Hydrogen station

A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for hydrogen. The hydrogen is dispensed by weight.[1][2] There are two filling pressures in common use. H70 or 700 bar, and the older standard H35 or 350 bar.[citation needed]

Hydrogen fueling pump

Hydrogen filling stations by region and countryEdit

A global map of hydrogen filling stations is available.[3]

AsiaEdit

In 2019, there were 178 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[4]

JapanEdit

 
Hydrogen station in Ariake, Tokyo

In 2019, there were 114 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[4]

Japan built hydrogen filling stations under the JHFC project from 2002 to 2010 to test various technologies of hydrogen generation.[5] By the end of 2012 there were 17 hydrogen stations.[6] A task force led by Yuriko Koike, Japan's former environment minister, and supported by the country's Liberal Democratic Party, was set up in 2016 to oversee the process of building new hydrogen stations.[7]

ChinaEdit

By the end of 2020, China had built 118 hydrogen refueling stations.[8]

South KoreaEdit

In 2019, there were 33 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[4] https://cnevpost.com/2021/07/01/china-has-built-118-hydrogen-refueling-stations/

As of 2018, approximately 18,000 fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) had been produced in Korea (domestic demand: 9,000 vehicles).[9]

EuropeEdit

In 2019, there were 177 stations in Europe and 43 under construction.[4][10][11]

GermanyEdit

As of June 2020, there are 84 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation and 21 under construction.[10]

FranceEdit

As of June 2020, there are 5 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation and 2 under construction.[10]

IcelandEdit

As of June 2020, there are 3 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[10]

ItalyEdit

As of June 2020, there is one publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[10]

NetherlandsEdit

As of June 2020, there are 4 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation and 3 under construction.[10]

DenmarkEdit

As of June 2020, there are 6 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation and 1 under construction.[10]

BelgiumEdit

As of June 2020, there are 2 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[10]

NorwayEdit

As of June 2021, there are 2 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation, both in the Oslo area.[12] Since the explosion at the hydrogen filling station in Sandvika in June 2019, the sale of hydrogen cars in Norway has halted.[13]

SwedenEdit

As of June 2020, there are 4 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[10]

SwitzerlandEdit

As of June 2020, there are 3 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation and 4 under construction.[10]

United KingdomEdit

As of June 2020, there are 11 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation and 1 under construction.[10]

In 2011 the first public hydrogen station opened in Swindon.[14] In 2014 the London Hatton Cross station opened.[15] In 2015, the London Hydrogen Network Expansion project opened the first supermarket-located hydrogen refuelling station at Sainsbury's in Hendon.[16]

North AmericaEdit

CanadaEdit

In 2018, Shell Canada launched an initiative to build hydrogen fueling stations starting with the first in Vancouver.[17]

United StatesEdit

As of January 2021, there were 45 publicly accessible hydrogen refueling stations in the US, 43 of which were located in California.[18]

  • Arizona: A prototype hydrogen fuelling station was built in compliance with all of the prevailing safety, environmental and building codes in Phoenix to demonstrate that such fuelling stations could be built in urban areas.[19][20] As of January 2021, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Arizona.[18]
  • Connecticut. As of January 2021, one publicly accessible station was in operation in Connecticut.[18]
  • Hawaii opened its first hydrogen station at Hickam in 2009.[24][25] In 2012, the Aloha Motor Company opened a hydrogen station in Honolulu.[26] As of January 2021, however, only one publicly accessible station was in operation in Hawaii.[18]
  • Massachusetts: The French company Air Liquide completed construction of a new hydrogen fuelling station in Mansfield, Massachusetts in October 2018, one of four stations they built as part of an expansion of the hydrogen fuelling infrastructure in the Northeastern U.S.[27] The only other hydrogen fuelling station in Massachusetts is located at the Billerica, Massachusetts headquarters of fuel cell manufacturer Nuvera.[28] As of January 2021, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Massachusetts.[18]
  • Ohio: A hydrogen filling station opened in 2007 on the campus of The Ohio State University at the Center for Automotive Research. This station is the only one in Ohio.[31] As of January 2021, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Ohio.[18]
  • Vermont: A hydrogen station was built in 2004 in Vermont in Burlington, Vermont. The project was partially funded through the United States Department of Energy’s Hydrogen Program.[32] As of January 2021, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Vermont.[18]

OceaniaEdit

AustraliaEdit

In March 2021, the first Australian publicly available hydrogen fuel station opened in Canberra operated by ActewAGL.[33]

Delivery methodsEdit

Hydrogen recharging stations can be divided into off-site stations and on-site stations depending on how they supply hydrogen to vehicles (whether they produce their own hydrogen or not). Hydrogen recharging stations that have been built across Korea at the moment are mostly off-site (tube trailer-type) stations.[citation needed]

Sort Method
Off-site hydrogen recharging station

(Hydrogen supplied from an external source)

Hydrogen supplied from an external source

Hydrogen produced from a plant is supplied via pipelines, tube trailers, etc.

On-site hydrogen recharging station

(Hydrogen produced directly at the station)

Hydrogen produced by extracting (reforming) natural gas, electrolysis, etc. at the recharging station

Types of recharging stationsEdit

Hydrogen highwayEdit

A hydrogen highway is a chain of hydrogen-equipped filling stations and other infrastructure along a road or highway. Italy and Germany are collaborating to build a hydrogen highway between Mantua in northern Italy and Munich in southern Germany.[citation needed]

Home hydrogen fueling stationEdit

Home hydrogen fueling stations are available to consumers.[34][35][36][37]

Solar powered water electrolysing hydrogen home stations are composed of solar cells, power converter, water purifier, electrolyzer, piping, hydrogen purifier,[38] oxygen purifier, compressor,[39] pressure vessels[40] and a hydrogen outlet.[41]

Daily recharging capacityEdit

Currently, the hydrogen recharging stations built by Hyundai Motor Group can recharge up to 70 Hyundai Nexo[42] vehicles per day, assuming that the station is open for 14 hours daily.[43] However, hydrogen recharging stations without high-pressure (900bar) storage tanks may require some additional downtime to repressurize the hydrogen in its recharging system if they refuel too many vehicles in a day.[citation needed]

DisadvantagesEdit

PollutionEdit

As of 2019, 98% of hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming, which emits carbon dioxide.[44] The bulk of hydrogen is also transported to fueling stations in trucks, so pollution is also emitted in its transportation.[45]

VolatilityEdit

Hydrogen fuel is hazardous because of its low ignition energy, high combustion energy, and because it easily leaks from tanks.[46] Explosions at hydrogen filling stations have been reported.[47]

SupplyEdit

Hydrogen fuelling stations generally receive deliveries by truck from hydrogen suppliers. An interruption at a hydrogen supply facility can shut down multiple hydrogen fuelling stations due to an interruption of the supply of hydrogen.[48]

CostsEdit

There are far fewer Hydrogen filling stations than gasoline fuel stations, which in the US alone numbered 168,000 in 2004[49] and generated revenues of US$536 billion in 2014.[50] According to Joe Romm's book The Hype About Hydrogen (2004), replacing the gasoline infrastructure with hydrogen fuel infrastructure would cost a half trillion U.S. dollars.[51] According to NREL, a hydrogen fueling station costs between $1 million and $4 million to build.[52]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "LA gas station gets hydrogen fuel pump". 27 June 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  2. ^ "SAE International -- mobility engineering". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  3. ^ "Hydrogen Filling Stations Worldwide - H2-Stations - netinform". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d "In 2019: 83 New Hydrogen Refuelling Stations Worldwide". FuelCellsWorks. 19 February 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  5. ^ "JHFC Phase2:FY 2006 - 2010 - JHFC Japan Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Demonstration Project". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  6. ^ "fuelcellinsider.org - Index". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  7. ^ "Japanese task force supports hydrogen fuel for transportation - Hydrogen Fuel News". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  8. ^ "China-has-built-118-Hydrogen-Refueling-Stations". Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  9. ^ "310 Hydrogen Refuelling Stations In Korea By 2022 – Industry And Government Launch Dialogue To Accelerate Roadmap To Mass Market". Hydrogen Council (Press release). 6 February 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Filling up with H2". H2.Live - Hydrogen Stations in Germany & Europe. 2020-06-10. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  11. ^ "About - Hydrogen Mobility Europe". Hydrogen Mobility Europe. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 2020-03-24.
  12. ^ Tisheva, Plamena. "Everfuel sets out plan for hydrogen stations in southern Norway", RenewablesNow, March 22, 2021
  13. ^ Kane, Mark. "Hydrogen Fueling Station Explodes: Toyota & Hyundai Halt Fuel Cell Car Sales", Inside EVs, June 11, 2019, accessed August 5, 2021
  14. ^ Madslien, Jorn (20 September 2011). "Is hydrogen the future of motoring?". BBC News. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  15. ^ "Continuing HyTEC progress in London for hydrogen fuelling". Fuel Cells Bulletin. 2014 (5): 6–7. 2014. doi:10.1016/S1464-2859(14)70135-X. ISSN 1464-2859.
  16. ^ "Unveiling of UK's First Hydrogen Fuelling Dispenser" (PDF) (Press release). London Hydrogen Network Expansion. 11 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2021 – via The UK Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association.
  17. ^ "Shell And HTEC launch Canada's first retail hydrogen vehicle refuelling station". www.shell.ca. Retrieved 2019-03-03.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State, Alternative Fuels Data Center, accessed January 11, 2021.
  19. ^ Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report Archived 2006-09-26 at the Wayback Machine (Report INEEL / EXT-O3-00976 of the Idaho National Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy)
  20. ^ Idaho National Laboratory Archived 2006-09-26 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ "California Hydrogen Activities". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  22. ^ "California Hydrogen Highway". Archived from the original on 2012-09-20. Retrieved 2013-09-09.
  23. ^ Governor Brown Signs AB 8 Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Hawaii hydrogen power park
  25. ^ First solar-powered hydrogen plant in AF complete on Hickam Archived 2013-02-19 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "Fuel Cell Scooters and Solar Hydrogen Refuelling Station Launched in Hawaii". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  27. ^ Edelstein, Stephen. "Hydrogen Fuelling Stations are Being Built in New York and New England". The Drive. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  28. ^ Salomon, Sanjay (8 April 2016). "2 hydrogen refuelling stations to open in Massachusetts next year". Boston.com. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  29. ^ Motavalli, Jim (2001). Breaking Gridlock: Moving Towards Transportation That Works. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-57805-039-0.
  30. ^ "Missouri's First Hydrogen Fuel Station Welcomes Cars on Tour". Environment News Service. August 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
  31. ^ "Center for Automotive Research unveils first hydrogen refuelling station in Ohio". Ohio State University College of Engineering. April 20, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
  32. ^ Evermont renewable hydrogen fuelling station
  33. ^ "Hydrogen refuelling station opens in Canberra". Australian Capital Territory Government (Press release). 26 March 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  34. ^ Hydrogenics HomeFueler as a home hydrogen fueling station
  35. ^ Simple.fuel as a home hydrogen fueling station
  36. ^ Ivys Energy Solutions simple.fuel
  37. ^ Home hydrogen fueling station term
  38. ^ "Hydrogen Purification" (PDF). Home Power. 67: 42. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-08-13.
  39. ^ "Diaphragm Compressors". Pressure Products Industries, Inc. Archived from the original on 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
  40. ^ See, for example, Lincoln Composites Tuffshell tanks Archived 2007-06-04 at the Wayback Machine, as recommended by Roy McAlister in the "Hydrogen Car and Multi Fuel Engine" DVD
  41. ^ "Solar Hydrogen Production by Electrolysis" (PDF). Home Power. 39. February–March 1994. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
  42. ^ Storage capacity of NEXO for hydrogen: 6.33kg (typically, 4~5kg of hydrogen is replenished at a time)
  43. ^ Specifications for a hydrogen recharging station built by Hyundai Motor Group: 25kg/hr (recharges 250kg/day on a 10-hour business day, 600kg/day on a 24-hour business day)
  44. ^ "Realising the hydrogen economy", Power Technology, October 11, 2019
  45. ^ "Transportable Hydrogen Dispensing", Protium.aero, May 2, 2016
  46. ^ Utgikar, Vivek P; Thiesen, Todd (2005). "Safety of compressed hydrogen fuel tanks: Leakage from stationary vehicles". Technology in Society. 27 (3): 315–320. doi:10.1016/j.techsoc.2005.04.005.
  47. ^ Dobson, Geoff (12 June 2019). "Exploding hydrogen station leads to FCV halt". EV Talk.
  48. ^ Woodrow, Melanie. "Bay Area experiences hydrogen shortage after explosion", ABC news, June 3, 2019
  49. ^ "How many gas stations are there in the U.S?". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  50. ^ "Business and Industry: Time Series / Trend Charts". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  51. ^ Romm, Joseph (2004). The Hype about Hydrogen, Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate. New York: Island Press. ISBN 978-1-55963-703-9. Chapter 5
  52. ^ Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Bradley, Thomas H. (2019). "Review of Transportation Hydrogen Infrastructure Performance and Reliability". International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 44 (23): 12010–12023. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.03.027. Retrieved October 7, 2020.

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