Hydrogen station

A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for Hydrogen.[1] The hydrogen is dispensed by weight.[2][3] There are two filling pressures in common use. H70 or 700 bar, and the older standard H35 or 350 bar.[4] As of 2021 around 550 filling stations were available worldwide.[4]

Hydrogen fueling pump

Hydrogen filling stations by region and countryEdit

A global map of hydrogen filling stations is available.[5]

AsiaEdit

In 2019, there were 178 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[6]

JapanEdit

 
Hydrogen station in Ariake, Tokyo

In 2021, there were 137 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[4]

Japan built hydrogen filling stations under the JHFC project from 2002 to 2010 to test various technologies of hydrogen generation.[7] By the end of 2012 there were 17 hydrogen stations.[8] A task force led by Yuriko Koike, Japan's former environment minister, and supported by the country's Liberal Democratic Party, was set up in 2016 to oversee the process of building new hydrogen stations.[9]

ChinaEdit

By the end of 2020, China had built 118 hydrogen refueling stations.[10]

South KoreaEdit

In 2019, there were 33 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[6][11]

As of 2018, approximately 18,000 fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) had been produced in Korea (domestic demand: 9,000 vehicles).[12]

EuropeEdit

In 2019, there were 177 stations in Europe.[6][13][14]

GermanyEdit

As of June 2020, there are 84 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[13]

FranceEdit

As of June 2020, there are 5 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[13]

IcelandEdit

As of June 2020, there are 3 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[13]

ItalyEdit

As of June 2020, there is one publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[13]

NetherlandsEdit

As of June 2020, there are 4 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[13]

DenmarkEdit

As of June 2020, there are 6 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[13]

BelgiumEdit

As of June 2020, there are 2 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[13]

NorwayEdit

As of June 2021, there are 2 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation, both in the Oslo area.[15] Since the explosion at the hydrogen filling station in Sandvika in June 2019, the sale of hydrogen cars in Norway has halted.[16]

SwedenEdit

As of June 2020, there are 4 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[13]

SwitzerlandEdit

As of June 2020, there are 3 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[13]

United KingdomEdit

As of June 2020, there are 11 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[13]

In 2011 the first public hydrogen station opened in Swindon.[17] In 2014 the London Hatton Cross station opened.[18] In 2015, the London Hydrogen Network Expansion project opened the first supermarket-located hydrogen refuelling station at Sainsbury's in Hendon.[19]

As of 2015, there were two publicly accessible hydrogen refuelling stations in Aberdeen.[20]

North AmericaEdit

CanadaEdit

As of August 2022, there were 8 fueling stations in Canada, 7 of which were open to public:

  • British Columbia: Four stations in the Great Vancouver Area and Vancouver Island. All four stations are operated by HTEC (co-branded with Shell and Esso).[21]
  • Ontario: One station in Mississauga, which is operated by Hydrogenics Corporation. The station is only available to certain commercial customers.[22]
  • Quebec: Three stations in the Great Montreal area, which is operated by Shell, and one station in Quebec City, operated by Harnois Énergies (co-branded with Esso).[23].

United StatesEdit

As of September 2022, there were 54 publicly accessible hydrogen refueling stations in the US, 53 of which were located in California, with one in Hawaii.[24]

  • Arizona: A prototype hydrogen fuelling station was built in compliance with all of the prevailing safety, environmental and building codes in Phoenix to demonstrate that such fuelling stations could be built in urban areas.[25][26] As of September 2022, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Arizona.[24]
  • Hawaii opened its first hydrogen station at Hickam in 2009.[30][31] In 2012, the Aloha Motor Company opened a hydrogen station in Honolulu.[32] As of September 2022, however, only one publicly accessible station was in operation in Hawaii.[24]
  • Massachusetts: The French company Air Liquide built a hydrogen fuelling station in Mansfield, Massachusetts in 2018, one of four stations they built as part of an expansion of the hydrogen fuelling infrastructure in the Northeastern U.S.[33] The only other hydrogen fuelling station in Massachusetts is located at the Billerica, Massachusetts headquarters of fuel cell manufacturer Nuvera.[34] As of September 2022, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Massachusetts.[24]
  • Ohio: A hydrogen filling station opened in 2007 on the campus of Ohio State University at the Center for Automotive Research. This station is the only one in Ohio.[37] As of September 2022, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Ohio.[24]
  • Vermont: A hydrogen station was built in 2004 in Vermont in Burlington, Vermont, partially funded through the United States Department of Energy’s Hydrogen Program.[38] As of September 2022, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Vermont.[24]

OceaniaEdit

AustraliaEdit

In March 2021, the first Australian publicly available hydrogen fuel station opened in Canberra operated by ActewAGL.[39]

Delivery methodsEdit

Hydrogen fueling stations can be divided into off-site stations, where hydrogen is delivered by truck or pipeline, and on-site stations that produce and compress hydrogen for the vehicles.[40] Another off-site concept, by Bioenergy Concept GmbH, which has not been commercialized, involves filling hydrogen in cartridges and transporting them to a filling station, where the empty cartridges are replaced with new ones.[41][42] It is hoped that this process would save about 33% of energy (Kwh/KgH2) used by conventional transportation.[43]

Types of recharging stationsEdit

Hydrogen highwayEdit

A hydrogen highway is a chain of hydrogen-equipped filling stations and other infrastructure along a road or highway. Italy and Germany are collaborating to build a hydrogen highway between Mantua in northern Italy and Munich in southern Germany.[citation needed]

Home hydrogen fueling stationEdit

Home hydrogen fueling stations are available to consumers.[44][45][46][47]

Solar powered water electrolysing hydrogen home stations are composed of solar cells, power converter, water purifier, electrolyzer, piping, hydrogen purifier,[48] oxygen purifier, compressor,[49] pressure vessels[50] and a hydrogen outlet.[51]

Daily refueling capacityEdit

The hydrogen refueling stations built by Hyundai Motor Group can typically refuel up to 70 Hyundai Nexo vehicles per day.[citation needed]

DisadvantagesEdit

PollutionEdit

As of 2019, 98% of hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming, which emits carbon dioxide.[52] The bulk of hydrogen is also transported to fueling stations in trucks, so pollution is also emitted in its transportation.[40]

VolatilityEdit

Hydrogen fuel is hazardous because of its low ignition energy, high combustion energy, and because it easily leaks from tanks.[53] Explosions at hydrogen filling stations have been reported.[54]

SupplyEdit

Hydrogen fuelling stations generally receive deliveries by truck from hydrogen suppliers. An interruption at a hydrogen supply facility can shut down multiple hydrogen fuelling stations due to an interruption of the supply of hydrogen.[55]

CostsEdit

There are far fewer Hydrogen filling stations than gasoline fuel stations, which in the US alone numbered 168,000 in 2004.[56] Replacing the US gasoline infrastructure with hydrogen fuel infrastructure is estimated to cost a half trillion U.S. dollars.[57] A hydrogen fueling station costs between $1 million and $4 million to build.[58] In comparison, BEVs can charge at home or at public chargers. As of 2022, there are approximately 41,000 public charging stations in the United States, with more than 100,000 outlets. A public Level 2 charger, which comprise the vast majority of ChargePoint chargers in the US, costs about $2,000, while a DC fast charger can cost between $100,000 and $250,000.[59]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Apostolou, D.; Xydis, G. (2019). "A literature review on hydrogen refuelling stations and infrastructure. Current status and future prospects" (PDF). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 113: 109292. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2019.109292. S2CID 201240559.
  2. ^ "LA gas station gets hydrogen fuel pump". NBC News. 27 June 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  3. ^ "SAE International -- mobility engineering". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  4. ^ a b c Can Samsun, Remzi; Antoni, Laurent; Rex, Michael; Stolten, Detlef (2021). "Deployment Status of Fuel Cells in Road Transport: 2021 Update" (PDF). International Energy Agency (IEA) Advanced Fuel Cells Technology Collaboration Programme (AFC TCP). Forschungszentrum Jülich.
  5. ^ "Hydrogen Filling Stations Worldwide - H2-Stations - netinform". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  6. ^ a b c "In 2019: 83 New Hydrogen Refuelling Stations Worldwide". FuelCellsWorks. 19 February 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  7. ^ "JHFC Phase2:FY 2006 - 2010 - JHFC Japan Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Demonstration Project". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  8. ^ "fuelcellinsider.org - Index". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  9. ^ "Japanese task force supports hydrogen fuel for transportation - Hydrogen Fuel News". July 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  10. ^ Zhang, Phate (1 July 2021). "China has built 118 Hydrogen Refueling Stations". CNEV Post. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  11. ^ Phate Zhang (July 1, 2021). "China has built 118 hydrogen refueling stations". CnEVPost.
  12. ^ "310 Hydrogen Refuelling Stations In Korea By 2022 – Industry And Government Launch Dialogue To Accelerate Roadmap To Mass Market". Hydrogen Council (Press release). 6 February 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Filling up with H2". H2.Live - Hydrogen Stations in Germany & Europe. 2020-06-10. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  14. ^ "About - Hydrogen Mobility Europe". Hydrogen Mobility Europe. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 2020-03-24.
  15. ^ Tisheva, Plamena. "Everfuel sets out plan for hydrogen stations in southern Norway", RenewablesNow, March 22, 2021
  16. ^ Kane, Mark. "Hydrogen Fueling Station Explodes: Toyota & Hyundai Halt Fuel Cell Car Sales", Inside EVs, June 11, 2019, accessed August 5, 2021
  17. ^ Madslien, Jorn (20 September 2011). "Is hydrogen the future of motoring?". BBC News. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  18. ^ "Continuing HyTEC progress in London for hydrogen fuelling". Fuel Cells Bulletin. 2014 (5): 6–7. 2014. doi:10.1016/S1464-2859(14)70135-X. ISSN 1464-2859.
  19. ^ "Unveiling of UK's First Hydrogen Fuelling Dispenser" (PDF) (Press release). London Hydrogen Network Expansion. 11 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2021 – via The UK Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association.
  20. ^ "H2 Aberdeen" (Press release). Aberdeen City Council. 11 March 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  21. ^ "Station Status - HTEC". www.htec.ca. Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  22. ^ Canada, Natural Resources (2018-01-05). "Electric Charging and Alternative Fuelling Stations Locator". www.nrcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-08-14.
  23. ^ Canada, Natural Resources (2018-01-05). "Electric Charging and Alternative Fuelling Stations Locator". www.nrcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-08-14.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State, Alternative Fuels Data Center, accessed January 11, 2021.
  25. ^ Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report Archived 2006-09-26 at the Wayback Machine (Report INEEL / EXT-O3-00976 of the Idaho National Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy)
  26. ^ Idaho National Laboratory Archived 2006-09-26 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ "California Hydrogen Activities". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  28. ^ "California Hydrogen Highway". Archived from the original on 2012-09-20. Retrieved 2013-09-09.
  29. ^ Governor Brown Signs AB 8 Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ Hawaii hydrogen power park
  31. ^ First solar-powered hydrogen plant in AF complete on Hickam Archived 2013-02-19 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ "Fuel Cell Scooters and Solar Hydrogen Refuelling Station Launched in Hawaii". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  33. ^ Edelstein, Stephen. "Hydrogen Fuelling Stations are Being Built in New York and New England". The Drive. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  34. ^ Salomon, Sanjay (8 April 2016). "2 hydrogen refuelling stations to open in Massachusetts next year". Boston.com. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  35. ^ Motavalli, Jim (2001). Breaking Gridlock: Moving Towards Transportation That Works. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-57805-039-0.
  36. ^ "Missouri's First Hydrogen Fuel Station Welcomes Cars on Tour". Environment News Service. August 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
  37. ^ "Center for Automotive Research unveils first hydrogen refuelling station in Ohio". Ohio State University College of Engineering. April 20, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
  38. ^ Evermont renewable hydrogen fuelling station
  39. ^ "Hydrogen refuelling station opens in Canberra". Australian Capital Territory Government (Press release). 26 March 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  40. ^ a b "Transportable Hydrogen Dispensing", Protium.aero, May 2, 2016
  41. ^ "Bioenergy Concept GmbH - Your Expert for Bioenergy Projects". Bioenergy Concept GmbH. Retrieved 2022-04-08.
  42. ^ "Patent für Wasserstofftankstelle".
  43. ^ "DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record" (PDF).
  44. ^ Hydrogenics HomeFueler as a home hydrogen fueling station
  45. ^ Simple.fuel as a home hydrogen fueling station
  46. ^ Ivys Energy Solutions simple.fuel
  47. ^ Home hydrogen fueling station term
  48. ^ "Hydrogen Purification" (PDF). Home Power. 67: 42. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-08-13.
  49. ^ "Diaphragm Compressors". Pressure Products Industries, Inc. Archived from the original on 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
  50. ^ See, for example, Lincoln Composites Tuffshell tanks Archived 2007-06-04 at the Wayback Machine, as recommended by Roy McAlister in the "Hydrogen Car and Multi Fuel Engine" DVD
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  54. ^ Dobson, Geoff (12 June 2019). "Exploding hydrogen station leads to FCV halt". EV Talk.
  55. ^ Woodrow, Melanie. "Bay Area experiences hydrogen shortage after explosion", ABC news, June 3, 2019
  56. ^ "How many gas stations are there in the U.S?". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  57. ^ Romm, Joseph (2004). The Hype about Hydrogen, Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate. New York: Island Press. ISBN 978-1-55963-703-9. Chapter 5
  58. ^ Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Bradley, Thomas H. (2019). "Review of Transportation Hydrogen Infrastructure Performance and Reliability". International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 44 (23): 12010–12023. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.03.027. S2CID 132085841. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  59. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. "Volvo and ChargePoint will build EV charging stations at Starbucks in 5 states", The Verge, March 15, 2022

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