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The Saab 340 is a Swedish twin-engine turboprop aircraft designed and initially produced by Saab AB and Fairchild Aircraft. It is designed to seat 30-36 passengers and, as of July 2018, there were 240 operational aircraft used by 34 different operators.

Saab 340
Saab 340 G-LGNC IMG 3425 (11712072893).jpg
Saab 340 operated by Loganair for Flybe, gear up
Role Turboprop regional airliner
National origin Sweden
Manufacturer Saab
First flight 25 January 1983
Introduction 1984
Status Out of production, In service
Primary users Regional Express Airlines
Silver Airways
Loganair
PenAir
Produced 1983–1999
Number built 459
Variants Saab 340 AEW&C
Developed into Saab 2000

Under the production arrangement in which production was split 65:35 between Saab and Fairchild, Saab constructed the all-aluminium fuselage and vertical stabilizer along with final assembly of the aircraft in Linköping, Sweden, while Fairchild was responsible for the wings, empennage, and wing-mounted nacelles for the two turboprop engines. After Fairchild ceased this work in 1985, production of these components was transferred to Sweden.

On 25 January 1983, the Saab 340 conducted its maiden flight. During the early 1990s, an enlarged derivative of the airliner, designated as the Saab 2000, was introduced. However, sales of the type declined due to intense competition within the regional aircraft market. In 1998, Saab decided to terminate production of the Saab 340.[1]

DevelopmentEdit

 
2+1 passenger cross-section

OriginsEdit

During the 1970s, Swedish aircraft manufacturer Saab AB became increasingly interested in the civil aircraft market.[2] In 1974, the company decided to proceed with developing its first major civilian aircraft, having previously focused almost entirely upon military aircraft. During the late 1970s, internal studies had determined that a short-haul airliner should be optimised to seat around 30 passengers.[3] Likewise, it was decided that to make use of turboprop propulsion, which was slower but more economical than turbofan engines, and to optimise the airliner to take advantage of this type of powerplant; this decision may have been influenced by high oil prices during that decade, such as the 1973 oil crisis. According to author Gunnar Eliasson, the selection of a turboprop engine made the type less attractive to airlines than jet-powered competitors, however recognised that the General Electric CT7-5A2 engine picked was quite competitive with the jet engines of that era.[4] As conceived, the airliner was to match the performance of jets within its short-haul role.[5]

Towards the end of the 1970s, the regional airliner venture had become the largest industrial venture in Sweden and was recognised as being too large for Saab to conduct alone.[4] Accordingly, in January 1980, it was announced that Saab had entered into a partnership arrangement with US manufacturer Fairchild Aircraft to develop and produce the upcoming regional airliner. Under this partnership, Fairchild became responsible for the manufacture of sections such as the wings, tail unit, and engine nacelles while Saab was responsible for 75 per cent of the costs of development, system integration and certification.[5] To match the new partnership, the type received the designation of SF340.[4] The decision to develop a new generation regional airliner had fortuitously coincided with the removal of control by the US federal government under the 1978 Airline Deregulation Act, an event which would notably contribute to sales of the type during the following decade.[2]

The 340 shared several manufacturing and design techniques that were used in Saab's military aircraft, such as the then in-development Saab JAS 39 Gripen multirole combat aircraft. One such technique was eliminating the use of rivets on the aluminium structures, using diffusion bonding instead, to reduce weight.[6] On 25 January 1983, the first SF340 performed its maiden flight. Shortly following its launch onto the market in 1984, the Saab 340 became the best selling commuter aircraft in the world.[7] By 1987, all activity by Fairchild on the programme had ceased, the US company having chosen to curtail its aircraft activities, thus Saab became solely responsible for producing the 340.[5]

Further developmentEdit

 
planform view showing its straight wing

In 1985, due to Fairchild's decision to exit the aircraft manufacturing business following the completion of the first 40 units, Saab dropped the Fairchild name from the project and proceeded to continue aircraft production, referring to the type under the designation Saab 340A. A total of 159 A models were manufactured. In 1989, an improved version of the airliner, the second generation 340B, introduced more powerful engines and wider horizontal stabilizers; later production 340Bs also featured an active noise control system. A total of 200 aircraft were built. In 1994, the final third generation version, the 340B Plus, was delivered for service and incorporated improvements that were being introduced at the same time upon the larger Saab 2000, itself a derivative of the 340. A total of 100 aircraft were completed, adding up to a total of 300 B models. The Saab 340 typically seated between 30 and 36 passengers, with 34 seats being the most common configuration. The last two 340s built were constructed as older configuration 36-seat aircraft for Japan Air Commuter.

One of the major improvements introduced in the 340B Plus was the installation of an active noise and vibration control system in the cabin, reducing noise and vibration levels by about ten dB during cruising flight. This optional feature carried over from the 340B was standard in the 340B Plus along with extended wingtips which was an option on the 340B, about 30 aircraft having the WT option.[8] Another change from earlier models was a more modern interior design and the moving of the lavatory compartment from the aft of the passenger cabin to just aft of the flight deck in most 3rd generation units. This increased total available cargo volume as the original location intruded into the cargo bin area. While the active noise control became standard on all Saab 340Bs in 1994 the first-ever 340B Plus (third B+ built) was delivered new to Hazelton Airlines in Australia in 1995, later operating for Regional Express, and currently for the Japanese Coast Guard. The system could also be retrofitted onto existing airliners.[9]

During 1997, Saab was releasing pessimistic press releases on the 340 programme, stating that it was considering the potential closure of production line, but also pledged that it would maintain full support to existing customers if this happened.[10][11] On 24 December 1997, Saab announced that it had come to the decision to terminate production of the 340, which it claimed had lost SKr3 billion ($386.4 million) in the previous three years.[12] By late 1998, as production was being slowed down towards an eventual shut down, Saab stated that it had been holding talks with a number of interested parties, reportedly including Indian and Chinese companies, on the potential sale of the 340 production line to another manufacturer.[13] On 8 June 1999, the final 340 was delivered, by which time nearly 460 aircraft had been delivered.[5] Production of all models of the 340 was terminated in 1999, and Saab ultimately decided to cease all civil aircraft production in 2005.

According to Eliasson, the decision to power the type using turboprop engines rather that jet engines had been provided as one of the reasons for Saab deciding to close down the project; another major factor had been the increasingly competitive and politicised regional airliner market in which various competing airlines were alleged to have substantially benefited from government subsidies, while the Swedish government were unwilling to make such commitments to Saab's civil projects.[14] According to authors Sören Eriksson and Harm-Jan Steenhuis, while the 340 had been faster than jet-powered competitors such as the Fokker 100 and British Aerospace 146, it had no clear advantage in terms of payload or range; as the regional airliner market became increasingly crowded, newer types such as the Bombardier CRJ200 and Embraer ERJ 145 family, which did have an advantage over the 340, had led to diminished sales.[5]

DerivativesEdit

During the early 1980s, Sweden's Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) requested that Ericsson, a Swedish electronics company, develop a suitable radar for an airborne early warning (AEW) system.[15] The corresponding system was soon paired with the 340 as a platform. Several military variants of the type were produced, including the Saab 340 AEW&C, 340AEW-200 & 340AEW-300, which are AEW and airborne early warning & control (AEW&C) aircraft.

During the 2010s, Saab promoted the 340 in the maritime patrol mission. A specialised variant of the aircraft, designated as the 340 MSA, was mooted; the proposed patrol aircraft is to be equipped with various sensors and combat systems to be capable of performing both anti-surface and anti-submarine warfare, as well as signals intelligence and long range search and rescue operations.[16] In June 2014, Anders Dahl, head of Saab Singapore, gave a presentation on the 340MSA, and observed that several nations were in talks with Saab on the type, as well as there being increasing demand for such maritime patrol aircraft in Southeast Asia.[17]

Operational historyEdit

On 6 June 1984, the Saab 340's launch customer, Swiss operator Crossair, received their first 340 aircraft. One week later, the type performed its first flight with paying customers onboard; passengers onboard this flight included Pope John Paul II.[5]

During 1989, US region airline AMR Eagle placed a large order for the type, procuring a total of 50 340Bs along with options for an additional 50 aircraft.[18] However, business conditions and demand for turboprop-powered regional airliner transformed dramatically during the 1990s; this can be perhaps best summarised by AMR Eagle's decision in October 1999 to announce its intention to phase out its 340 fleet.[19] Faced with diminished value and demand for the 340, Saab chose to shutter production in 1999.

While production of the type ceased in 1999, Saab continued to develop and heavily market the 340 for various purposes in both the civil and military markets. In July 2001, the company announced that it had launched a new partnership with service provider Piedmonth Hawthorne to remarket used regional 340s to corporate customers.[20] In April 2002, it was announced that Canadian company Field Aviation had been contracted by Saab to produce a freighter version of the 340, initially focusing on conversions of the earlier 340A model.[21][22]

Even after production was terminated, a large number of 340s have remained in commercial service in the following decades. By 2006, there was a resurgence in demand for turboprop-powered airliners, in part due to the rising price of oil;[23][24] during this year, Saab announced the largest ever leasing deal for the 340, providing a total of 25 340s to Australian operator Regional Express Airlines.[25] By late 2010, Saab was evaluating the option of extending the certified lifespan of the 340 which, under the Maintenance Review Board programme, is typically limited to 60,000 hours; the company believes the maintenance programme could be extended to accommodate up to a 75,000 hour limit.[26]

The existing aircraft have remained relatively active and competitive into the following decade. In late 2008, following a merger between US carriers Northwest Airlines and Delta Air Lines, the latter announced that a new Saab 340 base was being formed in Atlanta, after which the merged airline would replace its inventory of 12 ATR 72s in its regional fleet with 49 former Northwest 340s.[27] During early 2009, Russian operator Polet Airlines conducted talks with American Eagle to lease 25 340s to increase its breadth of regional flights.[28]

VariantsEdit

 
SprintAir freighter with obstructed windows
 
Japan Coast Guard SAR variant with ventral radome
Saab 340A
30- to 36-seat commuter airliner, powered by two 1,735shp (1215kW) General-Electric CT7-5A2 turboprop engines. (340A-001 to 340A-159) available in passenger, VIP and cargo.
Saab 340AF
a modified commercial cargo version of the Saab 340A
Saab 340B
33- to 36-seat commuter airliner, powered by two 1,870shp (1394kW) General-Electric CT7-9B turboprop engines. (340B-160 to 340B-359)
Saab Tp 100
VIP transport version of the Saab 340B and B Plus for the Swedish Air Force.
Saab Tp 100A
VIP transport version of the Saab 340B
Saab OS 100
Single Tp 100A modified into an Open Skies aircraft.
Saab 340B Plus
Improved version of the Saab 340B. Some have extended wingtips. (340B-360 to 340B-459)
Saab 340B plus SAR-200
Maritime search and rescue version for the Japan Coast Guard. Extended Wingtips fitted.
Saab 340A QC
Quick-change freight transport version
  • TP 100C
Saab 340 AEW&C 
Airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) version
Saab 340 MSA
Maritime Security Aircraft for multi-role surveillance for detection, classification and identification of maritime contacts and can also be used as a Search-And-Rescue aircraft.[29] Can be fitted with an auxiliary fuel tank for extended operation.

A stretched derivative of the aircraft, designated as the Saab 2000, was also developed and produced during the 1990s.

OperatorsEdit

As of July 2018, there were 210 Saab 340s in service with 34 operators around the world. Primary operators include Regional Express with 52 aircraft, Silver Airways with 21, Loganair with 16, PenAir with 13, SprintAir with 12, and others with fewer aircraft of the type.[30]

In December 2016, the fleet average is at 35,277 h and 39,446 cycles – a mean 0.89h per flight, less than halfway of its remaining life : the airframe life has been extended from 45,000 to 80,000 flight hours and 90,000 cycles and the Saab 340 should remain in service for another 30 years. Fleet leaders are at 71,268 cycles and 61,867h.[31]

Accidents and incidentsEdit

Between 1983 and 2013, there were 13 hull loss accidents involving the Saab 340 series aircraft, resulting in the deaths of 48 people.[32]

Accidents with fatalitiesEdit

Hull lossesEdit

Other incidentsEdit

  • 21 November 1991: Comair Saab 340A (N146CA), with three crew and 26 passengers on a flight from Cincinnati to Toronto, the propeller from the right side engine detached near Buffalo, New York, after the engine was shut down due to vibrations. The aircraft landed safely on a single engine.[37] The cause of the failure was found to be fatigue of the shaft due to the melting process of the ingot.[38]
  • 17 March 2017: A Regional Express Airlines (Rex) Saab 340B (VH-NRX), flight ZL768 carrying 16 passengers and 3 crew from Albury to Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, made a safe emergency landing without injuries at Sydney after losing a propeller 19 km before.[39][40] Rex announced on 20 March 2017 that it would ground a further five aircraft and quarantine the same series of propeller gear boxes and shafts for inspection as a precautionary measure.[41] The propeller was located on 21 March 2017 in bushland near the Sydney suburb of Revesby by New South Wales Police Force airwing.[42]

Specifications (340B)Edit

 
Cockpit in flight
 
Freighter interior

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–94[43], SAAB[44]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2 pilots, 1 flight attendant
  • Capacity: 34 pax
  • Length: 19.73 m (64 ft 9 in)
  • Wingspan: 21.44 m (70 ft 4 in)
  • Height: 6.97 m (22 ft 10 in)
  • Wing area: 41.81 m2 (450.0 sq ft)
  • Airfoil: root: NASA MS(1)-0316; tip: NASA MS(1)-0312[45]
  • Empty weight: 8,140 kg (17,946 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 13,155 kg (29,002 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × General Electric CT7-9B turboprop engines, 1,305 kW (1,750 hp) each for take-off
  • Propellers: 6-bladed Hamilton Standard 14RF19 (or Dowty Rotol), 3.35 m (11 ft 0 in) diameter four-blade constant speed, fully-feathering reversible propellers

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 502 km/h (312 mph, 271 kn) IAS VMO
  • Maximum speed: Mach 0.5
  • Cruise speed: 467 km/h (290 mph, 252 kn) at 7,620 m (25,000 ft)
  • Stall speed: 164 km/h (102 mph, 89 kn) flaps down
  • Never exceed speed: 522 km/h (324 mph, 282 kn)
  • Range: 1,732 km (1,076 mi, 935 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 7,620 m (25,000 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 10.2 m/s (2,010 ft/min)

See alsoEdit

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ "Saab 340 history". Airliners.net. Archived from the original on November 24, 2009. Retrieved November 20, 2009.
  2. ^ a b Eliasson 2010, pp. 88–89.
  3. ^ Eliasson 2010, pp. 80–81, 88.
  4. ^ a b c Eliasson 2010, p. 89.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Eriksson, Sören and Harm-Jan Steenhuis. The Global Commercial Aviation Industry. Routledge, 2015. ISBN 1-1366-7239-7. p. 51-53
  6. ^ Eliasson 2010, pp. 89–90.
  7. ^ Eliasson 2010, p. 68.
  8. ^ Halvorsen W. and Emborg U., "Interior Noise Control of the Saab 340." SAE Technical Paper 891080, 1989.
  9. ^ "Quiet cabin retrofit for Saab 340s." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 9 September 1998.
  10. ^ "Saab out but Fokker in?" Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 1 December 1997.
  11. ^ Martin, Mike. "Saab pledges not to let customers down." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 18 November 1997.
  12. ^ Jeziorsk, Andrzej. "Saab decides to terminate turboprop products." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 24 December 1997.
  13. ^ Kingsley-Jones, Max. "Saab winds down turboprop production as talks continue." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 16 September 1998.
  14. ^ Eliasson 2010, pp. 89, 264.
  15. ^ Eliasson 2010, p. 132.
  16. ^ Taylor, Ellis. "FARNBOROUGH: Saab waiting for UK maritime patrol details." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 17 July 2014.
  17. ^ Waldron, Greg. "Saab makes Southeast Asia maritime surveillance push." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 5 June 2014.
  18. ^ "Regional Airlines: Green Lights, Big Orders." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flying Magazine, August 1989. Vol. 116, No. 8. ISSN 0015-4806. p. 16.
  19. ^ "American Eagle starts phasing out Saabs." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 20 October 1999.
  20. ^ "Saab starts new venture to meet corporate demand ." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 24 July 2001.
  21. ^ Lewis, Paul. "Field Aviation starts work on first Saab 340 freighter ." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 30 April 2002.
  22. ^ Sobie, Brendan. "Saab 340 promoted for FedEx regional freighter requirement." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 15 October 2002.
  23. ^ Endres, Günter. "Back to stay: the regional aircraft market." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 31 October 2006.
  24. ^ "Turboprops are back." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 28 June 2005.
  25. ^ Learmount, David. "Turboprops resurgent in European market." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 3 October 2006.
  26. ^ Bonnassies, Olivier. "Saab considers 340 cycle programme extension." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 6 October 2010.
  27. ^ Sobie, Brendan. "Delta plans to open Saab 340 base at Atlanta hub." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 13 October 2008.
  28. ^ Zaitsev, Tom. "Russia's Polet in talks to lease 25 Saab 340s." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 8 April 2009.
  29. ^ Taylor, Ellis. "FARNBOROUGH: Saab expects first 340MSA sale soon." Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 14 July 2014.
  30. ^ "WorldAirlineCensus2018.pdf". Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 2018-11-06. Retrieved 2018-10-09.
  31. ^ Paul Seidenman and David J. Spanovich (Dec 1, 2016). "Why Turboprop MRO Is, And Will Remain, Brisk". Inside MRO. Aviation Week. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Saab 340 Crash Record". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
  33. ^ "Plane crashes in Argentina, 22 dead: hospital". Reuters. 2011-05-19. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  34. ^ "Passenger plane crashes in Argentina: local TV Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine." Reuters. May 19, 2011. Retrieved on May 19, 2011.
  35. ^ Warren, Michael (19 May 2011). "22 Dead in Plane Crash in Argentine Patagonia". The Guardian. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 9 April 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  36. ^ Hradecky, Simon (June 14, 2013). "Accident: SkyBahamas SF34 at Marsh Harbour on Jun 13th 2013, runway excursion". The Aviation Herald. Archived from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  37. ^ Hradecky, Simon (17 March 2017). "Incident: REX SF34 near Sydney on Mar 17th 2017, propeller detached in flight". The Aviation Herald. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
  38. ^ "Aviation Incident Final Report". National Transportation Safety Board. 13 August 1993. Archived from the original on 25 March 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
  39. ^ "Rex Saab 340 lands safely after losing propeller". Flight Global. 17 March 2017. Archived from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  40. ^ "In-flight propeller malfunction involving SAAB 340 VH-NRX, approximately 19 km SW of Sydney Airport, NSW, on 17 March 2017". Aviation safety investigations & reports. Australian Transport Safety Bureau. Archived from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  41. ^ "Rex Provides Further Details on Flight ZL768 Albury-Sydney" (PDF) (Press release). Regional Express. 20 March 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2017.
  42. ^ "Missing SAAB 340 propeller located" (Press release). Australian Transport Safety Bureau. 21 March 2017. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  43. ^ Lambert, Mark (ed.). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–94. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Data Division, 1993. ISBN 0-7106-1066-1. pp. 352–354.
  44. ^ "SAAB 340A" (PDF). saabaircraftleasing. SAAB. Archived from the original (pdf) on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  45. ^ Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019.

BibliographyEdit

  • Eliasson, Gunnar. Advanced Public Procurement as Industrial Policy. Springer Science & Business Media, 2010. ISBN 1-4419-5849-5.

Further readingEdit