Ibn Jurayj

Abd al-Malik ibn Abd al-Aziz ibn Jurayj (Arabic: عبد الملك بن عبد العزيز بن جريج‎, romanizedʿAbd al-Malik ibn ʿAbd al-Azīz ibn Jurayj, 80 AH/699 CE - 150 AH/767 CE) was an eighth-century faqīh, exegete and hadith transmitter from the Taba' at-Tabi'in.

Ibn Jurayj
بن جريج
Ibn Jurayj (calligraphic, transparent background).png
Ibn Jurayj's name in Arabic calligraphy
Personal
Born80 AH/699 CE
Died11 Dhu al-Hijjah 150 AH/768 CE (aged 70)
ReligionIslam
ParentsAbd al-Aziz ibn Jurayj (father)
RegionHejaz
Main interest(s)Islamic jurisprudence, hadith, Quranic exegesis
Muslim leader

BiographyEdit

Ibn Jurayj was born in Mecca in 70 AH/699 CE. His father Abd al-Aziz was reportedly a faqīh, while his grandfather Jurayj was of Byzantine origin; Jurayj is an Arabic rendition of the Greek name Georgios.[1][2] He was raised as a mawla (client) of the Al-Khalid ibn Asid clan of Banu Umayya, who had enslaved his grandfather.[3]

At the age of 15, he was accepted to the study circle of Meccan jurist Ata ibn Abi Rabah after previously being rejected for lacking knowledge on Quran recitation and Islamic inheritance laws. After remaining with Ata for around 18 years, he left to study under Amr ibn Dinar until 120 AH/738 CE. During this period, he also attended the lectures of Mujahid ibn Jabr, Ibn Abi Mulayka and Nafi, the mawla of Abdullah ibn Umar. He eventually took on students of his own, most notably the historian Al-Waqidi and jurist Sufyan ibn ʽUyaynah. Marrying a woman known in biographical sources for her piety, Ibn Jurayj had a son, Abd al-Aziz, and a grandson, al-Walid, taking on the kunya Abu al-Walid.[2][4]

Although he rarely travelled outside the Hejaz, Ibn Jurayj visited Iraq and Yemen towards the end of his life, staying in Baghdad and Sanaa. He died on 11 Dhu al-Hijjah 150 AH/768 CE.[2]

ViewsEdit

Ibn Jurayj believed in the permissibility of nikah mut'ah. The number of mut'ah marriages he contracted is given variously as 60 by Jarir ibn Abdullah al-Dabbi, 70 by Al-Shafi‘i and 90 by Al-Dhahabi,[2][5] although narrations present in later sources describe Ibn Jurayj retracting this opinion.[6] Harald Motzki suggests his view on mut'ah accorded with a Meccan school tradition that was originated by Ibn Abbas and developed by his student Ata ibn Abi Rabah, and thus did not stem from the Sunni-Shi'ite dispute on the matter.[2]

LegacyEdit

WorksEdit

Ibn Jurayj's collection of traditions, reportedly titled Kitab al-Sunan, is credited with pioneering the standard structure of fiqh works and beginning the musannaf genre. His student Abd al-Razzaq ibn Hammam claimed he was the first to arrange traditions in subject order, dividing them into chapters named 'books'. Ibn al-Nadim, who was familiar with the work, stated it was similar in form to later works of sunan - containing, for example, a chapter (kitāb) on salah followed by a chapter on zakat.[2][7]

He also reportedly authored books on tafsir and manasik, referred to in later sources as Kitāb al-Tafsir and Kitāb al-Manāsik respectively.[8] However, according to Ahmad ibn Hanbal, the work on tafsir in fact consisted of his students' recordings of the lectures he gave on the subject.[2] In 2020, his tafsir was published for the first time after a manuscript of the work was discovered. It contained commentary on surahs An-Nisa to Al-Waqi'a.[9]

HadithEdit

Hadith transmitted by Ibn Jurayj are present in all six of the canonical Sunni hadith collections.[10] During his stay in Yemen, Ibn Jurayj's lectures were attended by ʽAbd al-Razzaq al-Sanʽani, who included 5,000 of the traditions taught in his musannaf.[11]

Ibn Jurayj's status as a hadith transmitter was viewed positively by his student Yahya ibn Sa'id al-Qattani, although he cast doubt on those traditions which had been transmitted from memory and where an informant had been concealed (tadlis). The evaluation of Ibn Jurayj being a trustworthy transmitter when not practicing tadlis was also shared by later hadith critics, including Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Yahya ibn Maʻin and Ali ibn al-Madini.[2] More recently, Motzki assessed Ibn Jurayj's material in ʽAbd al-Razzaq al-Sanʽani's musannaf, concluding he did not forge the traditions he transmitted.[11]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The Name Jurayj". Classical Arabic. 18 June 2020. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Motzki, Harald (2002). The Origins of Islamic Jurisprudence: Meccan Fiqh Before the Classical Schools. Translated by Katz, Marion H. Brill. pp. 268–288.
  3. ^ Motzki, Harald (2016-03-02). "Ibn Jurayj". Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE.
  4. ^ Motzki, Harald; Anthony, Sean W.; Boekhoff-Van Der Voort, Nicolet (2010). "The Jurisprudence of Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri". Analysing Muslim Traditions: Studies in Legal, Exegetical and Maghazi Hadith. Leiden: Brill.
  5. ^ Tadhkirat al-huffaz Volume 1 pages 170 -171
  6. ^ Talkhis al-Habeer, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, vol 3, page 160, printed in Medina in 1964.
  7. ^ A. Kevin Reinhart, Ritual Action and Practical Action: The Incomprehensibility of Muslim Devotional Action. Taken from Islamic Law in Theory: Studies on Jurisprudence in Honor of Bernard Weiss, pg. 68. Eds. Kevin Reinhart and Robert Gleave. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2014. ISBN 9789004265196
  8. ^ al-Azami, Muhammad Mustafa (1978). Studies in Early Hadith Literature: with a critical edition of some early texts. Indiapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications. p. 114.
  9. ^ "تفسير ابن جريج بتحقيق عبدالرحمن قائد". www.alukah.net (in Arabic). 2020-03-10. Retrieved 2020-08-05.
  10. ^ "Ibn Jurayj ابن جريج". muslimscholars.info. Retrieved 2020-08-05.
  11. ^ a b Motzki, Harald (1991). "The Muṣannaf of ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-Sanʿānī as a Source of Authentic Aḥādīth of the First Century A. H." Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 50 (1): 1–21. ISSN 0022-2968.