Parkways in New York
The majority of parkways in the US state of New York are part of a statewide parkway system owned by several public and private agencies but mostly maintained by the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT). A handful of other roads in the Hudson Valley and on Long Island are also known as parkways but are not part of the state system. The state parkway system introduced the concept of limited-access roads. These highways were not divided and allowed no driveway cuts, but did have intersections for some of the streets they crossed. A small section of the privately financed Long Island Motor Parkway was the first limited-access road to begin operation as a toll road and the first highway to use bridges and overpasses to eliminate intersections.
Standard parkway markers in New York
|Interstates||Interstate X (I-X)|
|US Highways||U.S. Route X (US X)|
|State||New York State Route X (NY X)|
The individual parkways vary widely in composition. Some, such as the Sprain Brook Parkway, are functionally equivalent to a freeway; others, like Seven Lakes Drive, are a two-lane undivided surface road. The majority of parkways are located in downstate New York, where the state parkway system originated in the early 20th century.
The state's parkway system originally began as a series of then-high-speed (25 miles per hour or 40 kilometres per hour) four-lane roads that were created to provide a scenic way into, out of, and around New York City. The first section of this system opened in 1908. Most of the early roads have been replaced and redesigned to address higher speed requirements and to increase capacity. In later sections north of New York City, the roadways were typically divided by a wide landscaped median and provided service areas along the way that offered fuel and restrooms. During the 1930s, urban planner Robert Moses developed a system of parkways in the New York City area. In Robert Caro's biography The Power Broker, he writes that Moses deliberately designed the parkways to have low bridges to prevent low-income families from traveling by bus to destinations outside of New York City.
Many of these parkways were built by regional agencies such as the Long Island State Park Commission (LISPC), New York City Parks Department, Taconic State Park Commission (TSPC), Westchester County Parks Commission (WCPC), and Palisades Interstate Park Commission (PIPC). Most are now maintained, if not owned, by NYSDOT outside New York City and the New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) within New York City.
Today, the state parkways are for the most part equivalent to expressways and freeways built in other parts of the country, except for a few oddities. First, because many of these roads were either designed before civil engineers had experience building roads for automobile use or widened in response to increasing traffic, many New York parkways lack shoulders. Second, because designers focused more on making routes scenic rather than efficient, the parkways are meandering, often built to follow a river, and so contain many turns. Finally, because most use low, decorative stone-arch overpasses that would trap trucks, commercial vehicles, trucks and tractor trailers are banned from parkways. In Manhattan, this has led to the oddity of forcing all trucking onto local streets as the island has only one short interstate passing through Washington Heights, a neighborhood in Upper Manhattan.
List of parkwaysEdit
|Bay Parkway||1892 as 22nd Avenue||New York City||Brooklyn||Brooklyn||NYSDOT/NYCDOT||NYSDOT|
|Bay Parkway||N/A||Long Island||Jones Beach State Park||Jones Beach State Park||NYS OPRHP||NYSDOT|
|Bear Mountain State Parkway||1932||Hudson Valley||Peekskill||Cortlandt||NYSDOT||NYSDOT|
|Belt Parkway||1941||New York City||Brooklyn||Queens||NYSDOT/NYCDOT||NYSDOT/NYCDOT|
|Bethpage State Parkway||1936||Long Island||Massapequa||Bethpage State Park||NYS OPRHP||NYSDOT|
|Bronx River Parkway||1908||Hudson Valley||The Bronx||New Castle||NYCDOT/Westchester County||NYCDOT/Westchester County|
|Cross County Parkway||1947||Hudson Valley||Yonkers||Eastchester||NYSDOT||NYSDOT|
|Cross Island Parkway||1940||New York City||Queens||Queens||NYCDOT||NYCDOT|
|Franklin D. Roosevelt East River Drive||1955||New York City||Lower Manhattan||Upper Manhattan||NYSDOT/NYCDOT||NYSDOT/NYCDOT|
|Grand Central Parkway||1936||New York City||Queens||New York City line||NYSDOT||NYSDOT|
|Harlem River Drive||1964||New York City||Upper Manhattan||Upper Manhattan||NYSDOT||NYSDOT|
|Heckscher State Parkway||1959||Long Island||West Islip||Heckscher State Park||NYS OPRHP||NYSDOT|
|Henry Hudson Parkway||1937||New York City||Manhattan||New York City line||NYSDOT/NYCDOT/PANYNJ||NYSDOT/NYCDOT/PANYNJ|
|Hutchinson River Parkway||1928||Hudson Valley||The Bronx||Connecticut state line||NYSDOT/NYCDOT||NYSDOT/NYCDOT|
|Jackie Robinson Parkway||1935||New York City||Brooklyn||Queens||NYCDOT||NYSDOT|
|Korean War Veterans Parkway||1972||New York City||Staten Island||Staten Island||NYSDOT||NYSDOT|
|Lake Ontario State Parkway||Western New York||Carlton||Rochester||NYSDOT/NYS OPRHP||NYSDOT|
|Lake Welch Parkway||1971||Hudson Valley||Harriman State Park||Harriman State Park||PIPC||NYSDOT|
|Long Mountain Parkway||Hudson Valley||Harriman State Park||Bear Mountain State Park||NYSDOT||NYSDOT|
|Loop Parkway||1934||Long Island||Lido Beach||Jones Beach State Park||NYS OPRHP||NYSDOT|
|Meadowbrook State Parkway||1934||Long Island||Jones Beach State Park||Westbury||NYS OPRHP||NYSDOT|
|Mosholu Parkway||1937||New York City||Bronx Park||Van Cortlandt Park||NYSDOT/NYCDOT||NYSDOT/NYCDOT|
|Niagara Scenic Parkway||Western New York||Niagara Falls||Porter||NYS OPRHP||NYSDOT|
|Northern State Parkway||1931||Long Island||New York City line||Hauppauge||NYS OPRHP||NYSDOT|
|Ocean Parkway||Long Island||Jones Beach State Park||Captree State Park||NYS OPRHP||NYSDOT|
|Palisades Interstate Parkway||1958||Hudson Valley||Fort Lee, NJ||Bear Mountain State Park||PIPC||NYSDOT|
|Pelham Parkway||New York City||The Bronx||Pelham Bay Park||NYCDOT||NYCDOT|
|Prospect Mountain Veterans Memorial Highway||1969||Adirondacks||Lake George||Prospect Mountain||NYSDEC||NYSDEC|
|Robert Moses Causeway||Long Island||Robert Moses State Park||West Islip||NYS OPRHP||NYSDOT|
|Sagtikos State Parkway||1952||Long Island||West Islip||Commack||NYS OPRHP||NYSDOT|
|Saw Mill River Parkway||1954||Hudson Valley||New York City line||Bedford||NYS OPRHP||NYSDOT|
|Seven Lakes Drive||Hudson Valley||Sloatsburg||Bear Mountain State Park||PIPC||NYSDOT|
|Southern State Parkway||1949||Long Island||Valley Stream||West Islip||NYS OPRHP||NYSDOT|
|Sprain Brook Parkway||1961||Hudson Valley||Yonkers||Hawthorne||NYSDOT||NYSDOT|
|Sunken Meadow State Parkway||1957||Long Island||Commack||Sunken Meadow State Park||NYS OPRHP||NYSDOT|
|Taconic State Parkway||1925||Hudson Valley||North Castle||East Chatham||NYSDOT||NYSDOT|
|Wantagh State Parkway||1929||Long Island||Jones Beach State Park||Westbury||NYS OPRHP||NYSDOT|
|Whiteface Mountain Veterans Memorial Highway||1935||Adirondacks||Wilmington||Whiteface Mountain||NYSDEC||NYSDEC|
Some regions of New York have parkways that are not owned or maintained by a state agency. Westchester County, for example, contains some highways that were originally part of the TSPC and WCPC, while Suffolk County has preserved a section of the former Long Island Motor Parkway (LIMP) for current driving and built their own roads on land originally reserved for the LISPC. The surviving remnant of the LIMP in western Suffolk County, named the Vanderbilt Motor Parkway, became a surface street that is no longer a controlled-access road nor off-limits to commercial vehicles.
List of parkwaysEdit
|Arden Valley Road||1922||Hudson Valley||Harriman State Park||Harriman State Park||PIPC||PIPC|
|Central Westchester Parkway||Hudson Valley||White Plains||White Plains||Westchester County||Westchester County|
|Farragut Parkway||Hudson Valley||Hastings-on-Hudson||Hastings-on-Hudson||Westchester County||Westchester County|
|Fire Island Beach Road||Long Island||Fire Island||Fire Island||Suffolk County||Suffolk County|
|Memorial Parkway||Mohawk Valley||Genesee Street, Utica||Albany Street, Utica||City of Utica||City of Utica|
|Playland Parkway||1929||Hudson Valley||Harrison||Playland||Westchester County||Westchester County|
|Tiorati Brook Road||Hudson Valley||Harriman State Park||Bear Mountain State Park||PIPC||PIPC|
|Vanderbilt Motor Parkway||Long Island||Melville||Lake Ronkonkoma||Suffolk County||Suffolk County|
|William Floyd Parkway||Long Island||Fire Island||Rocky Point||Suffolk County||Suffolk County|
- nycroads.com Bronx River Parkway
- Sam Berlinner's Long Island Motor Parkway page; Map of Toll Booths on Long Island Motor Parkway
- nycroads.com Long Island Motor Parkway
- nycroads.com Long Island Parkway System History
- Mauch, C.; Zeller, T. (2008). The World Beyond the Windshield: Roads and Landscapes in the United States and Europe. Ohio University Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8214-1767-6. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
- DeWan, George (May 3, 1998). "The Master Builder: How planner Robert Moses transformed Long Island for the 20th Century and beyond". Newsday. New York City. p. A12.
Although he denied it, the bridges on the parkways had been built too low to accommodate buses so that poor people without cars, especially minorities, could not get to parks and beaches. Caro said that he was told this privately by one of Moses' right-hand men, Sid Shapiro, who later himself became head of the park commission.
- Campanella, Thomas J. (2017-07-09). "The True Measure of Robert Moses (and His Racist Bridges)". CityLab. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
- New York State Department of Transportation - Got Stuck?
- New York State Department of Transportation (January 2012). Official Description of Highway Touring Routes, Bicycling Touring Routes, Scenic Byways, & Commemorative/Memorial Designations in New York State (PDF). Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- "New Highway Across Long Island To Link North and South Shores". The New York Times. November 15, 1936. p. N1.
- "L.I. Parkway to Open". The New York Times. November 1, 1962. p. 45.
- "Parkway Now Open". The Evening News. Newburgh, NY. June 28, 1971. p. 1B. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
- "New Local Roads Soon; Meadowbrook Open for Traffic to Beaches". The New York Times. June 2, 1935. p. XX12.
- "Palisades Route Will Open Today". The New York Times. August 28, 1958.
- Brooks, Pamela A. (June 4, 2007). "Missing veterans honored on mountaintop". The Post-Star. Glens Falls, NY. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
- "Two Main Long Island Parkways to Be Linked at East Ends Today". The New York Times. September 29, 1952. p. 25. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
- "Parkway Section at Yonkers Opens". The New York Times. December 24, 1963. p. 19.
- "L.I. Parkway Link Will Open Today; New Spur Connects Shore and Northern State Parkway". The New York Times. April 1, 1957. p. 27.
- "Road Up Whiteface Opened To Traffic". The New York Times. July 21, 1935. p. 3.
- Panetta, Roger (2006). Westchester: The American Suburb. Fordham University Press. p. 53. ISBN 9780823225941.