International Civil Aviation Organization
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO; French: Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale; Chinese: 国际民航组织) is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It changes the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. Its headquarters is located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
|Formation||4 April 1947|
|Type||United Nations specialized agency|
|United Nations Economic and Social Council|
The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air navigation, its infrastructure, flight inspection, prevention of unlawful interference, and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation. ICAO defines the protocols for air accident investigation that are followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation.
The Air Navigation Commission (ANC) is the technical body within ICAO. The Commission is composed of 19 Commissioners, nominated by the ICAO's contracting states and appointed by the ICAO Council. Commissioners serve as independent experts, who although nominated by their states, do not serve as state or political representatives. International Standards And Recommended Practices are developed under the direction of the ANC through the formal process of ICAO Panels. Once approved by the Commission, standards are sent to the Council, the political body of ICAO, for consultation and coordination with the Member States before final adoption.
ICAO is distinct from other international air transport organizations, particularly because it alone is vested with international authority (among signatory states): other organizations include the International Air Transport Association (IATA), a trade association representing airlines; the Civil Air Navigation Services Organization (CANSO), an organization for Air navigation service providers (ANSPs); and the Airports Council International, a trade association of airport authorities.
The forerunner to ICAO was the International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN). It held its first convention in 1903 in Berlin, Germany, but no agreements were reached among the eight countries that attended. At the second convention in 1906, also held in Berlin, twenty-seven countries attended. The third convention, held in London in 1912 allocated the first radio callsigns for use by aircraft. ICAN continued to operate until 1945.
Fifty-two countries signed the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention, in Chicago, Illinois, on 7 December 1944. Under its terms, a Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization was to be established, to be replaced in turn by a permanent organization when twenty-six countries ratified the convention. Accordingly, PICAO began operating on 6 June 1945, replacing ICAN. The twenty-sixth country ratified the Convention on 5 March 1947 and, consequently, PICAO was disestablished on 4 April 1947 and replaced by ICAO, which began operations the same day. In October 1947, ICAO became an agency of the United Nations under its Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
In April 2013, Qatar offered to serve as the new permanent seat of the Organization. Qatar promised to construct a massive new headquarters for ICAO and to cover all moving expenses, stating that Montreal "was too far from Europe and Asia", "had cold winters", was hard to attend due to the Canadian government's slow issuance of visas, and that the taxes imposed on ICAO by Canada were too high. According to The Globe and Mail, Qatar's invitation was at least partly motivated by the pro-Israel foreign policy of Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper. Approximately one month later, Qatar withdrew its bid after a separate proposal to the ICAO's governing council to move the ICAO triennial conference to Doha was defeated by a vote of 22–14.
In January 2020, ICAO blocked a number of Twitter users—among them think-tank analysts, employees of the United States Congress, and journalists—who mentioned Taiwan in tweets related to ICAO. Many of the tweets concerned the COVID-19 pandemic and Taiwan's exclusion from ICAO safety and health bulletins due to Chinese pressure.
In response to questions from reporters, ICAO issued a tweet stating that publishers of "irrelevant, compromising and offensive material" would be "precluded". Since that action the organization has followed a policy of blocking anyone asking about it. The United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs harshly criticized ICAO's perceived failure to uphold principles of fairness, inclusion, and transparency by silencing non-disruptive opposing voices. Senator Marco Rubio also criticized the move. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Taiwan) and Taiwanese legislators criticized the move with MOFA head Jaushieh Joseph Wu tweeting in support of those blocked.
Anthony Philbin, chief of communications of the ICAO Secretary General, rejected criticism of ICAO's handling of the situation: "We felt we were completely warranted in taking the steps we did to defend the integrity of the information and discussions our followers should reasonably expect from our feeds." In exchanges with International Flight Network, Philbin refused to acknowledge the existence of Taiwan.
On February 1 2020, the US State Department issued a press release which heavily criticized ICAO's actions, characterizing them as "outrageous, unacceptable, and not befitting of a UN organization."
The 9th edition of the Convention on International Civil Aviation includes modifications from years 1948 up to 2006. ICAO refers to its current edition of the Convention as the Statute and designates it as ICAO Document 7300/9. The Convention has 19 Annexes that are listed by title in the article Convention on International Civil Aviation.
The Republic of China (Taiwan) was a founding member of ICAO but was replaced by the People's Republic of China as the legal representative of China in 1971 and as such, did not take part in the organization. In 2013, Taiwan was for the first time invited to attend the ICAO Assembly, at its 38th session, as a guest under the name of Chinese Taipei. As of September 2019[update], it has not been invited to participate again, due to renewed PRC pressure. Host government, Canada, supports Taiwan's inclusion in ICAO. Support also comes from Canada's commercial sector with the president of the Air Transport Association of Canada saying in 2019 that "It's about safety in aviation so from a strictly operational and non-political point of view, I believe Taiwan should be there."
The Council of ICAO is elected by the Assembly every 3 years and consists of 36 members elected in 3 groups. The present Council was elected in October 2019. The structure of the present Council is as follows:
|Group I (chief importance)||Group II (large contributions)||Group III (geographic representation)|
Each country should have an accessible Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP), based on standards defined by ICAO, containing information essential to air navigation. Countries are required to update their AIP manuals every 28 days and so provide definitive regulations, procedures and information for each country about airspace and airports. ICAO's standards also dictate that temporary hazards to aircraft must be regularly published using NOTAMs.
ICAO defines an International Standard Atmosphere (also known as ICAO Standard Atmosphere), a model of the standard variation of pressure, temperature, density, and viscosity with altitude in the Earth's atmosphere. This is useful in calibrating instruments and designing aircraft. The standardized pressure is also used in calibrating instruments in-flight, particularly above the transition altitude.
ICAO is active in infrastructure management, including communication, navigation and surveillance / air traffic management (CNS/ATM) systems, which employ digital technologies (like satellite systems with various levels of automation) in order to maintain a seamless global air traffic management system.
ICAO has published standards for machine-readable passports. Machine-readable passports have an area where some of the information otherwise written in textual form is also written as strings of alphanumeric characters, printed in a manner suitable for optical character recognition. This enables border controllers and other law enforcement agents to process such passports more quickly, without having to enter the information manually into a computer. ICAO's technical standard for machine-readable passports is contained in Document 9303 Machine Readable Travel Documents.
A more recent standard covers biometric passports. These contain biometrics to authenticate the identity of travellers. The passport's critical information is stored on a tiny RFID computer chip, much like information stored on smart cards. Like some smart cards, the passport book design calls for an embedded contactless chip that is able to hold digital signature data to ensure the integrity of the passport and the biometric data.
Aerodrome reference codeEdit
|1||< 800 m (2,625 ft)|
|2||800–1,200 m (2,625–3,937 ft)|
|3||1,200–1,800 m (3,937–5,906 ft)|
|4||≥ 1,800 m (5,906 ft)|
|Letter||Wingspan||Main gear span||Airbus||Boeing||Others|
|A||< 15 m (49.2 ft)||< 4.5 m (14.8 ft)||BN-2 Islander, Honda HA-420 HondaJet, Cirrus Vision SF50|
|B||15–24 m (49.2–78.7 ft)||4.5–6 m (14.8–19.7 ft)||CRJ 100/200/700, Embraer ERJ|
|C||24–36 m (78.7–118.1 ft)||6–9 m (19.7–29.5 ft)||A220, A320 family||B717, B727, B737||ATR 42/72, CRJ 900/1000, Dash 8, Embraer E-Jet, Mitsubishi SpaceJet|
|D||36–52 m (118.1–170.6 ft)||9–14 m (29.5–45.9 ft)||A300/A310||B707, B757, B767||DC-10/MD-11, Il-86, L-1011|
|E||52–65 m (170.6–213.3 ft)||9–14 m (29.5–45.9 ft)||A330/A340, A350||B747, B777, B787||Il-96|
|F||65–80 m (213.3–262.5 ft)||14–16 m (45.9–52.5 ft)||A380||B747-8||Antonov An-124 Ruslan|
Both ICAO and IATA have their own airport and airline code systems.
ICAO uses 4-letter airport codes (vs. IATA's 3-letter codes). The ICAO code is based on the region and country of the airport—for example, Charles de Gaulle Airport has an ICAO code of LFPG, where L indicates Southern Europe, F, France, PG, Paris de Gaulle, while Orly Airport has the code LFPO (the 3rd letter sometimes refers to the particular flight information region (FIR) or the last two may be arbitrary). In most parts of the world, ICAO and IATA codes are unrelated; for example, Charles de Gaulle Airport has an IATA code of CDG. However, the location prefix for continental United States is K, and ICAO codes are usually the IATA code with this prefix. For example, the ICAO code for Los Angeles International Airport is KLAX. Canada follows a similar pattern, where a prefix of C is usually added to an IATA code to create the ICAO code. For example, Calgary International Airport is YYC or CYYC. (In contrast, airports in Hawaii are in the Pacific region and so have ICAO codes that start with PH; Kona International Airport's code is PHKO. Similarly, airports in Alaska have ICAO codes that start with PA. Merrill Field, for instance is PAMR.) Note that not all airports are assigned codes in both systems; for example, airports that do not have airline service do not need an IATA code.
ICAO also assigns 3-letter airline codes (versus the more-familiar 2-letter IATA codes—for example, UAL vs. UA for United Airlines). ICAO also provides telephony designators to aircraft operators worldwide, a one- or two-word designator used on the radio, usually, but not always, similar to the aircraft operator name. For example, the identifier for Japan Airlines International is JAL and the designator is Japan Air, but Aer Lingus is EIN and Shamrock. Thus, a Japan Airlines flight numbered 111 would be written as "JAL111" and pronounced "Japan Air One One One" on the radio, while a similarly numbered Aer Lingus would be written as "EIN111" and pronounced "Shamrock One One One". In the US, FAA practices require the digits of the flight number to be spoken in group format ("Japan Air One Eleven" in the above example) while individual digits are used for the aircraft tail number used for unscheduled civil flights.
ICAO maintains the standards for aircraft registration ("tail numbers"), including the alphanumeric codes that identify the country of registration. For example, airplanes registered in the United States have tail numbers starting with N.
Aircraft type designatorsEdit
ICAO is also responsible for issuing 2-4 character alphanumeric aircraft type designators for those aircraft types which are most commonly provided with air traffic service. These codes provide an abbreviated aircraft type identification, typically used in flight plans. For example, the Boeing 747-100, -200 and -300 are given the type designators B741, B742 and B743 respectively.
Use of the International System of UnitsEdit
ICAO recommends a unification of units of measurement within aviation based on the International System of Units (SI). Technically this makes SI units preferred, but in practice the following non-SI units are still in widespread use within commercial aviation:
Knots, nautical miles and feet have been permitted for temporary use since 1979, but a termination date has not yet been established, which would complete metrication of worldwide aviation. Since 2010, ICAO recommends using:
- Kilometres per hour (km/h) for speed during travel.
- Metres per second (m/s) for wind speed during landing.
- Kilometres (km) for distance.
- Metres (m) for elevation.
Notably, aviation in Russia, Sweden and China currently use km/h for reporting airspeed, and many present-day European glider planes also indicate airspeed in kilometres per hour. Sweden, China and North Korea use metres for reporting altitude when communicating with pilots. Russia also formerly used metres exclusively for reporting altitude, but in 2011 changed to feet for high altitude flight. From February 2017, Russian airspace started transitioning to reporting altitude in feet only. Runway lengths are now commonly given in metres worldwide, except in North America where feet are commonly used.
The table below summarizes some of the units commonly used in flight and ground operations, as well as their recommended replacement. A full list of recommended units can be found in annex 5 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation.
Table of unitsEdit
|Measurement||Recommended||Current de facto||Comment|
|Airspeed and ground speed||km/h||kn||Mach is sometimes instead used for high altitude flight.|
|Distance (ground)||km||nmi||Distance in km has widespread use in European gliders.|
|Flight level†||m||ft||Metres are used by China, Mongolia, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, and formerly Russia. From 2017, Russian airspace has transitioned from metres to feet.|
|Runway length||m||m or ft||Feet are still used for runway lengths in North America.|
|Wind speed||m/s||kn||Until 2010 ICAO recommended km/h for reporting wind speed on runways. Metres per second is used by Russian and Chinese airports.|
|Rate of climb||m/s||ft/min, kn, m/s||Lift and sink rate is measured using a variometer.|
|Temperature||°C||°C||Celsius is used for aviation weather reporting globally. Fahrenheit (°F) maybe used for displaying, controlling, and documenting system temperatures (HVAC, engine) on older North American aircraft.|
|Atmospheric pressure||hPa||inHg, mb, hPa||Hectopascals are mostly used in aviation worldwide, while inches of mercury is used in Japan and North America.|
|Visibility||m||ft, mi, m||Reported in metres for most of the world. Visibility over 5000 m may be given in kilometres. American airports use statute miles, or alternatively in feet when measured with a laser.|
|Tank capacity||L||kg, lbs, UK gallon, US gallon, L||Used for fuel tank capacity of an aircraft. Unit varies depending on the gauges fitted to the aircraft. The most common current unit is kilograms.|
|Volume||m3||m3||Used for general volume capacity.|
|Mass||kg||lbs, tonne, long ton, short ton, kg||Used for cargo capacity, fuel capacity, gross mass, payload. Tonne may also be used for gross mass and payload. Tons are often used informally during flight planning to gauge approximate weights. Ton then usually either refers to the tonne, or the long ton or short ton which differ from the tonne by about 2% and 10% respectively.|
|Attitude||deg||Measured with an attitude indicator, and are always presented in degrees. (Sensors, data and calculations may however use a mix of degrees and radians, as many scientists and engineers prefer to work with radians.)|
|Turn and slip||deg/s, min/tr||A common turn rate for commercial aircraft is 3 deg/s, which is often translated to (the inverse unit) 2 min/turn.|
|Heading||compass points||Measured with a heading indicator.|
† Altitude, elevation, height.
Regions and regional officesEdit
ICAO has a headquarters, seven regional offices, and one regional sub-office:
- Headquarters – Montreal, Quebec, Canada
- Asia and Pacific (APAC) – Bangkok, Thailand; Sub-office – Beijing, China
- Eastern and Southern African (ESAF) – Nairobi, Kenya
- Europe and North Atlantic (EUR/NAT) – Paris, France
- Middle East (MID) – Cairo, Egypt
- North American, Central American and Caribbean (NACC) – Mexico City, Mexico
- South American (SAM) – Lima, Peru
- Western and Central African (WACAF) – Dakar, Senegal
This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
List of Secretaries GeneralEdit
|Secretary||Country of nationality||Term|
|Renato Claudio Costa Pereira||Brazil||1997–2003|
|Shivinder Singh Sidhu||India||1988–1991|
|Bernardus Tielman Twigt||Netherlands||1964–1970|
|Ronald MacAllister Macdonnell||Canada||1959–1964|
List of Council PresidentsEdit
|President||Country of nationality||Term|
|Olumuyiwa Benard Aliu||Nigeria||2013–2019|
|Roberto Kobeh Gonzalez||Mexico||2006–2013|
|Edward Pearson Warner||United States||1947–1957|
This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (February 2009)
Emissions from international aviation are specifically excluded from the targets agreed under the Kyoto Protocol. Instead, the Protocol invites developed countries to pursue the limitation or reduction of emissions through the International Civil Aviation Organization. ICAO's environmental committee continues to consider the potential for using market-based measures such as trading and charging, but this work is unlikely to lead to global action. It is currently developing guidance for states who wish to include aviation in an emissions trading scheme (ETS) to meet their Kyoto commitments, and for airlines who wish to participate voluntarily in a trading scheme.
Emissions from domestic aviation are included within the Kyoto targets agreed by countries. This has led to some national policies such as fuel and emission taxes for domestic air travel in the Netherlands and Norway, respectively. Although some countries tax the fuel used by domestic aviation, there is no duty on kerosene used on international flights.
Agreement on CO2 emissions from international aviation, October 2016Edit
On 6 October 2016, the ICAO finalized an agreement among its 191 member nations to address the more than 1000 million tonnes of carbon dioxide emitted annually by international passenger and cargo flights. The agreement will use an offsetting scheme called CORSIA (the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation) under which forestry and other carbon-reducing activities are directly funded, amounting to about 2% of annual revenues for the sector. Rules against 'double counting' should ensure that existing forest protection efforts are not recycled. The scheme does not take effect until 2021 and will be voluntary until 2027, but many countries, including the US and China, have promised to begin at its 2020 inception date. Under the agreement, the global aviation emissions target is a 50% reduction by 2050 relative to 2005. NGO reaction to the deal was mixed.
The agreement has critics. It is not aligned with the 2015 Paris climate agreement, which set the objective of restricting global warming to 1.5 to 2 °C. A late draft of the agreement would have required the air transport industry to assess its share of global carbon budgeting to meet that objective, but the text was removed in the agreed version. CORSIA will regulate only about 25 percent of aviation's international emissions, since it grandfathers all emissions below the 2020 level, allowing unregulated growth until then. Only 65 nations will participate in the initial voluntary period, not including significant emitters Russia, India and perhaps Brazil. The agreement does not cover domestic emissions, which are 40% of the global industry's overall emissions. One observer of the ICAO convention made this summary:
Airline claims that flying will now be green are a myth. Taking a plane is the fastest and cheapest way to fry the planet and this deal won't reduce demand for jet fuel one drop. Instead offsetting aims to cut emissions in other industries,
although another critic called it "a timid step in the right direction."
Investigations of air disastersEdit
Most air accident investigations are carried out by an agency of a country that is associated in some way with the accident. For example, the Air Accidents Investigation Branch conducts accident investigations on behalf of the British Government. ICAO has conducted four investigations involving air disasters, of which two were passenger airliners shot down while in international flight over hostile territory.
- Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 which was shot down on 21 February 1973 by Israeli F-4 jets over the Sinai Peninsula during a period of tension that led to the Arab-Israeli Yom Kippur War killing 108 people.
- Korean Air Lines Flight 007, which was shot down on 1 September 1983 by a Soviet Su-15 interceptor near Moneron Island just west of Sakhalin Island during a period of heightened Cold War tension killing all 269 people on board including U.S. Representative Larry McDonald.
- UTA Flight 772, which was destroyed by a bomb on 19 September 1989 above the Sahara Desert in Niger, en route from N'Djamena, Chad, to Paris, France. The explosion caused the aircraft to break up, killing all 156 passengers and 15 crew members, including the wife of U.S. Ambassador Robert L. Pugh. Investigators determined that a bomb placed in the cargo hold by Chadian rebels backed by Libya was responsible for the explosion. A French court convicted in absentia six Libyans of planning and implementing the attack.
- The 1996 shootdown of Brothers to the Rescue aircraft on 24 February 1996, when two civilian aircraft operating north of Cuba were shot down by two jets of the Cuban Air Force. The Cuban military alleged that aircraft operated by the group Brothers to the Rescue had scattered propaganda leaflets onto Cuba prior to the incident, and issued orders that such aircraft be shot down. All four crew members aboard the two aircraft were killed, whilst a third aircraft managed to escape and return to the American mainland.
Drone regulations and registrationEdit
ICAO is looking at having a singular ledger for drone registration to help law enforcement globally. Currently, ICAO is responsible for creating drone regulations across the globe, and it is expected that it will only maintain the registry. This activity is seen as a forerunner to global regulations on flying drones under the auspices of the ICAO.
ICAO currently maintains the 'UAS Regulation Portal' for various countries to list their country's UAS regulations and also review the best practices from across the globe.
- Höhne, Sebastian. "IT in general Aviation: Pen and Paper vs. Bits and Bytes" (PDF). hoehne.net. p. 38. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Air Navigation Commission". ICAO. Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- "Golden Years of Aviation - Register index". Archived from the original on 22 December 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- "Registrations". Golden Years of Aviation. Archived from the original on 30 January 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- "1912 Radio Callsign prefixes". Golden Years of Aviation. Archived from the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- "icao.int International Civil Aviation Organization History". Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
- Baird fighting 'tooth and nail' to keep UN aviation office in Montreal Archived 21 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine, CBC News, 2 May 2013.
- Disgruntled Arab states look to strip Canada of UN agency Archived 4 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine by Campbell Clark, The Globe and Mail, 2 May 2013.
- Canada now paying the price for Baird's misstep into East Jerusalem Archived 11 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine by Michael Bell, Special to The Globe and Mail, 6 May 2013.
- ICAO stays in Montreal after Qatar stumbles Archived 3 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine by François Shalom, The Montreal Gazette, 24 May 2013.
- "Lobbying saved Montreal's UN aviation agency, Paradis says". CBC News. 24 May 2013. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- Qatar Withdraws Offer to Host ICAO Permanent Seat Archived 13 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine, ICAO Newsroom, 24 May 2013.
- Chang, Sean; Taylor, Jerome (29 January 2020). "Twitter row over Taiwan virus response hits UN aviation body". news.yahoo.com. AFP. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
- Pei-ju, Teng. "UN's aviation agency blocks Twitter accounts mentioning 'Taiwan'". Taiwan News. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Grundy, Tom (28 January 2020). "Wuhan coronavirus: UN aviation body blocks users who raise issue of Taiwan's inclusion on Twitter". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Allen-Ebrahimian, Bethany. "UN aviation agency blocks critics of Taiwan policy on Twitter". Axios. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Smith, Nicola (28 January 2020). "UN aviation body criticised for 'silencing' critics over Taiwan's role in virus fight". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Writer, Staff. "US House committee blasts ICAO over Taiwan issue". Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Wert, Jakob (28 January 2020). "ICAO excludes Taiwan from cooperation amid Coronavirus, rejects criticism". International Flight Network. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Ortagus, Morgan (1 February 2020). "ICAO's Outrageous Practice of Blocking Twitter Users Who Reference Taiwan". United States Department of State (Press release). Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- Tiezzi, Shannon (4 February 2020). "Amid Coronavirus Panic, Taiwan Scrambles to Distinguish Itself From China". The Diplomat. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- "Annex 19 on Security Management". Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- "Member States" (PDF). ICAO. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 June 2012. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
- South Sudan becomes 191st member of ICAO – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan. Sudan Tribune. Retrieved on 2013-07-12. Archived 23 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- "Member States.English.pdf" (PDF). ICAO. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 June 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2014. The Minister of Switzerland made the following statement in the note transmitting the Swiss Instrument of Ratification: "My Government has instructed me to notify you that the authorities in Switzerland have agreed with the authorities in the Principality of Liechtenstein that this Convention will be applicable to the territory of the Principality as well as to that of the Swiss Confederation, as long as the Treaty of 29 March 1923 integrating the whole territory of Liechtenstein with the Swiss customs territory will remain in force".
- Jennings, Ralph. "UN Aviation Agency Rejects Taiwan: Here's Why It Matters". www.forbes.com. Forbes. Archived from the original on 25 November 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Joseph Yeh, Chiang Chin-yeh and. "Taiwan's absence from ICAO creates gap in aviation network: CAA". focustaiwan.tw. Focus Taiwan. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- "Sorry, you're not invited: UN aviation agency snubs Taiwan in sign of pressure from Beijing". www.scmp.com. South China Morning Post. Reuter. 23 September 2016. Archived from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Sutton, David. "International Civil Aviation Organization Shuts out Taiwan". thediplomat.com. The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Robert Fife, Steven Chase and. "Canada backing Taiwan's effort to gain invitation to International Civil Aviation Organization". www.theglobeandmail.com. The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- "ICAO Assembly elects new Council for three-year term". www.icao.int. Archived from the original on 13 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
- Manual of the ICAO Standard Atmosphere: extended to 80 kilometres (262,500 feet) (in English, French, Spanish, and Russian) (3rd ed.). Montreal: ICAO. 1993. ISBN 92-9194-004-6. Archived from the original (CD-ROM) on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- "Infrastructure Management". ICAO. Archived from the original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- "Welcome to the ICAO Machine Readable Travel Documents Programme". ICAO. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- Machine Readable Travel Documents, Document 9303 (Sixth ed.). ICAO. 2006. Archived from the original on 11 December 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
- ICAO Annex 14 — Aerodromes
- "ICAO Aerodrome Reference Code, FAA Airplane Design Group and Aircraft Approach Category for Airbus Aircraft" (PDF). Airbus. September 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
- "Boeing Commercial Aircraft - Design Groups/Codes (FAA & ICAO)" (PDF). Boeing. 4 November 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 27 March 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "DOC 8643 - Aircraft Type Designators". ICAO. 1 February 2019. Archived from the original on 2 February 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "International Civil Aviation Organization - Assembly Resolutions in Force (as of 8 October 2010) - Doc 9958 - Published by authority of the Secretary General" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- Council action in pursuance of Assembly Resolution A22-18 adopted 23 March 1979: [..]to cover all aspects of air and ground operations; provision of standardized system of units based on the SI; identification of non-SI units permitted for use in international civil aviation; provision for termination of the use of certain non-SI units.
- "Aviation's Crazy, Mixed Up Units of Measure - AeroSavvy". 5 September 2014. Archived from the original on 7 December 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- "International Civil Aviation Organization - International Standards and Recommended Practices - Annex 5 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation - Units of Measurement to be Used in Air and Ground Operations Fifth Edition - July 2010" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- "Basic Sailplane Instrument Definitions - borgeltinstruments.com". Archived from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- "Contact Us". ICAO. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- "Dr. Fang Liu of China Becomes First-Ever Woman Appointed Secretary General of ICAO". ICAO. 11 March 2015. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Climate Change: Aviation Emissions, an ignored but fast growing problem" (PDF). greenskies.org. 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- Gill, Michael. "Preparing for CORSIA Take-Off" (PDF). IETA.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- Milman, Oliver (6 October 2016). "First deal to curb aviation emissions agreed in landmark UN accord". The Guardian. London, United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Henry Fountain (25 September 2016). "'Aviation's Paris Moment' as Nations Near Emissions Deal". NYT. Archived from the original on 29 September 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
- Henry Fountain (6 October 2016). "Over 190 Countries Adopt Plan to Offset Air Travel Emissions". NYT. Archived from the original on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
- UN aviation pact will not be aligned with Paris climate goals Archived 21 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, M. Darby, Climate Change News, 6 October 2016.
- The new UN deal on aviation emissions leaves much to be desired Archived 1 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine, D. Hodgkinson & R. Johnston. The Conversation, 10 October 2016.
- Weak Market-based Measure Allows Airplanes' Greenhouse Pollution to Triple Archived 7 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, press release by Center for Biological Diversity and Friends of the Earth. 6 October 2016.
- Green Groups Warn Deal to Lower Aviation Pollution is 'Weak Shell Game' Archived 21 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, N. Prupis, Common Dreams, 6 October 2016
- David Pearson (1987). KAL 007: Cover-up. New York: Summit Books. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-671-55716-4.
- Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 N54629 Ténéré desert". aviation-safety.net. Archived from the original on 9 December 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- "UN proposes global database for drone registration". Geospatial World. 6 October 2017. Archived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
- "UAS Regulation Portal". www.icao.int. Archived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
- Official website of the International Civil Aviation Organization
- Convention on International Civil Aviation – Document 7300
- ECCAIRS 4.2.8 Data Definition Standard – Location Indicators by State, 17 Sep 2010
- ICAO Aircraft and Manufacturer Codes – Document 8643
- The Postal History of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
- ICAO Will Mute Mics At Mention of Taiwan: Paraguay Official