Heraklion or Herakleion (/hɪˈrækliən/ hih-RAK-lee-ən; Greek: Ηράκλειο, Irákleio, pronounced [iˈrakli.o]),[4] sometimes Iraklion, is the largest city and the administrative capital of the island of Crete and capital of Heraklion regional unit. It is the fourth largest city in Greece with a municipal population of 179,302 (2021)[3] and 211,370 in its wider metropolitan area,[5] according to the 2011 census.

Heraklion montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article, if it exists.Panoramic view of the city of HeraklionVenetian fortress of Koules/CastelloAgios Minas CathedralHarbor of Heraklion
Clockwise from top: Panoramic view of the city of Heraklion and the Sea of Crete, Agios Minas Cathedral, Night view of the Harbor of Heraklion, and Venetian fortress of Koules/Castello.
Heraklion is located in Greece
Location within the region
Coordinates: 35°20′25″N 25°8′4″E / 35.34028°N 25.13444°E / 35.34028; 25.13444
Administrative regionCrete
Regional unitHeraklion
 • MayorVasilis Lambrinos[1]
 • Municipality244.6 km2 (94.4 sq mi)
 • Municipal unit109.0 km2 (42.1 sq mi)
Highest elevation
33 m (108 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
 • Municipality179,302
 • Density730/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Municipal unit
 • Municipal unit density1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Heraklian, Heraclian
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
70x xx, 71x xx, 720 xx
Area code(s)281
Vehicle registrationHK, HP, HZ

The ancient Minoan palace at Knossos is located 5.5 km (3.1 mi) southeast of the city. It is the second most visited archaeological site in Greece, after the Parthenon.

Heraklion was Europe's fastest growing tourism destination for 2017, according to Euromonitor, with an 11.2% growth in international arrivals.[6] According to the ranking, Heraklion was ranked as the 20th most visited region in Europe, as the 66th area on the planet and as the 2nd in Greece for the year 2017, with 3.2 million visitors[7] and the 19th in Europe for 2018, with 3.4 million visitors.[8]

Etymology edit

The Arab traders from al-Andalus (Iberia) who founded the Emirate of Crete (824/827–961 CE) moved the island's capital from Gortyna to a new castle they called rabḍ al-ḫandaq (Arabic: ربض الخندق, "Castle of the Moat") in the 820s.[9] This was hellenized as Χάνδαξ (Chándax) or Χάνδακας (Chándakas) and Latinized as Candia, which was taken into other European languages: in Italian and Latin as Candia, in French as Candie, in English as Candy, all of which could refer to the island of Crete as a whole as well as to the city alone; the Ottoman name was Kandiye.[citation needed]

After the Byzantine reconquest of Crete, the city was locally known as Megalo Kastro (Μεγάλο Κάστρο,[citation needed] 'Big Castle' in Greek) and its inhabitants were called Kastrinoi (Καστρινοί, "castle-dwellers").

The ancient name Herakleion (Ηράκλειον) was revived in the 19th century.[10] It derives from the ancient sunken port city of Heracleion, located near the Canopic Mouth of the Nile, and which remained submerged until its rediscovery in the 2000s.

History edit

Knossos is located within the Municipality of Heraklion and has been called Europe's oldest city[11]

Minoan era edit

Heraklion is close to the ruins of the palace of Knossos, which in Minoan times was the largest centre of population on Crete. Knossos had a port at the site of Heraklion (in the Poros-Katsambas[12] neighborhood) from the beginning of the Early Minoan period (3500 to 2100 BC).

The snake goddess (c.1600 BC) in Heraklion Archaeological Museum

Antiquity edit

After the fall of the Minoans, Heraklion, as well as the rest of Crete in general, fared poorly, with very little development in the area. Only with the arrival of the Romans did some construction in the area begin, yet especially early into Byzantine times the area abounded with pirates and bandits.[13]

Emirate of Crete edit

The present city of Heraklion was founded in 824 by the Arabs under Abu Hafs Umar who had been expelled from Al-Andalus by Emir Al-Hakam I and had taken over the island from the Eastern Roman Empire.[citation needed] They built a moat around the city for protection, and named the city rabḍ al-ḫandaq (ربض الخندق, "Castle of the Moat", hellenized as Χάνδαξ, Chandax). It became the capital of the Emirate of Crete (c. 827–961). The Saracens allowed the port to be used as a safe haven for pirates who operated against Imperial (Byzantine) shipping and raided Imperial territory around the Aegean.[citation needed]

Byzantine era edit

In 960, Byzantine forces under the command of Nikephoros Phokas, later to become Emperor, landed in Crete and attacked the city. After a prolonged siege, the city fell in March 961. The Saracen inhabitants were slaughtered, the city looted and burned to the ground.[citation needed] Soon rebuilt, the town remained under Byzantine control for the next 243 years.[citation needed]

Venetian era edit

Representation of the city of Candia and the surrounding area by Francesco Basilicata, 1618

In 1204, the city was bought by the Republic of Venice as part of a complicated political deal which involved, among other things, the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade restoring the deposed Eastern Roman Emperor Isaac II Angelus to his throne. The Venetians improved on the ditch of the city by building enormous fortifications, most of which are still in place, including a giant wall, in places up to 40 m thick, with 7 bastions, and a fortress in the harbour. Chandax was renamed Candia and became the seat of the Duke of Candia, and the Venetian administrative district of Crete became known as "Regno di Candia" (Kingdom of Candia). The city retained the name of Candia for centuries and the same name was often used to refer to the whole island of Crete as well. To secure their rule, the Venetians began in 1212 to settle families from Venice on Crete. The coexistence of two different cultures and the stimulus of the Italian Renaissance led to a flourishing of letters and the arts in Candia and Crete in general, that is today known as the Cretan Renaissance.

Ottoman era edit

During the Cretan War (1645–1669), the Ottomans besieged the city for 21 years, from 1648 to 1669, the longest siege in history up until that time. In its final phase, which lasted for 22 months, 70,000 Turks, 38,000 Cretans and slaves and 29,088 of the city's Christian defenders perished.[14] The Ottoman army under an Albanian grand vizier, Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha conquered the city in 1669.

The tomb of Nikos Kazantzakis in the Martinego bastion

Under the Ottomans, Kandiye (Ottoman Turkish قنديه) was the capital of Crete (Girit Eyâleti) until 1849, when Chania (Hanya) became the capital, and Kandiye became a sancak.[15] In Greek, it was commonly called Megalo Castro (Μεγάλο Κάστρο 'Big Castle').

During the Ottoman period, the harbour silted up, so most shipping shifted to Chania in the west of the island.

Modern era edit

Panoramic view of the port of Heraklion from Koules Fortress

An earthquake located off the northern coast of Crete on October 12, 1856, destroyed most of the over 3,600 homes in the city. Only 18 homes were left intact. The disaster claimed 538 victims in Heraklion.[16]

In 1898, the autonomous Cretan State was created, under Ottoman suzerainty, with Prince George of Greece as its High Commissioner and under international supervision. During the period of direct occupation of the island by the Great Powers (1898–1908), Candia was part of the British zone. At this time, the city was renamed "Heraklion", after the Roman port of Heracleum ("Heracles' city"), whose exact location is unknown.[citation needed]

In 1913, with the rest of Crete, Heraklion was incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece. Heraklion became again capital of Crete in 1971, replacing Chania.[17]

Architecture, urban sculpture and fortifications edit

The oldest monument of architecture is palace in Knossos on the outskirts of the city.

Two largest medieval churches in the city were the Dominican church of St. Peter (built between 1248 and 1253) and the San Salvatore, belonging to the Augustinian Friars. The latter one stood in Kornaros Square, but was demolished in 1970.[18]

Other monuments of architecture from Venetian times include the Saint Mark's Basilica and the Renaissance loggia next to Lions Square (1626–28).

Around the historic city center of Heraklion there are also a series of defensive walls, bastions and other fortifications which were built earlier in the Middle Ages, but were completely rebuilt by the Republic of Venice. The fortifications managed to withstand the longest siege in history for 21 years, before the city fell to the Ottomans in 1669. The Koules Fortress (Castello a Mare), the ramparts and the arsenal dominate the port area.

Many fountains of the Venetian era are preserved, such as the Bembo fountain, the Priuli fountain, Palmeti fountain, Sagredo fountain and Morosini fountain in Lions Square (1628).

19th century architecture is represented by the St Titus Cathedral, built in 1869 as the Yeni Cami ("New Mosque") and the Agios Minas Cathedral (1862–95).

An example of modern architecture in Heraklion is the Heraklion Archaeological Museum built between 1937 and 1940 by architect Patroklos Karantinos.

Several sculptures, statues and busts commemorating significant events and figures of the city's and island's history, like El Greco, Vitsentzos Kornaros, Nikos Kazantzakis and Eleftherios Venizelos can be found around the city.

Municipality edit

The Saint Peter of Dominicans, one of the oldest monuments of architecture of the Cistercian monks in the 12th century.

The municipality Heraklion was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 5 former municipalities, that became municipal units:[19]

The municipality has an area of 244.613 km2, the municipal unit 109.026 km2.[20]

Neighborhoods edit

Historical Museum of Crete
• Agia Ekaterini • Dimokratias • Marathitis
• Agia Erini Chrisovalantou • Estavromenos • Mastabas
• Agia Marina • Filothei • Mesabelies
• Agia Triada • Fortetsa • Mpentevi
• Agios Dimitrios • Ilioupoli • Nea Alatsata
• Agios Ioannis Chostos • Kamaraki • Pananio
• Agios Minas • Kaminia • Papatitou Metochi
• Agios Titos • Katsampas • Pateles
• Akadimia • Kenouria Porta • Poros
• Ampelokipoi • Kipoupoli • Therissos
• Analipsi • Komeno Mpenteni • Tris Vagies
• Atsalenio • Korakovouni • Xiropotamos
• Chanioporta • Koroni Magara
• Chrisopigi • Knossos
• Dilina • Lido

Suburbs edit

A panoramic view of Amnissos
• Agia Erini • Finikia • Ksirokabos
• Agia Marina • Gazi urban area • Malades
• Agioi Theodoroi • Giofyrakia Nea Alikarnassos urban area
• Agios Syllas • Gournes Temenous • Sillamos
• Ammoudara • Kallithea • Skafidaras
Amnisos • Karteros • Skalani
• Ano Kalesia • Kato Kalesia • Vasilies
• Athanati • Kavrochori • Voutes
Dafnes • Kollyvas

Villages edit

Transportation edit

Port edit

Heraklion is an important shipping port and ferry dock. Travellers can take ferries and boats from Heraklion to destinations including Santorini, Ios Island, Paros, Mykonos, and Rhodes. There are direct ferries to Naxos, Karpathos, Kasos, Sitia, Anafi, Chalki and Diafani.[21] There are also several daily ferries to Piraeus, the port of Athens in mainland Greece. The port of Heraklion was built by Sir Robert McAlpine and completed in 1928.[22]

Airport edit

Heraklion International Airport

Heraklion International Airport, or Nikos Kazantzakis Airport is located about 5 kilometres (3 miles) east of the city. The airport is named after Heraklion native Nikos Kazantzakis, a writer and a philosopher. It is the second busiest airport of Greece after Athens International Airport, first in charter flights and the 59th busiest in Europe, because of Crete being a major holiday destination with 8,066,000 passengers in 2022 (List of the busiest airports in Europe).

The airfield is shared with the 126th Combat Group of the Hellenic Air Force.

Highway network edit

European route E75 runs through the city and connects Heraklion with the three other major cities of Crete: Agios Nikolaos, Chania, and Rethymno.

Public transit edit

Urban bus in Heraklion

Urban buses serve the city, with 39 different routes.[23] Intercity buses connect Heraklion to many major destinations in Crete.[24]

Railway edit

From 1922 to 1937, a working industrial railway connected the Koules in Heraklion to Xiropotamos for the construction of the harbor.[25]

In the summer of 2007, at the Congress of Cretan emigrants, held in Heraklion, two qualified engineers, George Nathenas (from Gonies, Malevizi Province) and Vassilis Economopoulos, recommended the development of a railway line in Crete, linking Chania, Rethymno and Heraklion, with a total journey time of 50 minutes (30 minutes between Heraklion and Rethymno, 20 minutes from Chania to Rethymno) and with provision for extensions to Kissamos, Kastelli Pediados (for the planned new airport), and Agios Nikolaos. No plans exist for implementing this idea.[citation needed]

Climate edit

Heraklion has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa in the Köppen climate classification). Summers are warm to hot and dry with clear skies. Dry hot days are often relieved by seasonal breezes. Winters are mild with moderate rain. Because Heraklion is further south than Athens, it has a warmer climate during winter but cooler during summer because of the Aegean Sea. The maximum temperature during the summer period is usually not more than 28 - 30 °C (Athens normal maximum temperature is about 5 °C higher). The minimum temperature record is -0.8 °C in the airport while in the port it has never dropped below 0 °C. Snowfalls are rare with the last significant snowfall with a measurable amount on the ground occurring in February 2004. [26] Heraklion falls in 11a hardiness zone. [27]

Climate data for Heraklion Port 10 m a.s.l. (2007-2024)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.7
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 15.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.1
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 10.5
Record low °C (°F) 1.4
Average rainfall mm (inches) 61.7
Source 1: National Observatory of Athens Monthly Bulletins (May 2007 - Jan 2024) [28]
Source 2: Heraklion Port N.O.A station [29] and World Meteorological Organization[30]
Climate data for Heraklion 1955-2010 (HNMS)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.9
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 15.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.1
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 9.1
Record low °C (°F) 0.0
Average rainfall mm (inches) 91.0
Average rainy days 16.0 13.6 11.4 7.6 4.6 1.3 0.3 0.5 2.8 7.5 10.6 15.2 91.4
Average relative humidity (%) 68.4 66.4 65.9 62.3 61.2 57.0 57.1 59.1 61.9 65.7 67.9 68.3 63.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 119.9 132.3 181.5 234.8 298.5 356.2 368.3 343.5 275.8 206.9 145.5 115.4 2,778.6
Source 1: HNMS[31][32]
Source 2: meteo-climat (extremes)[33]
Climate data for Heraklion
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) 17.1
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 14.0 13.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 10.0 12.1
Average Ultraviolet index 3 4 5 7 9 10 11 10 8 5 3 2 6.4
Source: Weather Atlas [34]
Climate graph of Heraklion

Colleges, universities, libraries, and research centers edit

Culture edit

Natural History Museum of Crete
Cultural and Conference Center
Pankritio Stadium
Heraklion Indoor Sports Arena

Museums edit

Arts edit

The Cultural and Conference Center of Heraklion is a centre for the performing arts.

Sports edit

The city is home to several sports clubs. Most notably, Heraklion hosts OFI and Ergotelis, two football clubs with earlier presence in the Greek Superleague, the top tier of the Greek football league system. Furthermore, the city is the headquarters of the Heraklion Football Clubs Association, which administers football in the entire region. Other notable sport clubs include Iraklio B.C. (basketball), Atsalenios (football) and Irodotos (football) in the suburbs of Atsalenio and Nea Alikarnassos respectively.

Notable Sport clubs based in Heraklion
Club Founded Sports Current Season
OFI 1925 Football, Basketball Superleague, Greek C Basket League
Ergotelis 1929 Football, Basketball Football League, Cretan Basket League
Iraklio 1928 Basketball Cretan Basket League
Irodotos 1932 Football, Basketball Football League, Cretan Basket League
Atsalenios 1951 Football Gamma Ethniki

Local TV stations edit

Notable people edit

Nicholas Kalliakis was a significant Renaissance humanist, scholar and philosopher from Heraklion.[35]
El Greco (Dominikos Theotokopoulos)
Cyril Lucaris
Epitaph on Nikos Kazantzakis' grave. I hope for nothing, I fear nothing, I'm free.

Heraklion has been the home town of some of Greece's most significant people, including the novelist Nikos Kazantzakis (best known for Zorba the Greek), the poet and Nobel Prize winner Odysseas Elytis and the world-famous painter Domenicos Theotokopoulos (El Greco).

Literature edit

Scientists and academia edit

Painting and sculpture edit

Film industry edit

Music edit

Francesco Barozzi

Spirituality edit

Sports edit

Business edit

Politics and law edit

Clergy edit

Marcus Musurus

Fashion edit

International relations edit

Prefecture of Crete

Consulates edit

Twin towns and sister cities edit

Heraklion is twinned with:

Location edit

 ChaniaRethymno     Agios Nikolaos    
 TympakiMoires   Archanes    Ierapetra 

Gallery edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Βιογραφικό Σημείωμα Δημάρχου κου Βασίλη Λαμπρινού | Δήμαρχος | Ο Δήμος |". www.heraklion.gr (in Greek). Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  2. ^ appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
  3. ^ a b "Αποτελέσματα Απογραφής Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2021, Μόνιμος Πληθυσμός κατά οικισμό" [Results of the 2021 Population - Housing Census, Permanent population by settlement] (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority. 29 March 2024.
  4. ^ Pronunciation for Ηράκλειο
  5. ^ "Population on 1 January by age groups and sex - functional urban areas". Eurostat. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  6. ^ "Top 100 City Destination Ranking 2017". Market Research Blog. 2017-01-26. Archived from the original on 2020-11-29. Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  7. ^ "Top 100 City Destinations Ranking: WTM London 2017 Edition". Market Research Blog. Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  8. ^ Geerts, Wouter (2018). "Top 100 City Destinations 2018" (PDF). Euromonitor International.
  9. ^ Encyclopaedia of Islam, s.v. Iķrīṭish
  10. ^ It was in use by the local people by 1867, see Howe, Samuel Gridley (1868). The Cretan refugees and their American helpers. Boston: Lee and Shepard. p. 33 – via archive.org.
  11. ^ Whitelaw, Todd; Morgan, Catherine (November 2009). "Crete". Archaeological Reports. 55: 79. doi:10.1017/s0570608400001307. ISSN 0570-6084. S2CID 231735198.
  12. ^ Dimopoulou, N.; Wilson, D.E.; Day, P.M. (2007). "The Earlier Prepalatial Settlement of Poros-Katsambas: craft production and exchange at the harbour town of Knossos". In Day, P.M.; Doonan, R. (eds.). Metallurgy in the Early Bronze Age Aegean. Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology. Oxbow Books. pp. 84–97.
  13. ^ "History of Heraklion in Crete island - Greeka.com". Greeka. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  14. ^ The War for Candia
  15. ^ Tahir Sezen, Osmanlı Yer Adları, Ankara 2017, T.C. Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri Genel Müdürlüğü Yayın No: 26 s.v., p. 410
  16. ^ National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS) (1972), Significant Earthquake Database (Data Set), National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA, doi:10.7289/V5TD9V7K
  17. ^ "Heraklion". visit-ancient-greece.com. Archived from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  18. ^ Ilko, Krisztina (2021). "Recovering the Augustinian Convent of San Salvatore in Venetian Candia". Journal of Ecclesiastical History. 72 (2): 259–263. doi:10.1017/S0022046920000755. S2CID 228866606. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  19. ^ "ΦΕΚ A 87/2010, Kallikratis reform law text" (in Greek). Government Gazette.
  20. ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21.
  21. ^ "Heraklion ferry, compare prices, times and book tickets".
  22. ^ "Sir Robert McAlpine". Grace's Guide. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  23. ^ Iraklio urban buses
  24. ^ "ΚΤΕΛ Ηρακλείου - Λασιθίου Κρήτης | Online Κράτηση εισιτηρίων για λεωφορεία - Δρομολόγια Λεωφορεία Κρήτης".
  25. ^ Tzikas, Polykarpos; Konstantinos, Mamalakis; Tertipis, Dimitrios; Charitopoulos, Evangelos. «Μέσα σταθερής τροχιάς στην Κρήτη: Δίκτυα βιομηχανικών σιδηροδρόμων κατά το πρώτο μισό του 20ου αιώνα». Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Cretan Studies.
  26. ^ "ΠΑΤΡΙΣ - ΑΡΧΕΙΟ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΝΙΚΗΣ ΕΚΔΟΣΗΣ". archive.patris.gr. Retrieved 2023-05-25.
  27. ^ "Meteo.gr - Προγνώσεις καιρού για όλη την Ελλάδα".
  28. ^ "Meteo.gr - Προγνώσεις καιρού για όλη την Ελλάδα".
  29. ^ "Latest Conditions in Heraklion Port".
  30. ^ "World Meteorological Organization". Retrieved 14 July 2023.
  31. ^ "Climatic Data for selected stations in Greece: Heraklion (Crete)". Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  32. ^ "Climate Atlas of Greece (for sunshine 1977-2002)". HNMS. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  33. ^ "STATION HERAKLION". meteo-climat. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  34. ^ "Heraklion, Greece - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  35. ^ Lathrop C. Harper (1886). Catalogue / Harper (Lathrop C.) inc., New York, Issue 232. Lathrop C. Harper, Inc. p. 36. OCLC 11558801. Calliachius (1645–1707) was born on Crete and went to Italy at an early age, where he soon became one of the outstanding teachers of Greek and Latin.
  36. ^ Rose, Hugh James; Rose, Henry John; Wright, Thomas (1857). A new general biographical dictionary, Volume 5. T. Fellowes. p. 425. OCLC 309809847. CALLIACHI, (Nicholas,) a native of Candia, where he was born in 1645. He studied at Rome for ten years, at the end of which time he was made doctor of philosophy and theology. In 1666 he was invited to Venice, to take the chair of professor of the Greek and Latin languages, and of the Aristotelic philosophy; and in 1677 he was appointed professor of belles-lettres at Padua, where he died in 1707. His works on antiquities are valuable, and have been published by the marquis Poloni in the third volume of his Supplement to the Thesaurus Antiquitatum.
  37. ^ Convegno internazionale nuove idee e nuova arte nell '700 italiano, Roma, 19–23 maggio 1975. Accademia nazionale dei Lincei. 1977. p. 429. OCLC 4666566. Nicolò Duodo riuniva alcuni pensatori ai quali Andrea Musalo, oriundo greco, professore di matematica e dilettante di architettura chiariva le nuove idée nella storia dell'arte.
  38. ^ Carlo Capra; Franco Della Peruta; Fernando Mazzocca (2002). Napoleone e la repubblica italiana: 1802–1805. Skira. p. 200. ISBN 978-88-8491-415-6. Simone Stratico, nato a Zara nel 1733 da famiglia originaria di Creta (abbandonata a seguito della conquista turca del 1669)
  39. ^ "Notre Dame RB Mick Assaf: Mick's Mickstape Season 2 Volume 1".
  40. ^ I︠A︡roslav Dmytrovych Isai︠e︡vych (2006). Voluntary brotherhood: confraternities of laymen in early modern Ukraine. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press. p. 47. ISBN 1-894865-03-0. …the Greek merchants Constantine Korniakt and Manolis Arphanes Marinetos are added. This second redaction appeared no earlier than 1589, as wealthy Greeks began to join the confraternity at a later date, once it had expanded its activities. Korniakt was actually the wealthiest man in Lviv: he traded in Eastern, Western, and local goods, collected customs duty on behalf of the king, and owned a number of villages.
  41. ^ "Limassol Twinned Cities". Limassol (Lemesos) Municipality. Archived from the original on 2013-04-01. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
  42. ^ "Cu ce oraşe este înfrăţit municipiul Constanţa?". Ziua de Constanța. 7 April 2019. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
  43. ^ "Twinnings" (PDF). Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-01-15. Retrieved 2013-08-25.

External links edit