IRT Jerome Avenue Line
The IRT Jerome Avenue Line, also unofficially known as IRT Woodlawn Line, is an A Division New York City Subway line mostly along Jerome Avenue in the Bronx. Originally an Interborough Rapid Transit Company-operated route, it was built as part of the Dual Contracts expansion and opened in 1917 and 1918. It is both elevated and underground with 161st Street–Yankee Stadium being the southernmost elevated station. The line has three tracks from south of the Woodlawn station to the 138th Street–Grand Concourse station. The Woodlawn Line also has a connection to the Jerome Yard, where 4 trains are stored, just north of the Bedford Park Boulevard–Lehman College station.
|IRT Jerome Avenue Line|
|System||New York City Subway|
138th Street–Grand Concourse
|Owner||City of New York|
|Operator(s)||New York City Transit Authority|
|Character||Underground (South of Yankee Stadium)|
Elevated (Most of The Bronx)
|Number of tracks||2-3|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|Electrification||600V DC third rail|
Extent and serviceEdit
The following services use part or all of the IRT Jerome Avenue Line:
|North of 138 St–GC|
North of 125 St
|Rush hours||local/express||express peak direction only|
|All except late nights||no service||local|
|Late nights||no service|
The Jerome Avenue Line is served locally by the 4 train at all times, except for the 138th Street–Grand Concourse station, as well as select trains run express non stop between 167 Streets and Burnside Avenue or from 149th Street Grand Concourse to Burnside Avenue. Other than that which the 4 serves 138th Street at all times except rush hours in the peak direction, and the 5 train's sole stop is 138th Street at all times except late nights.
As part of a pilot program to evaluate express service on the line, from June 8, 2009 to June 26, 2009, the MTA operated four trains southbound on the express track between 7:15 AM and 8:00 AM. The trains stopped at Woodlawn, Mosholu Parkway, Burnside Avenue, and 149th Street–Grand Concourse, then continued down the normal route. From October 26, 2009, to December 11, 2009, another pilot program to run express service ran, this time adding Bedford Park Boulevard–Lehman College as an additional stop. A fifth train had also been added and trains now run every 20 minutes from 7:00am to 8:20am.
Though named for Jerome Avenue, the southernmost portion of the line runs underground beneath the Grand Concourse. North of the 149th Street station around the vicinity of Franz Sigel Park, the line curves to the northwest and emerges from a tunnel under Gerard Avenue north of East 153rd Street, and becomes an elevated line over River Avenue just south of the intersection with East 157th Street. Just north of Yankee Stadium station, the line encounters the skeletal remains of the IRT Ninth Avenue elevated line between Gate Number 8 and the east end of the 164th Street Parking Garage, between the intersections of 162nd and 164th Streets. Almost a block after 167th Street station, the line finally runs over the eponymous road when River Avenue ends at Jerome Avenue across from the intersection of West 169th Street.
The line remains over Jerome Avenue for most of the rest of its journey. The north end of the Mount Eden Avenue station can be seen from the Cross Bronx Expressway. After the northwest entrance of the historic Concourse Yard and then north of 198th Street, the road briefly moves east of the line. North of Bedford Park Boulevard station, Jerome Avenue returns under the line and between the intersections with East 205th Street and West 205th Street, a spur for the Jerome Yard branches off to the northwest as well. The IRT Jerome Avenue Line finally ends at Woodlawn, while Jerome Avenue itself continues north towards the Major Deegan Expressway.
For more than two decades, there had been calls to provide transit service to the residents of the Western Bronx. When the first subway was being planned, a branch of the line to this area was under consideration, but it was not found to be feasible to build such a connection because of financial reasons. The Board of Rapid Transit Commissioners, on June 1, 1905, adopted three rapid transit routes, Numbers 15, 16, and 17, all with the purpose of serving the underserved western area of the borough. Route 15 would have been a four-track subway under Jerome Avenue, with a connection to the Ninth Avenue Elevated through 162nd Street. Route 16 called for a three-track elevated line along Jerome Avenue, extending from Clarke Place north to Woodlawn Road. Route 17 would have required the construction of a subway line under Gerard Avenue to form the southern connection to the Jerome Avenue Line. Of the three options, Route 15 was approved by the Board of Estimate on July 14, 1905, and by Mayor George McClellan two weeks later.
On June 16, 1908, the proposal to construct a subway under Gerard Avenue was abandoned because of the soil conditions, which made the project too expensive to be constructed at the time. Instead, the Commission adopted Route 23, known as the River Avenue route, which provided for an elevated railroad and subway connecting the Jerome Avenue elevated line with the Lexington Avenue Line. This route was utilized as part of the Jerome Avenue Line. The route was approved by the Board of Estimate on June 26, 1908, and by the Mayor four days later.
The Dual Contracts, which were signed on March 19, 1913, were contracts for the construction and/or rehabilitation and operation of rapid transit lines in the City of New York. The contracts were "dual" in that they were signed between the City and two separate private companies (the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company), all working together to make the construction of the Dual Contracts possible. The Dual Contracts promised the construction of several lines in the Bronx. As part of Contract 3, the IRT agreed to build an elevated line along Jerome Avenue in the Bronx.
The first part of the line opened on June 2, 1917 as a shuttle service between Kingsbridge Road and 149th Street. Only the southbound platform was in use at Kingsbridge Road. This was in advance of through service to the IRT Lexington Avenue Line, which began on July 17, 1918. The line was extended from Kingsbridge Road to Woodlawn on April 15, 1918. This section was initially served by shuttle service, with passengers transferring at 167th Street.:48 The construction of the line encouraged development along Jerome Avenue, and led to the growth of the surrounding communities.
The Jerome Avenue line cost approximately $7 million, with $3 million spent on the elevated section and $4 million spent on the underground section.
In 1918, the Ninth Avenue elevated was extended from the Polo Grounds terminal, entering the Bronx via the Putnam Bridge, a now-demolished swing bridge immediately north of the Macombs Dam Bridge, to connect with the Jerome Avenue line between 161st Street and 167th Street. After the lower portion of the Ninth Avenue Line closed on June 12, 1940, a shuttle continued to operate to the Polo Grounds until after the New York Giants moved to San Francisco. The shuttle closed on August 31, 1958.
|Station service legend|
|Stops all times|
|Stops all times except late nights|
|Stops all times except rush hours in the peak direction|
|Stops rush hours only|
|Stops rush hours in the peak direction only|
|Time period details|
|Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act|
|↑||Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act|
in the indicated direction only
|Elevator access to mezzanine only|
|Station||Tracks||Services||Opened||Transfers and notes|
|Norwood||Woodlawn||4||April 15, 1918||Terminal|
|Center Express track begins (No Regular Service to 149th Street–Grand Concourse)|
|Mosholu Parkway||local||4||April 15, 1918|
|connecting tracks to Jerome Yard|
|Bedford Park||Bedford Park Boulevard–Lehman College||local||4||April 15, 1918|
|connecting track to Concourse Yard|
|Kingsbridge Heights||Kingsbridge Road||local||4||June 2, 1917|
|University Heights||Fordham Road||local||4||June 2, 1917||Bx12 Select Bus Service|
|183rd Street||local||4||June 2, 1917|
|Morris Heights||Burnside Avenue||all||4||June 2, 1917|
|176th Street||local||4||June 2, 1917|
|Highbridge||Mount Eden Avenue||local||4||June 2, 1917|
|170th Street||local||4||June 2, 1917|
|Highbridge / Concourse||167th Street||local||4||June 2, 1917|
|161st Street–Yankee Stadium||local||4||June 2, 1917||Bx6 Select Bus Service|
B D (IND Concourse Line)
Connection to Metro-North Railroad's Hudson Line at Yankees–East 153rd Street
|4 service switches to/from center express track|
|Mott Haven||149th Street–Grand Concourse||all||4||June 2, 1917||2 5 (IRT White Plains Road Line)|
|Branch from IRT White Plains Road Line joins (5 )|
|138th Street–Grand Concourse||local||4 5||July 17, 1918||Originally named Mott Haven Avenue|
|Center Express track ends|
|Continues as IRT Lexington Avenue Line (4 5 )|
- MTA. "Average weekday subway ridership". Archived from the original on March 28, 2014. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- "Subway Service Guide" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. September 2019. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
- "MTA New York City Transit Pilots Bronx Express Service Along the Jerome Ave. Line" (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. June 4, 2009. Retrieved June 8, 2009.
- "Second Pilot Program of Bronx Express Service Along the Jerome Ave. 4 Line Set to Begin" (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 22, 2009. Retrieved November 11, 2009.
- "www.nycsubway.org: Service Begun on the Jerome Avenue Line (1917)". www.nycsubway.org. June 1, 1905. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
- "Terms and Conditions of Dual System Contracts". nycsubway.org. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
- "The Dual System of Rapid Transit (1912)". nycsubway.org.
- "Most Recent Map of the Dual Subway System WhIch Shows How Brooklyn Borough Is Favored In New Transit Lines". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 9, 1917. Retrieved August 23, 2016 – via Brooklyn Newspapers.
- "Annual report. 1916-1917". HathiTrust. Interborough Rapid Transit Company. December 12, 2013. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
- Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. 1922. p. 372.
- "Jerome Av. Line Ordered Opened" (PDF). query.nytimes.com. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. 1916. p. 100.
- Cunningham, Joseph; DeHart, Leonard O. (1993). A History of the New York City Subway System. J. Schmidt, R. Giglio, and K. Lang.
- Darlington, Peggy; Pirmann., David (June 3, 1917). "www.nycsubway.org: IRT Woodlawn Line". www.nycsubway.org. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
- "Three New Links of the Dual Subway System Opened" (PDF). The New York Times. June 3, 1917. p. 11. Retrieved February 13, 2009.