Foreign relations of Slovenia

Since Slovenia declared independence in 1991, its Governments have underscored their commitment in improving cooperation with neighbouring countries and to actively contribute to international efforts aimed at bringing stability to Southeast Europe. Resource limitations have nevertheless been a problem hindering the efficiency of the Slovenian diplomacy. In the 1990s, foreign relations, especially with Italy, Austria and Croatia, triggered internal political controversies. In the last eight years, however, a wide consensus has been reached among the vast majority of Slovenian political parties to jointly work in the improvement of the country's diplomatic infrastructure and to avoid politicizing the foreign relations by turning them into an issue of internal political debates.

Nations with which Slovenia has diplomatic relations.

MultilateralEdit

  • Slovenia is engaged with 29 countries in bilateral military exchange - most actively with the United States - and in regional cooperative arrangements in Central and Southeast Europe. Slovenia participates in five major multinational regional peacekeeping bodies;
  • Together with Hungary and Italy, Slovenia formed a Multinational Land Force (the so-called Trilateral Brigade) in April 1998 with regional peacekeeping ability. Further non-military cooperation within the Trilateral includes the fields of transportation infrastructure, fighting money laundering and organized crime, WMD non-proliferation, border controls, and environmental protection;
  • Slovenia is a member of Central European Nations Cooperation on Peacekeeping (CENCOOP), together with Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia, and Switzerland. Within this organization, a combined infantry peacekeeping unit was formed March 1998;
  • Slovenia has observer status, like the United States, in (the Turkish proposed) Multinational Peacekeeping Force Southeast European (MPFSEE), with other participants being Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, North Macedonia, Romania, and Turkey;
  • Slovenia joined 13 other nations in forming the brigade-sized Standby High-Readiness Brigade (SHIRBRIG), headquartered in Copenhagen;
  • From May to July 1997, Slovenia contributed to Operation ALBA in Albania with a 25-person medical unit, which was well received and commended by the Italian commander. Thereafter, it continued to support efforts to restore stability in Albania by participating in the WEU's Multinational Advisory Police Element (MAPE) helping to reconstitute and train Albanian police. The government has pledged to the Albanian Government its continuing support;
  • Since November 1997, Slovenia has participated in its first United Nations peacekeeping operation, contributing 27 troops to an Austrian UNFICYP contingent on Cyprus. Slovenia also has peacekeepers with the UN at Naharya Ogl, Israel, on the Lebanese border.
 
Slovenian embassy in the Hague.

Meeting NATO/Partnership for Peace/EAPC goalsEdit

  • Slovenia's 10th battalion for international cooperation, established in 1996 as its primary "out-of-country" operation unit, will soon be upgraded to a NATO-interoperable rapid reaction peacekeeping force;
  • In November 1998, Slovenia hosted its first major multinational exercise, "Cooperative Adventure Exchange," involving almost 6,000 troops from 19 NATO and PfP countries; otherwise it participates actively in PfP and EAPC;
  • Slovenia is an active participant in Southeast European Defense Ministerial (SEDM) activities. It agreed to be lead country for several initiatives in 1999, including hosting an environmental security seminar.

Contributions to Bosnian stabilityEdit

  • Slovenia contributed to IFOR (logistical support) and is very engaged in the SFOR effort, providing VIP support helicopter and light transport aircraft missions and use of an airbase in southern Slovenia;
  • Slovenia has provided a platoon of military police (about 22) for the Italian-led Multinational Specialized Unit (MSU) in Sarajevo since January 1999;
  • Slovenia's latest initiative is its International Trust Fund for Demining and Humanitarian Assistance in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which will finance up to $56 million in mine removal and victim rehabilitation services in the region. (The U.S. has contributed over $35 million in matching funds.)

Relations with neighborsEdit

Slovenia's bilateral relations with its neighbors are generally good and cooperative. However, a few unresolved disputes with Croatia remain. They are related mostly to the succession of the former Yugoslavia, including demarcation of their common border. In addition, unlike the other successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia did not normalize relations with the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (Serbia and Montenegro) until after the passing from power of Slobodan Milošević; although the Slovenes did open a representative office in Podgorica to work with Montenegrin President Milo Đukanović's government.

Succession issues, particularly concerning liabilities and assets of the former Yugoslavia, remain a key factor in Slovenia's relations in the region. On the whole, no conflicts mar relations with neighbors, which are on a sound footing. Numerous cooperative projects are either underway or envisioned, and bilateral and multilateral partnerships are deepening. Differences, many of which stem from Yugoslavia's time, have been handled responsibly and are being resolved.

Bilateral relationsEdit

List of countries which Slovenia established diplomatic relations with:[1]

# Country Date
1   Latvia 3 September 1991
2   Lithuania 22 November 1991
3   Estonia 11 December 1991
4   Austria 15 January 1992
5   Germany 15 January 1992
6   Hungary 16 January 1992
7   Italy 17 January 1992
8   United Kingdom 17 January 1992
9   Denmark 20 January 1992
10   Netherlands 24 January 1992
11   San Marino 28 January 1992
12   Sweden 29 January 1992
13    Switzerland 31 January 1992
14   Liechtenstein 31 January 1992
15   Portugal 3 February 1992
16   Australia 5 February 1992
17   Czech Republic 5 February 1992 and 1 January 1993
18   Croatia 5 February 1992
--    Holy See 8 February 1992
19   Finland 17 February 1992
20   Norway 18 February 1992
21   Iceland 24 February 1992
22   Paraguay 25 February 1992
23   Belgium 5 March 1992
24   Iran 9 March 1992
25   Albania 10 March 1992
26   Ukraine 10 March 1992
27   Luxembourg 11 March 1992
28   North Macedonia 17 March 1992[2]
29   Bolivia 18 March 1992
30   New Zealand 20 March 1992
31   Spain 25 March 1992
32   Poland 10 April 1992
33   Argentina 13 April 1992
34   Nicaragua 14 April 1992
35   Chile 15 April 1992
36   France 23 April 1992
37   Israel 28 April 1992
38   Egypt 30 April 1992
39   Malaysia 4 May 1992
40   Pakistan 11 May 1992
41   China 12 May 1992
42   India 18 May 1992
43   Russia 25 May 1992
44   Morocco 29 May 1992
45   Malta 29 June 1992
46   Mexico 10 July 1992
--   Sovereign Military Order of Malta 15 July 1992
47   Greece 21 July 1992
48   Belarus 23 July 1992
49   United States 11 August 1992
50   Cape Verde 17 August 1992
51   Bulgaria 18 August 1992
52   Turkey 26 August 1992
53   Romania 28 August 1992
54   Singapore 7 September 1992
55   North Korea 8 September 1992
56   Peru 9 September 1992
57   Thailand 9 September 1992
58   Cuba 22 September 1992
59   Algeria 12 October 1992
60   Indonesia 12 October 1992
61   Japan 12 October 1992
62   United Arab Emirates 15 October 1992
63   Kazakhstan 20 October 1992
64   Seychelles 21 October 1992
65   South Africa 30 October 1992
66   Ethiopia 6 November 1992
67   Bosnia and Herzegovina 16 November 1992
68   South Korea 18 November 1992
69   Belize 19 November 1992
70   Mali 3 December 1992
71   Cyprus 10 December 1992
72   Qatar 15 December 1992
73   Nigeria 19 December 1992
74   Brazil 21 December 1992
75   Venezuela 28 December 1992
76   Slovakia 1 January 1993
77   Canada 7 January 1993
78   Georgia 18 January 1993
79   Philippines 3 February 1993
80   Ghana 15 February 1993
81   Mongolia 18 February 1993
82   Marshall Islands 19 March 1993
83   Liberia 30 March 1993
84   Uruguay 26 April 1993
85   Tunisia 20 May 1993
86   Tanzania 4 June 1993
87   Antigua and Barbuda 15 June 1993
88   Dominica 9 July 1993
89   Lebanon 29 July 1993
90   Jordan 22 October 1993
91   Moldova 27 October 1993
92   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11 November 1993
93   Turkmenistan 11 November 1993
94   Guatemala 25 November 1993
95   Kyrgyzstan 19 January 1994
96   Sudan 25 January 1994
97   Namibia 24 March 1994
98   Cote d'Ivoire 12 May 1994
99   Vietnam 7 June 1994
100   Armenia 12 July 1994
101   Colombia 19 July 1994
102   Kuwait 5 October 1994
103   Uzbekistan 16 January 1995
104   Zambia 15 February 1995
105   Burkina Faso 28 March 1995
106   Panama 10 May 1995
107   Saudi Arabia 7 June 1995
108   Andorra 13 July 1995
109   Yemen 12 October 1995
110   Costa Rica 19 October 1995
111   Tonga 7 December 1995
112   Oman 13 December 1995
113   Ireland 25 January 1996
114   Azerbaijan 20 February 1996
115   Bahrain 28 February 1996
116   Maldives 4 March 1996
117   Bangladesh 20 March 1996
118   Honduras 25 March 1996
119   Laos 28 March 1996
120   Eritrea 4 April 1996
121   Mauritania 4 June 1996
122   Cambodia 16 July 1996
123   Jamaica 23 July 1996
124   Sri Lanka 25 July 1996
125   Fiji 29 November 1996
126   Gabon 11 December 1996
127   Guinea 11 December 1996
128   Mozambique 19 December 1996
129   Ecuador 18 April 1997
130   Brunei Darussalam 28 April 1997
131   Trinidad and Tobago 9 May 1997
132   Senegal 19 May 1997
133   Mauritius 30 May 1997
134   Guinea-Bissau 24 July 1997
135   Suriname 22 August 1997
136   Syria 25 August 1997
137   El Salvador 10 November 1997
138   Samoa 25 November 1997
139     Nepal 2 December 1997
140   Togo 31 July 1998
141   Cameroon 29 September 1998
142   Haiti 30 March 1999
143   Serbia 9 December 2000
144   Tajikistan 4 April 2002
145   Dominican Republic 11 March 2003
146   Timor Leste 3 April 2003
147   Angola 20 January 2004
148   Bahamas 10 September 2004
149   Afghanistan 20 September 2004
150   Kenya 3 November 2004
151   Benin 1 December 2004
152   Iraq 29 April 2005
153   Botswana 20 July 2005
154   Gambia 25 August 2005
155   Saint Lucia 29 August 2005
156   Montenegro 21 June 2006
157   Niger 22 June 2006
158   Uganda 31 August 2006
159   Madagascar 5 October 2006
160   Monaco 28 November 2006
161   Rwanda 8 December 2006
162   Djibouti 14 December 2006
163   Myanmar 18 December 2006
164   Republic of Congo 19 April 2007
165   Guyana 19 April 2007
166   Burundi 27 July 2007
167   Libya 19 September 2007
168   Barbados 18 December 2007
--   Kosovo 7 April 2008
169   Saint Kitts and Nevis 5 June 2009
170   Tuvalu 12 June 2009
171   Papua New Guinea 9 February 2010
172   Equatorial Guinea 26 May 2010
173   Solomon Islands 18 November 2010
174   Palau 18 February 2011
175   Democratic Republic of Congo 25 February 2011
176   Nauru 11 March 2011
177   Micronesia 24 March 2011
178   Comoros 27 April 2011
179   Grenada 4 May 2011
180   Malawi 21 July 2011
181   South Sudan 23 September 2011
182   Sierra Leone 13 October 2011
183   Bhutan 13 September 2012
184   Somalia 3 April 2014
185   Sao Tome and Principe 10 April 2014
186   Vanuatu 17 June 2015
187   Zimbabwe 22 July 2016[3]
188   Central African Republic 13 February 2017
189   Kiribati 8 June 2021[4]

Slovenia no diplomatic relations with: Chad, Eswatini, Lesotho

AfricaEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Algeria See Algeria–Slovenia relations
  Egypt See Egypt–Slovenia relations

Since September 2007, Egypt has an embassy in Ljubljana. Slovenia has an embassy in Cairo (opened in 1993). Both countries are members of the Union for the Mediterranean.

  Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau is represented in Slovenia by an honorary consulate in Ljubljana.[5][6]

  South Africa 30 October 1992
  • South Africa recognized the independence and sovereignty of Slovenia on April 2, 1992.
  • Slovenia has no official representation in South Africa.
  • South Africa is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in Vienna, Austria, and through an honorary consulate in Ljubljana.
  Tunisia See Slovenia–Tunisia relations

AmericasEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Argentina 14 April 1992
  • Argentina is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in Vienna.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Buenos Aires, which is also accredited to Chile, Peru, Paraguay and Uruguay.[7]
  Brazil 21 December 1992
  • Brazil has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Brasilia, which is also accredited to Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela.[8]
  Canada See Canada–Slovenia relations
  Colombia July 2004
  • Colombia is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).[9]
  • Slovenia is represented in Colombia through its embassy in Brasilia (Brazil).
  Dominica

Dominica is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in London.[10]

  Guatemala 25 November 1993
  • Guatemala is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in Vienna, Austria.[11]
  • Slovenia is represented in Paraguay through its permanent mission in New York, USA.
  Mexico 22 May 1992 See Mexico–Slovenia relations
  Paraguay
  • Paraguay is represented in Slovenia through its embassy in Vienna, Austria and has an honorary consulate in Ljubljana.[14]
  • Slovenia is represented in Paraguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  United States 7 April 1992 See Slovenia–United States relations
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Washington, DC and a consulate-general in Cleveland.[13]
  • United States has an embassy in Ljubljana.[15]
  • The former first Lady of the United States, Melania Trump (Melanija Knavs) comes from Slovenia.

AsiaEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Armenia 27 June 1994
  • Diplomatic relations between Slovenia and Armenia began on 27 June 1994.
  • Armenia has an honorary consulate in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an honorary consulate Yerevan.
  Azerbaijan 20 February 1996[16]
  • Diplomatic relations between Slovenia and Azerbaijan began on 20th February 1996.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has a consulate in Baku.
  China 1992[17]
  • China has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Beijing and a consulate in Shanghai.[18]
  Georgia 13 January 1993 See Georgia–Slovenia relations
  India 11 May 1992[19]
  Iran
  • Iran has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Tehran.
  Israel 28 April 1992 See Israel–Slovenia relations
  Japan See Japan–Slovenia relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Tokyo.
  North Korea 1992[23]
  South Korea 1992-04-15 Slovenia–South Korea relations[24]

The establishment of diplomatic relations between Republika Slovenija and the Republic of Korea began on 15 April 1992.

  • Upon the invitation of H.E. Yun Byung-se Foreign Minister of South Korea, H.E. Karl Viktor Erjavec Foreign Minister of the Slovenia paid an official visit to Seoul on 11–13 March 2015, for a meeting at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 13 March 2015.[25]
  • Bilateral Trade in 2014
    • Exports 1665 million US dollars
    • Imports 126 million US dollars
  • The number of South Korean citizens living in the Republic of Slovenia in 2013 was about 25.[26]
  Turkey
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  Vietnam 7 June 1994

EuropeEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Albania See Albania–Slovenia relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  Austria

Relations between Austria and Slovenia are close. Austria was, next to Germany and the Holy See, the most firm supporter of Slovenia's independence. It firmly endorsed Slovenia's path into the European Union. Economic cooperation between the two countries is very important and has been expanding since the early 1990s. Regional cooperation, especially with the states of Carinthia and Styria, is well developed: as a concrete manifestation of the excellent state of regional relations, Slovenia, Austria, and Italy entered a joint bid to organize the 2006 and 2010 Winter Olympic Games.

  Belgium See Belgium–Slovenia relations
  Bosnia and Herzegovina See Bosnia and Herzegovina–Slovenia relations
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Sarajevo.
  Bulgaria See Bulgaria–Slovenia relations
  Croatia See Croatia–Slovenia relations

Before 1991, both countries were part of Yugoslavia. On June 26, 1991, a mutual recognitial agreement was signed by both countries. Diplomatic relations between both countries were established on February 6, 1992. Croatia has an embassy in Ljubljana and two honorary consulates in Maribor and Koper. Slovenia has an embassy in Zagreb and an honorary consulate in Split. Both countries shares 670 km of common border.

  Cyprus See Cyprus–Slovenia relations
  Czech Republic See Czech Republic–Slovenia relations
  Denmark See Denmark–Slovenia relations
  Finland See Finland–Slovenia relations
  France See France–Slovenia relations
  • France has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Paris.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  Germany See Germany–Slovenia relations
  • Germany has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  Greece See Greece–Slovenia relations
  • Greece has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  Hungary

Relations with Hungary are excellent. Unlike with some of Hungary's other neighbors, minority issues have not been a problem in Hungarian-Slovene relations. The Hungarian minority in Slovenia is granted a policy of positive discrimination under the Slovene constitution, and the legal status of Hungarian Slovenes is good.

Within the Multilateral Cooperation Initiative between Slovenia, Italy, Hungary, and Croatia, cooperation exists in numerous fields, including military (Multinational Land Force peacekeeping brigade), transportation, combating money laundering and organized crime, non-proliferation, border crossings, and environmental issues.

  Ireland 1991
  Italy

The bilateral relations between Italy and Slovenia have improved dramatically since 1994 and are now at a very good level. In the early 1990s, the issue regarding property restitution to the Istrian exiles was hindering the development of a good relationship between the two countries. By 1996, however, the issue had been set aside, with Italy renouncing any revision of the Treaty of Osimo, allowing a significant improvement in relations. Italy was a firm supporter of Slovene EU and NATO membership, helping Slovenia technically and legislatively master its bid for membership in European and transatlantic institutions.

In 2001, the Italian Parliament finally approved the legislation resolving the last open issues regarding the Slovenian minority in Italy. The legislation, welcomed by both the representatives of the Slovenian minority in Friuli Venezia Giulia and the Slovenian government, started to be implemented in 2007, removing the last pending issue between the two countries. Since then, Italo-Slovene relations can be characterized as excellent. Although there do not appear to be any scheduled flights between the two countries and the train service, which used to be frequent, has been limited to one train a day in each direction (a night service from Budapest to Venice and back) until December 2011, when it was discontinued, thus leaving no railway connection between the two countries.[31][32]

  Kosovo See Kosovo–Slovenia relations

Slovenia has a record of supporting the U.S. position on Kosovo, both in regular public statements by top officials and on the Security Council. Prior and during the Kosovo War of 1999, Slovenian top government officials called repeatedly for Slobodan Milošević's compliance with NATO demands. Slovenia granted NATO use of its airspace and offered further logistical support. It also has pledged personnel to support NATO humanitarian operations in the region. Slovenia helped Macedonia deal with the refugee crisis by providing 880 million sit (US$4.9 million) of humanitarian aid, in addition to granting a concession for imported agricultural products. The Slovene Government allocated 45 million SIT (US$250,000) to help Albania, Montenegro, and the Republic of Macedonia, one-third of which went to the latter. Slovenia took in over 4,100 Kosovar refugees during the crisis.

Slovenia recognized Kosovo on 5 March 2008.[33] Slovenia has an embassy in Pristina since 15 May 2008.[34] Kosovo has an embassy in Ljubljana.

  Latvia See Latvia–Slovenia relations
  Moldova See Moldova–Slovenia relations

Moldova recognized the Republic of Slovenia at an unknown date. Diplomatic relations were established on October 27, 1993. Both countries are represented in each other through their embassies in Budapest (Hungary).

  Montenegro 21 June 2006 See Montenegro–Slovenia relations
  • Slovenia recognized Montenegro's independence on June 20, 2006.
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • On June 23, 2006, Slovenia opened its embassy in Podgorica.[35]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  Netherlands 25 June 1991 See Netherlands–Slovenia relations
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Ljubljana.[36]
  • Slovenia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.[37]
  • Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Slovenia (in Dutch only)[38]
  North Macedonia See North Macedonia–Slovenia relations

The two countries have very close political and economic relations. Once part of SFR Yugoslavia, the two republics declared independence in 1991 (Slovenia in June, Macedonia in September) and recognised each other's independence on 12 February 1992.[39] Diplomatic relations between both countries were established on 17 March 1992.[40] Slovenia supports North Macedonia's sovereignty, territorial integrity, its Euro-integration and visa liberalisation.[39][41] A significant number of Slovenian investments ended up in North Macedonia. In 2007, about 70 million euros were invested.[42] In January 2009, the Macedonian prime minister Nikola Gruevski announced, that he expects more Slovenian investments in infrastructure and energy projects.[42] Over 70 Slovenian companies are present on the Macedonian market.[39]

  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  Poland 10 April 1992
  • Poland has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  Portugal See Portugal–Slovenia relations
  Romania 28 August 1992 See Romania–Slovenia relations
  Russia 25 May 1992 See Russia–Slovenia relations
  Serbia 9 December 2000 See Serbia–Slovenia relations
  • Serbia has an embassy in Ljubljana.[47]
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an EU candidate
  • Slovenia has an EU member.[48]
  • Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Slovenia.[49]
  Slovakia See Slovakia–Slovenia relations
  Spain See Slovenia–Spain relations
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
  Sweden See Slovenia–Sweden relations
   Switzerland 1992
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Berne.[50]
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Ljubljana[51]
  • Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Slovenia[52]
  Ukraine 10 March 1992
  United Kingdom
  • The Slovenian embassy in London opened on April 29, 1992. An honorary consulate was also opened in Edinburgh on March 23, 2005.[56]
  • The UK opened its embassy in Ljubljana on August 25, 1992.[57]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  • British Commonwealth and Foreign Office about relations with Slovenia[58]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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