Albert Horton Foote Jr. (March 14, 1916 – March 4, 2009) was an American playwright and screenwriter, perhaps best known for his screenplays for the 1962 film To Kill a Mockingbird and the 1983 film Tender Mercies, and his notable live television dramas during the Golden Age of Television. He received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1995 for his play The Young Man From Atlanta and two Academy Awards, one for an original screenplay (Tender Mercies) and one for adapted screenplay (To Kill a Mockingbird). In 1995, Foote was the inaugural recipient of the Austin Film Festival's Distinguished Screenwriter Award. In describing his three-play work, The Orphans' Home Cycle, the drama critic for the Wall Street Journal said this: "Foote, who died last March, left behind a masterpiece, one that will rank high among the signal achievements of American theater in the 20th century." In 2000, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts.
|Born||Albert Horton Foote Jr.|
March 14, 1916
Wharton, Texas, U.S.
|Died||March 4, 2009 (aged 92)|
Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.
|Occupation||Playwright and screenwriter|
|Notable works||To Kill a Mockingbird (1962)|
Tender Mercies (1983)
Old Man (1997) The Trip to Bountiful 1985
|Notable awards||Pulitzer Prize for Drama (1995)|
Two Academy Awards (1962 and 1983)
National Medal of Arts (2000)
Lillian Vallish Foote
(m. 1945; died 1992)
Foote was born in Wharton, Texas, the son of Harriet Gautier "Hallie" Brooks (1894–1974) and Albert Horton Foote (1890–1973). His younger brothers were Thomas Brooks Foote (1921–44), who died in aerial combat over Germany, and John Speed Foote (1923–95).
Foote began as an actor after studying at the Pasadena Playhouse in 1931–32. After getting better reviews for plays he had written than his acting, he focused on writing in the 1940s and became one of the leading writers for television during the 1950s, beginning with an episode of The Gabby Hayes Show. The Trip to Bountiful premiered March 1, 1953 on NBC with the leading cast members (Lillian Gish, Eva Marie Saint) reprising their roles on Broadway later that year.<" 'The Trip to Bountiful' Broadway" ibdb.com, accessed March 21, 2019</ref>
Throughout the 1950s, Foote wrote for The Philco Television Playhouse, The United States Steel Hour, Playhouse 90, Studio One, and Armchair Theatre, among others. He continued into the 1960s with ITV Playhouse and DuPont Show of the Month. 
He adapted William Faulkner's "Old Man" to television twice, in 1958 and 1997; receiving Emmy nominations both years and winning for the 1997 drama (Outstanding Writing of a Miniseries or Special).
He won the 1995 Pulitzer Prize for Drama for The Young Man From Atlanta. The Goodman Theatre production that was presented on Broadway in 1997 was nominated for the Tony Award Best Play, but did not win. The production starred Rip Torn, Shirley Knight and Biff McGuire. Knight and McGuire were also nominated for Tony Awards.
In 2000, Foote was honored with the PEN/Laura Pels International Foundation for Theater Award as a Master American Dramatist.
His nine-play biographical series, mainly about his father, The Orphans' Home Cycle (Roots in a Parched Ground, Convicts, Lily Dale, The Widow Claire, Courtship, Valentine's Day, 1918, Cousins, and The Death of Papa) ran in repertory Off-Broadway in 2009–2010.  The combined productions received a Special Drama Desk Award "To the cast, creative team and producers of Horton Foote's epic The Orphans' Home Cycle". Parts of the series had been produced as separate plays previously: Convicts, Lily Dale, Courtship, Valentine's Day and 1918 were filmed, the latter three being shown on PBS in 1987 as a mini-series titled The Story of A Marriage.
Foote received an Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay and the Writers Guild of America Screen Award for his adaptation of To Kill a Mockingbird in 1963. Foote did not attend the Oscars ceremony in 1963 because he did not expect to win, and so was not present to collect the award in person, however, it was accepted on his behalf by the film's producer, Alan J. Pakula.
Foote personally recommended actor Robert Duvall for the part of Boo Radley in To Kill a Mockingbird after meeting him during a 1957 production of The Midnight Caller at Neighborhood Playhouse in New York City. The two would work together many more times in the future. Foote has described Duvall as "our number one actor".
Foote's script for the 1983 film Tender Mercies had been rejected by many American film directors before Australian director Bruce Beresford finally accepted it; Foote later said, "this film was turned down by every American director on the face of the globe." The film received five 1984 Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture (which lost) and Best Original Screenplay (which Foote won). Duvall won an Academy Award, Actor in a Leading Role for his performance.  Aware of his failure to attend the 1963 ceremony, Foote made sure to attend the 1984 ceremony. The film also earned Foote the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Screenplay.
Other film scripts include Baby the Rain Must Fall starring Steve McQueen and Lee Remick, which was based on his play The Travelling Lady. The film was directed by Robert Mulligan who had worked with Foote on To Kill a Mockingbird in 1962.
Foote generally wrote screenplays that were based on his plays, such as the semi-autobiographic trilogy of 1918 (1985), On Valentine's Day (1986) and Courtship (1987). 1918 and On Valentine's Day were shot on location in Waxahachie, Texas.
In addition to Faulkner's Old Man, he also adapted Faulkner's short story Tomorrow into a 1972 film starring Robert Duvall. Foote had previously adapted the story into a play for television's Playhouse 90 in 1960. Leonard Maltin, in his movie guide book, calls the movie the best film adaptation of any of Faulkner's work. On the subject of Faulkner, Foote said, "Faulkner I never met but evidently he liked [my adaptations] because he's allowed me to share the dramatic copyrights to both Old Man and Tomorrow ... So in other words, you have to get both our permissions to do it."
Foote provided the voice of Jefferson Davis for Ken Burns' critically acclaimed documentary, The Civil War (PBS, 1990), and adaptations of his plays The Habitation of Dragons (TNT, 1992) and Lily Dale (Showtime, 1996) preceded the Showtime production of Horton Foote's Alone (1997). His final work was the screenplay for Main Street, a 2010 dramatic film.
Honors and styleEdit
One of Foote's primary biographers is Dr. Gerald Wood, former chairman of the English Department at Carson-Newman. Books by Wood about Foote include Horton Foote and the Theater of Intimacy and Horton Foote: A Casebook (Taylor & Francis, 1998, ISBN 08-15-325444; rev. Routledge, 2014, ISBN 11-35-636028).
Tess Harper, an actress who worked with Foote on Tender Mercies, described him as "America's Chekhov. If he didn't study the Russians, he's a reincarnation of the Russians. He's a quiet man who writes quiet people." Regarding his own writing, Foote said, "I know that people think I have a certain style, but I think style is like the color of the eyes. I don't know that you choose that."
Foote made an effort to employ lifelike language in his writing, citing W. B. Yeats's work as an example of this realistic approach. In an interview with playwright Stuart Spencer, Foote discusses his writing and material: "I think there's certain things you don't choose. I don't think that you can choose a style; I think a style chooses you. I think that's almost an unconscious choice. And I don't know that you can choose subject matter, really. I think that's almost an unconscious choice. I have a theory that from the time you're 12 years old all your themes are kind of locked in.".
The Fine Arts Building at the college located in Wharton, Texas, Wharton County Junior College, is named the Horton Foote Theatre. He was known to be a large supporter of the arts in his hometown of Wharton, Texas. A Horton Foote Scholarship still exists at the school, recognizing one student per year who excels in theatre.
- Academy Awards
Foote was married to Lillian Vallish Foote (1923–1992) from June 4, 1945 until her death in 1992.  Their four children are actors Albert Horton Foote III and Hallie Foote, playwright Daisy Brooks Foote, and director, writer and lawyer Walter Vallish Foote.
They have worked on projects with their father. Hallie and Albert Horton Foote III (aka Horton Jr.) appeared in their father's film 1918 (1985). Hallie has appeared on stage in her father's works, including, for example, Dividing the Estate in 2008, The Orphans' Home Cycle Part III: The Story of a Family in 2010 and Harrison, TX: Three Plays by Horton Foote Off-Broadway in 2012. Daisy wrote the play When They Speak of Rita (2000) in which Hallie appeared and was directed by their father.
Foote was introduced to Christian Science while in California and went on to become a dedicated member of the church. He served as a First Reader in a branch church in Nyack, New York, and also taught Sunday School for many years while living in New Hampshire.
Foote was the voice of Jefferson Davis in the 11-hour PBS series The Civil War (1990). Shelby Foote wrote the comprehensive three volume, 3000-page history, together entitled The Civil War: A Narrative, upon which the series was partially based and who appeared in almost ninety segments. The two Footes are third cousins; their great-grandfathers were brothers.
Foote was the cousin of actor/director Peter Masterson who directed three of his screenplays, including The Trip to Bountiful, Convicts and the Hallmark Hall of Fame television production of Lily Dale, starring Mary Stuart Masterson, Peter's daughter.
The The Orphans' Home Cycle is a series of nine plays concerning Horace Robedaux (an alias for Horton Foote's father, Albert Horton Foote Sr.), Elizabeth Vaughn (his mother Harriet Gauthier "Hallie" Brooks), and their extended families.
- Tender Mercies (1983)
- Alone (1997)
- Main Street (2009)
- Farewell: A Memoir of a Texas Childhood (Scribner, 1999)
- Murphy, Kate. "Horton Foote". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-06-15.
- Review:Theater by Terry Teachout, "Infinite Meaning in the Details of Ordinary Life", The Wall Street Journal, February 5, 2010, pg W5
- Lifetime Honors – National Medal of Arts Archived March 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- "Horton Foote Biography". filmreference. 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
- Horton Foote at The Interviews: An Oral History of Television
- "Horton Foote: Selected Television Work" paleycenter.org, accessed March 20, 2019
- Obituary Star-Gazette
- Porter, Laurin. "The Horton Foote Collection at the DeGolyer Library, Resources for American Literary Study Vol. 26, No. 1 (2000), pp. 64-74 - excerpt" jstor.org, accessed March 20, 2019
- "Writer Horton Foote Has Died – Archive 1999 Interview Online" emmytvlegends.org, accessed March 21, 2019
- "Horton Hoote: Selected Television Work" paleycenter.org, accessed March 20, 20119
- "Horton Foote Emmy" emmys.com, accessed March 21, 2019
- "Horton Foote Broadway" ibdb.com, accessed March 20, 2019
- "Horton Foote Off-Broadway" lortel.org, accessed March 20, 2019
- "Horton Foote at the Goodman" goodmantheatre.org, accessed March 20, 2019
- Sommer, Elyse. "A CurtainUp Feature: Playwrights Album. An Overview of Horton Foote's Career" curtainup.com, accessed March 23, 2019
- Mandelbaum, Ken. Not Since Carrie: Forty Years of Broadway Musical Flops, New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-06428-4, p. 180
- "Horton Foote Pulitzer" pulitzer.org, accessed March 21, 2019
- The Young Man From Atlanta ibdb.com, accessed March 20, 2019
- "Theatre Hall of Fame 1996". Playbill.com. Archived from the original on 2014-03-14.
- Winners of thePEN/laura Pels International Foundation for Theater Awards" pen.org, accessed March 20, 2019
- Gans, Andrew."Drama Desk Award Nominations Announced; Ragtime and Scottsboro Top List" Archived 2010-05-06 at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, May 3, 2010.
- The Story of A Marriage tcm.com, accessed March 20, 2019
- "Ceremonies, 1963" oscars.org, accessed March 22, 2019
- Bruce Beresford (actor), Robert Duvall (actor), Horton Foote (actor), Tess Harper (actor), Gary Hertz (director) (2002-04-16). Miracles & Mercies (Documentary). West Hollywood, California: Blue Underground. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
- "Oscars. Ceremonies 1984" oscars.org, accessed March 22, 2019
- Baby the Rain Must Fall tcm.com, accessed March 21, 2019
- To Kill a Mockingbird tcm.com, accessed March 21, 2019
- 1918 allmovie.com, accessed March 21, 2019
- On Valentine's Day allmovie.com, accessed March 21, 2019
- Courtship allmovie.com, accessed March 21, 2019
- Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences."The 58TH Academy Awards: 1986", oscars.org, accessed January 30, 2018
- Of Mice and Men at the TCM Movie Database
- "Tomorrow Article" tcm.com, accessed March 22, 2019
- Spenser, Stuart. "Horton Foote", BOMBsite.com, Spring 1986
- The Chase tcm.com, accessed March 22, 2019
- "Notes on The Chase" tcm.com, accessed March 22, 2019
- Staff. "Film Review: 'The Chase'" Variety, December 31, 1965
- "Horton Foote's Honorary Degree" cn.edu, accessed March 21, 2019
- "Baylor Festival Honors Legendary Playwright Horton Foote" baylor.edu, February 5, 2004
- Spencer, Stuart. "Horton Foote", BOMB Magazine (Spring 1986)]; retrieved 2012-11-26.
- "Scholarship Info". Wcjc.edu. Retrieved 2017-06-15.
- Cearley, Ramona. "A Conversation with Horton Foote" Humanities Texas, May 2011 (original published in 2005 by University of Texas Press)
- Interview with Horton Foote, December 11, 2001 . University of Texas at San Antonio: Institute of Texan Cultures: Oral History Collection, UA 15.01, University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries Special Collections. (audio)
- "RootsWeb: Database Index". Ssdi.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved 2017-06-15.
- "Lillian Vallish Foote; Producer, 69" The New York Times, August 7, 1992
- Dividing the Estate Broadway ibdb.com, accessed March 20, 2019
- "Hallie Foote Off-Broadway" lortel.org, accessed March 20, 2019
- Saltzman, Simon. "A CurtainUp Review. 'Harrison, TX: Three Plays By Horton Foote'" curtainup.com, August 8, 2012
- When They Speak of Rita lortel.org, accessed March 20, 2019
- Christian Science Journal (July 2006 Interview), Volume 124, Issue 7; accessed June 15, 2016.
- "Civil War" pbs.org, accessed March 23, 2019
- "Civil War Credits" pbs.org, accessed March 23, 2019
- Holley, Joe. "Horton Foote Dies; 'To Kill a Mockingbird' Screenwriter" The Washington Post, March 5, 2009
- Ehren, Christine. "ACT's Young Conservatory Premieres Two New Footes in San Francisco Jan. 17-27" platbill, January 17, 2002
- Program from Horton Foote's The Carpetbagger's Children South Coast Repertory
- Oxman, Steven. "Reviews. Getting Frankie Married — and Afterwards Variety, April 8, 2002
- Program for Horton Foote's Getting Frankie Married—and Afterwards at South Coast Repertory scr.org
- Ehren, Christine. "Horton Foote's "Farewell" Remembers Texas Childhood" playbill, June 16, 1999
- Hampton, Wilborn (2009). Horton Foote: America's Storyteller. New York: Free Press.
- Haynes, Robert W. (2010). The Major Plays of Horton Foote: The Trip to Bountiful, The Young Man from Atlanta, and The Orphans' Home Cycle. Lewiston, New York: The Edwin Mellen Press.
- Castleberry, Marion. 2014. Blessed Assurance: The Life and Art of Horton Foote. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press.