK BELT ROAD; Gowanus Parkway to the New Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel Is Begun". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  145. ^ Bennett, Charles G. (June 15, 1941). "HICKS STREET WIDENING TO BE PUSHED; Section to Form True Link To Gowanus Parkway -- A Tunnel Approach". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  146. ^ "Gowanus Elevated Parkway Opens". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. May 6, 1942. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  147. ^ "$25,000,000 ARTERY BEGUN IN BROOKLYN; O'Dwyer, Cashmore Dig Soil for Link Between Queens and Tunnel to Battery". The New York Times. August 21, 1946. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  148. ^ "APPROACH PLANS FOR TUBE READY; West Side Highway Extension and Underpass in Battery Park to Speed Traffic EAST RIVER DRIVE LINKED Minimum Interference With Trucks Serving West Street Piers Held Essential". The New York Times. August 25, 1941. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  149. ^ "SHAFT BIDS OPENED FOR BATTERY TUBE; Work on Two Excavations to Start in Two Weeks". The New York Times. August 7, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  150. ^ "Battery Tunnel Contract Let". The New York Times. August 20, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  151. ^ "OPENS BATTERY TUBE BIDS; Authority Says Lowest for Major Digging Job Is $13,888,000". The New York Times. May 28, 1941. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  152. ^ "CITY ACCEPTS BID ON BATTERY TUBE; Mason & Hangar, Inc., Gets Job of Building Manhattan Part of Brooklyn Tunnel". The New York Times. October 6, 1941. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  153. ^ "Boro-Battery Tube Contract Awarded". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. October 6, 1941. p. 5. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  154. ^ "Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel Contracts Almost Complete". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. December 12, 1941. p. 7. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  155. ^ "Mayor Promises City Priorities for All Vital Supplies". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. August 12, 1941. p. 20. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  156. ^ "WAR TAKES STEEL FROM BATTERY TUBE; Work Goes On, but Probably Cannot Be Completed Till End of the Conflict". The New York Times. March 3, 1942. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  157. ^ "MOSES ASKS HALT ON TUNNEL WORK; Would Suspend Construction of Brooklyn-Battery Tube to Save Strategic Metals 28,000 TONS ARE INVOLVED Park Commissioner Says Job Will Take Four Years and Cannot Help in War". The New York Times. October 6, 1942. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  158. ^ "Work Continues at Manhattan End of Battery Tunnel". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. October 18, 1942. p. 2. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  159. ^ "BATTERY TUNNEL IS HALTED BY WPB; PROTEST BY CITY; Authority Appeals, Declaring Work Could Go On 18 Months With No New Materials MAYOR WANTS JOBS SAVED 'Assumes' No Vengeance Is Behind Order to Conserve Critical War Supplies BATTERY TUNNEL IS HALTED BY WPB". The New York Times. October 31, 1942. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  160. ^ "WPB LETS SANDHOGS CONTINUE TUBE JOB; Tunneling to Go On Pending Final Review of Stoppage Order Issued on Oct. 30". The New York Times. November 8, 1942. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  161. ^ "Battery Tube Work Permitted to Continue". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. November 8, 1942. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  162. ^ "CITY TUNNEL WORK AWAITS WPB MOVE; Making of Bolts Called Key to Resumption on $87,000,000 Brooklyn-Battery Tubes MANPOWER ALSO FACTOR But Local Agency Says It Can Be Ready in Three Months to Finish Job in Three Years". The New York Times. September 21, 1944. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  163. ^ "CITY TUNNEL WORK AWAITS WPB MOVE; Making of Bolts Called Key to Resumption on $87,000,000 Brooklyn-Battery Tubes MANPOWER ALSO FACTOR But Local Agency Says It Can Be Ready in Three Months to Finish Job in Three Years". The New York Times. September 21, 1944. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  164. ^ a b "Battery Tunnel Job Gets WPB Green Light". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 13, 1945. p. 3. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  165. ^ "TUNNEL AUTHORITY BEING REORGANIZED; Shortridge Displaced as the General Manager, Singstad Dropped as Chief Engineer MOSES HEADS THE AGENCY Initial Steps Announced in the Consolidation With Triborough Bridge Authority Here McLaughlin in Tunnel Post La Guardia Not in Accord". The New York Times. July 26, 1945. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  166. ^ "Press Release – Bridges & Tunnels – Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel Milestone: Vital NYC Link for 60 Years". MTA. May 19, 2010. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  167. ^ "Brooklyn Plaza Bids Opened". The New York Times. April 3, 1946. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  168. ^ a b Caro, Robert A. (1974). The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York. A Borzoi book. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-48076-3. 
  169. ^ Blauvelt, Paul (March 30, 1947). "There's a Deafening Roar, and a Tunnel Slashes 6 Feet Farther Toward Its Goal". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. p. 23. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  170. ^ "2 BORINGS LINKED IN BATTERY TUNNEL; Four-Inch Hole 18 Feet Long Shows Tube's Segments Are Centered Exactly". The New York Times. July 20, 1947. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  171. ^ "Boro-Battery Tunnel Link Cut Through". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 20, 1947. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  172. ^ "Engineers Join Battery Tunnel Borings Within Fraction of an Inch". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 24, 1947. p. 2. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  173. ^ "PLAN BATTERY TUBE WORK; Contractors Get Ventilation and Blower Building Jobs". The New York Times. August 21, 1947. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  174. ^ "LUNGS' OF TUNNEL TO BREATHE IN BAY; 126-Foot Ventilating Tower Will Begin Next Week to Rise From Harbor". The New York Times. 1949. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  175. ^ Ingraham, Joseph C. (December 18, 1948). "NEW HIGHWAY LINK SPEEDED IN KINGS; Only 'Sophisticated, Finishing Touches' Remain to Be Applied, Cashmore Says". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  176. ^ "HIGHWAY SECTION OPENS TOMORROW; Mayor to Cut Ribbon at 11 A.M. to Start Flow of Elevated Traffic on West Side". The New York Times. November 28, 1948. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  177. ^ "Council Votes to Name East Drive for Roosevelt". The New York Times. June 29, 1945. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
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External linksEdit

Route map: Google

KML is from Wikidata