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The GAF Nomad is a twin-engined turboprop, high-wing, short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft. It was designed and built by the Australian Government Aircraft Factories (GAF) at Fishermens Bend, Melbourne.

Nomad
IMDEX 2007 Maritime patrol (cropped).jpg
N24A Nomad of the Indonesian Navy
Role STOL aircraft
Manufacturer Government Aircraft Factories
First flight 23 July 1971
Retired Royal Australian Air Force (1993)[1]
Status Out of production, in limited service
Primary users Philippine Air Force
Australian Army (historical)
Indonesian National Navy
Produced 1975–1985
Number built 172
Unit cost
A$991,000 (1981)[2]

Originally known as Project N, GAF engineers began work on the design during the mid-1960s. Supported by a development contract issued by the Australian Government in 1970, the first prototype performed its maiden flight on 23 July 1971. Once in production, the aircraft, which was known as the N2, had two basic variants; the N22 model for the military market and the stretched N24 model that was marketed towards civilian operators. Major users of the Nomad have included the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia, the Australian Army and the Australian Customs Service.

Despite achieving some export sales and several commercial operators adopting the type, sales were not as forthcoming as had been hoped by GAF. After a decade of full-rate production of the Nomad, all manufacturing activity was terminated in 1985. During the 1990s, the Australian military withdrew almost all of its remaining Nomads amid reports of safety concerns; by the 21st century, only a handful of aircraft remained in regular use in Australia. However, there are plans for a reengineered variant of the Nomad to be put into production. GippsAero, who acquired the type certificate of the Nomad during 2008, has announced its intention to produce it as the GA18.

DevelopmentEdit

OriginsEdit

During 1965, development of what would become the Nomad commenced at GAF, although a considerable number of projects and design studies, including a compact twin-engined utility aircraft proposed by the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation (CAC) in the 1950s, had been conducted beforehand.[3] In 1966, GAF contacted the Australian Army, seeking feedback on their proposal, which was of a single-engined turboprop-powered aircraft that could replace existing assets such as the American Cessna 180 and the Swiss Pilatus PC-6 Porter. The Army informed the company that, based on its combat experiences in Vietnam, the service believed a twin-engine configuration would be more useful to them. In the civil sector, an envisioned crop-dusting variant, viewed by GAF as a counterpart to the successful de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver, was pitched to potential agricultural operators; they largely favoured using two engines, and noted that it ought to possess greater endurance and "hot-and-high" performance.[3]

Based on feedback, GAF completely redesigned their proposal.[3] This redesign was initially referred to as Project N; its basic configuration was of a twin-engined, multi-purpose transport aircraft. An original intention was that the entire empennage would be hinged so that it could be swung open, providing generous rear-loading access to accommodate its target payload of a compact road vehicle; this choice necessitated the adoption of a raised cruciform tail. The new design was viewed as being a direct rival of existing products on the market from manufactures such as Britten-Norman, Shorts and de Havilland Canada.[3] It was intended to be suitable for use by both local and overseas customers in both civil and military markets. According to aerospace periodical Flight International, it was apparent even at an early stage of the project that the programme could not be realistically accomplished without financial assistance from the Australian government, partly because the nation lacked a large domestic market.[3]

During January 1970, the Australian government decided to provide $A3.2 million (£1.6 million) to GAF for the production of a pair of flight-capable prototypes along with a single static airframe for testing.[3] The government was keen both to foster the growth of the nation's indigenous aviation industry and specifically to GAF to establish itself with a new aircraft in order to maintain aircraft production at the company, which was then set to end after the scheduled termination of license-produced Mirage III fighters.[4] Furthermore, the twin-engined aircraft was viewed as a somewhat of a natural successor to the earlier DHA-3 Drover, a trimotor passenger airliner which had been built by de Havilland Australia.[3]

Into flightEdit

On 23 July 1971, the first prototype (registered VH-SUP) flew for the first time. By this point, the aircraft had been designated as the N2, and was being aimed at both the military and civilian markets. The designation N22 was to be used initially for military-orientated Nomads; this model, which was subsequently re-designated as N22B during production, was designed to perform military support operations, including aerial surveillance, medical evacuation, and other ancillary mission types. Furthermore, the N24A designation was assigned to a lengthened version of the Nomad; this was marketed as the principal commercial version.[2][5]

 
The only Nomad in Australia remaining airworthy in 2017, an N22C

On 5 December 1971, the second prototype performed its first flight. Reportedly, flight testing went relatively smoothly. A minor issue affecting the retraction of the undercarriage was quickly rectified, while directional stability was augmented by a 30 per cent increase in the area of both the fin and rudder.[6] However, the programme was affected by a political dispute between the Army and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) over whether the Army should continue to operate fixed-wing aircraft; this argument motivated the Australian Government to delay authorising production, causing several key figures of GAF's design team to resign in protest. During May 1972, production of the Nomad was finally authorised at a cost of $A13 million (£6.4 million); by this point, the Army had emerged from the row with success, being allocated 11 aircraft out of the first batch of 20 Nomads.[6] At the same time, the conversion of one of the prototypes to represent a new stretched variant was also authorised.[5]

In service, the Nomad was soon considered to be a problematic aircraft; early evaluations of the type performed by the military were frequently critical of it. Reportedly, safety concerns raised included fatigue issues with the tailplane, incorrect strength calculations having been used, and multiple questions surrounding the aircraft's overall aerodynamic stability and airworthiness.[1] During August 1976, a high-profile failure occurred when a stretched-fuselage variant crashed, resulting in the deaths of both GAF's chief test pilot Stuart Pearce (father of actor Guy Pearce),[7] and David Hooper, the chief structures designer. As of May 2007, the Nomad has been reportedly involved in a total of 32 total hull-loss accidents, which have cumulatively resulted in 76 fatalities.[8]

During late 1980, by which point roughly 130 Nomads have been sold in both civil and military versions, the Australian Government gave its approval for GAF to proceed with the production of a further batch of 55 Nomads; this brought the authorised total production to 200 units, which was the forecasted break-even point of the programme.[2]

Termination and prospective revivalEdit

During 1985, production of the Nomad was terminated; in total, only 172 aircraft (including the two prototypes) were manufactured, largely due to the limited number of foreign sales that had been secured by GAF. In 1986, GAF was incorporated into Aerospace Technologies of Australia, which has since been rebranded as Boeing Australia.[9]

In June 2008, Gippsland Aeronautics (now Mahindra Aerospace) announced it had won bidding to take over the Nomad's type certificate; the company also stated that it would probably be restarting production of new aircraft at some point.[10] Prior to this acquisition, some of the GippsAero design and testing engineers, including the company's co-founder George Morgan, had worked for GAF during the Nomad's development.[11] Reportedly, the N24-based GA18 was to be re-engineered with new powerplants and propellers, a glass cockpit, and would incorporate various weight-saving measures.[12] It was planned to bring it into service after the development and certification of the new ten-seat GA10, which was due to be completed in March 2013.

As of December 2009, only one Nomad was still flying in Australia, although another four were operating in neighbouring New Zealand.[13][14][15]

DesignEdit

The GAF Nomad is a twin-engine utility/commuter aircraft capable of Short Takeoff/Landing (STOL) operations.[2] It was produced in two primary variants, the N22B and N24A, the latter being 6 ft (183 cm) longer than the N22B; the N24A also differed by its larger nose compartment and separated access provided for the main baggage compartment, which was located aft of the cabin. Key features of the Nomad's general configuration included its rugged and straightforward design, STOL performance, its compact and economic engines and its relatively unobstructed and flat cabin floor.[2] It had been designed to meet or exceed established military requirements of the era, as well as in compliance with regulations set out in the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) FAR Part 23.[5]

The Nomad was powered by a pair of Allison 250B17B/C turboprop engines, capable of generating up to 400 hp.[16] Journalist Hugh Field observed the selection of this powerplant to be atypical, while its basic model had a strong reputation from its widespread use on helicopters, the Nomad was the first application of this engine model. GAF's design team, although reportedly having been initially hesitant about applying a new engine to a new airframe, praise the engine's behaviour upon the prototypes.[17] In-flight, core engine operations could be controlled via a single leaver, although additional controls are used for atypical actions such as Feathering. For ease of maintenance, the nacelles were built for easy access, while the engines consist of sub-assemblies that can be individually overhauled or replaced without extracting the entire engine.[17]

The cabin of the Nomad has a continuous rectangular cross-section and a large freight door, both features favourable towards utility/freight operators.[5] It has a full-width flat floor, complete with tie-down rails, which has been stressed to bare at least 1501b/sq ft. While most commonly used as a baggage hold, the nose compartment could also be configured into a bay for housing various equipment packages, including radar systems, cameras, or laser scanning/ranging equipment.[5] Externally, the flat underside of the fuselage could be furnished with a pair of hard points, suitable for the installation of mini-guns and other munitions; an additional four hard points can be fitted under the wings. As to achieve an unobstructed fuselage, the two spars of the strut-braced wing are not continuous, terminating at attachment points upon the side of the fuselage.[18]

According to Flight International, the adoption of a retractable undercarriage was a relatively unusual feature for an aircraft of this type; GAF designers selected this arrangement as to avoid excessive aerodynamic drag while enabling the use of large, widely spaced low-pressure tyres, these being key to allowing for rough field operations.[5] Another uncommon feature for an aircraft of its class was the adoption of an all-moving tailplane. GAF suggested that a swing-tail variant could be easily produced due to an intentionally-designed manufacturing joint in the rear-fuselage that could act as a break point.[18] The Nomad was made available in a amphibian variant; it was reportedly one of only a few aircraft in production to feature this facility during the 1980s.[2] The Nomad also possesses a greater maximum cruise speed than most other strut-braced competitors, save for the de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter.[5]

The Nomad's cockpit, while typically fitted with dual flight controls, is designed to be operated by a single pilot.[19] All of the primary controls are either duplicated or of a fail-safe design; both the flaps and undercarriage are electrically-actuated; to aid low-speed manoeuvring, an auto-flap button immediately selects 20° flap.[16][20] For militarised models, the cockpit can be outfitted with Stanley Aviation zero-zero ejection seats, boron-carbide armour protection around the seats, forward bulkhead and side-panels, as well as bullet-resistant glass installed in the panels of windscreen. The cockpit reportedly possesses above-average external visibility in most directions.[18]

Operational historyEdit

Civil useEdit

According to aviation publication Flight International, the principal civil markets for the Nomad were the Pacific and North American regions.[2] The stretched 16-seat N24A version was the main commercial variant and the most successful model of the Nomad in the United States. In the US market, the type was marketed and sold by the Hughes Aircraft Company, who acted as a distributor; by early 1981, Hughes had taken delivery of 20 Nomads, around half of those in commercial use at that point.[2]

Military useEdit

AustraliaEdit

The Australian Army leased the second prototype N22 in 1973. It acquired 11 N22B between 1975 and 1977 for the 173rd Aviation Squadron. It subsequently acquired a 12th N22B from the Royal Australian Air Force in 1987. In 1993 the Army acquired eight more N22B and four N24A to replace its Pilatus PC-6 Porters. These 12 aircraft had been stored unsold when production ceased. All were withdrawn in 1995 following a report issued in May of that year which recommended the type's withdrawal from military duties amid concerns over airworthiness.[1] Most were sold on to the Indonesian Navy, but two unflyable airframes are retained as training aids.

The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) acquired an N22B in 1977. Although owned by the RAAF, it was operated as part of the Army's 173rd Aviation Squadron and was eventually transferred to the Army in 1987. The RAAF subsequently acquired a former Coastwatch Nomad Searchmaster and three N24As in 1989, one which had been a GAF/ASTA test frame and two from a cancelled order for United States Customs Service. According to journalist Ian McPhedran, the Nomad became unpopular with military pilots due to safety concerns that weren't addressed by GAF and would sometimes refuse to fly the type.[1] The RAAF decided to withdrawn most of its Nomads in 1993; several of the retired aircraft were sold onto Indonesia. This sale was not without controversy as it allegedly cost more to sell the aircraft than it would have to scrapped them.[1]

IndonesiaEdit

The Indonesian Navy Aviation Service was an early customer for the type and would eventually operate a relatively large fleet. Between 1975 and 1977, it received acquired its first batch of 12 Nomad Searchmaster B and six Searchmaster L aircraft. Subsequently, Indonesia acquired a pair of N24As from the RAAF during 1993, quickly followed by 14 N22B and four N24A from the Australian Army in 1995; these were largely operated for aerial surveillance purposes.[1] The 1990s purchases came at a cost of $2 million to Indonesia, but were supported by around $1 million per year of funding from Australia for the following decade.[1] During 2011, it was announced that just over half of the Indonesian fleet was to be placed into storage and that only a handful of aircraft were to continue regular flight operations after this point.[21]

VariantsEdit

 
Australian Army Nomad in 1992
N.2 Nomad
Prototype, two built.
N.22
Initial production version for 12 passengers for the Australian Army.
N.22B
13 passenger civil version.
N.22C
Cargo variant modified from N.22B with Maximum Takeoff Weight increased to 4,050 kilograms (8,930 lb).
N.22F Floatmaster
Twin floatplane version, two built.
N.24
Utility transport aircraft with a fuselage lengthened by 1.14 m (3.7 ft).
N.24A
Improved version for 17 passengers, 40 built.
N.24B
GA18
Re-engineered 18-seat N24 in development by GippsAero.
Nomad Missionmaster
Military transport and utility aircraft.
Nomad Searchmaster
Maritime patrol and surveillance aircraft.
Nomad N.22 Searchmaster B
Coastal patrol aircraft, seven built.
Nomad N.22 Searchmaster L
Improved version of the Searchmaster B, 11 built.
Nomad N.22 Searchmaster LI
Improved version of the Searchmaster B, fitted with the APS-104(N) 2 radar.
Nomad N.22 Searchmaster LII
Improved version of the Searchmaster B, fitted with the APS-104(V) 5 radar.

OperatorsEdit

Civil operatorsEdit

This list includes former Nomad operators.

 
Nomad N22C displayed at the Royal Flying Doctor Service base, Broken Hill
 
Air Safaris Nomad N24A at Lake Tekapo Airport in 2006.
  Australia
  Chile
  • Transportes Aéreos Isla Robinson Crusoe[22]
  Italy
  • Alimediterranea

  Malaysia

  Netherlands
  New Zealand
  Papua New Guinea
  Paraguay
  • Paraguay Air Service
  Samoa
  Suriname
   Switzerland
  • Rhine Air
  United States

Military operatorsEdit

 
Indonesian Navy Nomad N24A in 2007.
  Australia
  Indonesia
  • Indonesian Navy – 42 N22B and N24A Nomad – 23 in storage: status AOG, 19 airworthy and six in service.[21]
  Philippines
  Papua New Guinea
  Thailand
 
Nomad N22B at the Museum of Australian Army Flying in 2007.

Other government operatorsEdit

  Australia
  United States

Aircraft on displayEdit

 
GAF N22B Nomad display at the Royal Thai Air Force Museum
Thailand
United States

Notable incidentsEdit

  • On 6 June 1976, Tun Fuad Stephens, the first chief minister of Sabah, Malaysia, plus ten others, died in the crash of a Nomad in the state capital, Kota Kinabalu.
  • On 6 August 1976, a prototype model N24 operated by the aircraft manufacturer crashed immediately after take-off for a flight to test a new modification of the horizontal stabiliser. The test pilot and chief structures designer were killed, and the flight test engineer was seriously injured.[26]
  • On 23 December 1979, a Nomad operated by Douglas Airways (P2-DNL) crashed on the airstrip (MRM) at Manari, a village on the Kokoda Track in the Central Province of Papua New Guinea, killing all 16 passengers and crew. The presence of at least one baby on board, Maia Sori aged six months,[27] accounts for the high number of fatalities and may make this the worst crash in the history of this aircraft type.[28]
  • On 4 May 1987, a Nomad of the Indonesian Naval Aviation Unit, PUSPENERBAL crashed at the Mapur Island, Bintan area, Riau Province. The aircraft was a total loss.[citation needed]
  • On 12 Mar 1990, a Nomad (A18-401) of the Australian Air Force (RAAF) crashed due to a structural failure of the tail in flight killing the sole pilot. https://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19900312-0 and http://www.adf-gallery.com.au/3a18.htm. The aircraft had previously done 177 hours of single engine ground runs by the OEM.
  • On 9 September 1991, an Australian Army N22B Nomad crashed near Drake in northern NSW with the loss of four people, including the pilot.[citation needed]
  • On 10 February 2001, Gum Air’s N24A Nomad (PZ-TBP) crashed on a flight from Paramaribo – Zanderij (Johan Adolf Pengel International Airport PBM/SMJP) to Njoeng Jacob Kondre Airstrip SMJK. The aircraft had fallen out of radio contact, and personnel at the airstrip in Jacob Kondre said it was flying low, and crashed into a mountain. All nine passengers plus the pilot perished.[29]
  • On 30 December 2007, a PENERBAL Nomad crashed in the area of We island, Nangroe Aceh Darussalam Province.[citation needed]
  • On 7 September 2009, a Nomad of the Indonesian Naval Aviation Unit, PENERBAL, crashed in the area of Bulungan, East Borneo. The aircraft was on a routine patrol near Ambalat Oil Block. The accident caused the fatality of one Naval officer, plus three civilians on board. The pilot and copilot received serious injuries.[citation needed]
  • On 28 January 2010, a Nomad of the Philippine Air Force (PAF) crashed shortly after takeoff into a residential area in Cotabato City, killing Maj. Gen. Butch Lacson, commander of the PAF 3rd Air Division, plus seven other officers on board.[30]

SpecificationsEdit

GAF Brochure[31]
Variant N22B N24A
Passengers 12 16
Height 18 ft 2in / 5.52m
Span 54 ft 2in / 16.46 m
Wing area 324 sq.ft / 30.1 m², 9:1 AR,[32] modified NACA 23018 airfoil[33]
Length 41 ft 3in / 12.57m 47 ft 1in / 14.34m
Cabin length 17 ft 7in / 5.34m 21 ft 4in / 6.50m
Cab. Height * Width 5 ft 2in * 4 ft 3in / 1.57m * 1.28m
Cab. volume 360 cu.ft / 10.2 cu.m 410 cu.ft / 11.6 cu.m
Baggage 58 cu.ft / 1.64 cu/m 70 cu.ft / 1.99 cu.m
MTOW 8,500 lb (3,856 kg) 9,400 lb (4,264 kg)
Usable fuel 268 US gal (1,010 L)[34]
Empty weight[32] 4,730 lb / 2,150 kg 5,241 lb / 2,377 kg
cruise[32] 168 knots / 311 km/h
Minimum control speed[34] 66 kn (122 km/h) 66.5 kn (123.2 km/h)
range[32] 730nmi / 1352 km, endurance 8 h at 140kt / 259 km/h, FL50
climb rate 1,460 ft/min / 7.4 m/s[33]
Ceiling 25,000 ft (7,600 m)[34]
2* Turboprop Allison 250B17B/C
2* Power 400–420 hp (300–310 kW)[34]
2* Propeller Hartzell 3-blade, 90.63 in (2,302 mm) diam.[34]
Takeoff to 50 ft 1,050 ft / 320m
Landing from 50 ft 740 ft / 226m

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g McPhedran, Ian. "A Nomadic Death Ship." Archived 2018-10-19 at the Wayback Machine Herald Sun, 27 January 2004.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "GAF." Flight International, 21 March 1981. p. 853.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Flight International 1972, p. 168.
  4. ^ "GAF Nomad." Archived 2010-02-02 at the Wayback Machine airliners.net, Retrieved: 5 December 2009.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Flight International 1972, p. 169.
  6. ^ a b Flight International 1972, pp. 168-169.
  7. ^ Guy Pearce biography tiscali.co.uk, Retrieved: 5 December 2009. Archived 31 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ "Aviation Safety Network Database". Aviation-safety.net. 5 May 2007. Archived from the original on 3 August 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
  9. ^ "Kiwi Aircraft Images: GAF Nomad". kiwiaircraftimages.com. Archived from the original on 2006-10-31. Retrieved 2006-10-20.
  10. ^ "Nomad is set to soar once again". Theage.com.au. 18 June 2008. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
  11. ^ a b "GippsAero Newsletter, March 2011" (PDF). GippsAero. March 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
  12. ^ a b Kelly, Emma (3 August 2010). "Gippsland preparing for G18 market entry within two years". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
  13. ^ CASA civil aircraft register search, using "Government Aircraft Factories" as the search parameter. Search conducted 6 December 2009.
  14. ^ "List of NZ-registered N22s." Archived 2008-10-19 at the Wayback Machine caa.govt.nz, Retrieved: 6 December 2009.
  15. ^ "List of NZ-registered N24s." Archived 2008-10-19 at the Wayback Machine caa.govt.nz, Retrieved 6 December 2009.
  16. ^ a b Flight International 1972, p. 171.
  17. ^ a b Field 1973, pp. 510-511.
  18. ^ a b c Flight International 1972, pp. 169-170.
  19. ^ Flight International 1972, p. 170.
  20. ^ Field 1973, p. 514.
  21. ^ a b "Navy to ground 27 old war machines". Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
  22. ^ "Our Fleet." Transportes Aéreos Isla Robinson Crusoe, Archived 15 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 6 December 2009.
  23. ^ Chambers, Alison; Lowe, Janice (10 August 1985). "The Dutch Independents". Flight International. pp. 20–21. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  24. ^ a b Soderstrom, Dave (November 2016). "Northern Nomad". Flightpath. Vol. 28 no. 2. Yaffa Aviation Group. p. 9. ISSN 1320-5870.
  25. ^ "Nomad". pimaair.org. Pima Air & Space Museum. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  26. ^ Aviation Safety Network. Archived 2018-08-12 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 3 February 2019.
  27. ^ Sydney Morning Herald, 27 December 1979.
  28. ^ Harro Ranter (23 December 1979). "ASN Aircraft accident GAF Nomad N.22B P2-DNL Manari Airport (MRM)". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  29. ^ "2001". planecrashinfo.com. Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  30. ^ "8 Killed in Air Force plane crash." Archived 2010-01-30 at the Wayback Machine ABS-CBN News, Retrieved: 28 January 2010.
  31. ^ "Nomad - The Australian N22B and N24A Turboprop". Government Aircraft Factory. 1981. Archived from the original on 2018-09-12. Retrieved 2018-09-12 – via Museums Victoria.
  32. ^ a b c d Frawley, Gerard. The International Directory of Civil Aircraft. Archived from the original on 2018-09-13. Retrieved 2018-09-12 – via airliners.net.
  33. ^ a b Taylor 1982 pp. 7-9.
  34. ^ a b c d e "Type certificate data sheet No. A7PC" (PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. 28 May 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2018.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit