Foreign relations of Iraq

Since 1980, the foreign relations of Iraq have been influenced by a number of controversial decisions by the Saddam Hussein administration. Hussein had good relations with the Soviet Union and a number of western countries such as France and Germany, who provided him with advanced weapons systems. He also developed a tenuous relation with the United States, who supported him during the Iran–Iraq War. However, the Invasion of Kuwait that triggered the Gulf War brutally changed Iraq's relations with the Arab World and the West. Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria and others were among the countries that supported Kuwait in the UN coalition. After the Hussein administration was toppled by the 2003 U.S. invasion, the governments that succeeded it have now tried to establish relations with various nations.

Nations with which Iraq has diplomatic relations


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  • Algeria has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Algiers.

Iraq's relations with the Arab and Middle Eastern world have been extremely varied. Relations between Iraq and Egypt violently ruptured in 1977, when the two nations broke relations with each other following Iraq's criticism of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat's peace initiatives with Israel.[1] In 1978, Baghdad hosted an Arab League summit that condemned and ostracized Egypt for accepting the Camp David accords.[1] However, Egypt's strong material and diplomatic support for Iraq in the war with Iran led to warmer relations and numerous contacts between senior officials, despite the continued absence of ambassadorial-level representation.[1] Since 1983, Iraq has repeatedly called for restoration of Egypt's "natural role" among Arab countries.[1] In January 1984, Iraq successfully led Arab efforts within the OIC to restore Egypt's membership.[1] However, Iraqi-Egyptian relations were broken in 1990 after Egypt joined the UN coalition that forced Iraq out of Kuwait.[1] Relations have steadily improved in recent years, and Egypt is now one of Iraq's main trade partners (formerly under the Oil-for-Food Programme).[1]

  • Iraq has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Baghdad.

Sudan has an embassy in Baghdad and Iraq's embassy is in Khartoum.

During the war between Iraq and Iran in the 1980s, Sudan maintained a careful balancing act, calling for a cessation of hostilities but sympathizing with Iraq.[2] Sudan on several occasions offered to mediate the conflict.[2] By 1988, Sudan called for an end to the war on the basis of United Nations Security Council Resolution 598.[2] Sudan supported Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait in 1990, leading to a period of close relations with Baghdad.[2] Iraq was believed to have supplied weapons to Sudan and in the mid-1990s agreed to help Sudan exploit its oil wealth.[2] Although Sudan was trying to improve relations with the United States after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, it remained critical of the subsequent American-led invasion of Iraq.[2] Following the overthrow of the Ba’athist regime, however, Sudan’s position on Iraq became more nuanced.[2] On the one hand, it was quick to criticize the United States, which harshly condemned Sudan’s record on human rights, for its double standard in dealing with prisoners in Iraq.[2] It also advised Sudanese not to work with U.S. contractors in the country.[2] By late 2004, however, Sudan’s relations with the new Iraqi government had improved to the point that Iraq’s foreign minister visited Khartoum and met with al-Bashir. Subsequently, Sudan generally avoided commenting on Iraq.[2]

  • Iraq has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Baghdad.


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  • Argentina is accredited to Iraq from its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York City.

Both countries established secure diplomatic relations.[3]

  Brazil 1967 See Brazil–Iraq relations
  • Canada has an embassy office in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Montreal.
  • Chile does not have an accreditation to Iraq.
  • Iraq does not have an accreditation to Chile.
  Cuba See Cuba–Iraq relations

Cuba's relations with Iraq were prosperous during the presidency of Saddam Hussein. Cuba's friendly relations with Iraq dated back to the Non-Aligned Movement meeting held in Cuba 1979.[5] Fidel Castro even provided doctors to perform back surgery on Hussein.[5] Cuba consistently supported Iraq at the United Nations against sanctions and threats made by the United States. The thirteen-year sanction against Iraq prevented much trade between Havana and Baghdad.

  • Cuba is accredited to Iraq from its embassy in Tehran, Iran.
  • Iraq is accredited to Cuba from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  Mexico 25 September 1950 See Iraq–Mexico relations
  United States See Iraq–United States relations

Because of the primary roles taken by the United States and Britain in deposing Saddam Hussein and establishing interim governments to replace his regime, Iraq's relationships with those countries, particularly the United States, are expected to remain paramount for the foreseeable future. Government and nongovernmental aid from the United States will continue as a crucial support in reconstruction. In 2006 formulation of more precise foreign policy priorities awaits the firm establishment of the permanent government. In the short term, Iraq's relations with Western and Far Eastern economic powers are determined by debt forgiveness and reconstruction assistance, which have come from many quarters. Relations with the United States were strained in mid-2006 when Iraq criticized Israeli attacks on Hezbollah forces in Lebanon. Relations were strained again following US assassination of Qasem Soleimani, which afterwards Iraq requested all foreign troops (including US) to withdraw from the country.

  • Iraq has an embassy in Caracas.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Baghdad.


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Armenia 2000
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in the year 2000.
  • Armenia has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Yerevan.
  Azerbaijan 30 March 1992[8]
  • On January 2, 1992, Iraq recognized the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan.[8]
  • On March 30, 1992, diplomatic relations between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Iraq were established.[8]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Baghdad.[8]
  • Iraq has an embassy in Baku.[8]
  China See China–Iraq relations
  • China has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Beijing.
  India 1947 See India–Iraq relations
  • Diplomatic relations started in 1947.

India and Iraq maintained strong relationships since Indian independence.

  Indonesia See Indonesia–Iraq relations

Indonesia and Iraq shared similarity as the Muslim majority countries. Both nations share their experiences in rebuilding and development. Indonesia has an embassy in Baghdad, while Iraq has an embassy in Jakarta. Both nations are partners in multilateral organizations, such as World Trade Organization (WTO), The Non-Aligned Movement and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).

After World War II, Iraq had been one of the first countries to recognize Indonesia's independence in 1945. The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1950 and have signed around 15 agreements to boost bilateral ties. Indonesia has maintained its embassy in Baghdad during various crises, such as the Iran–Iraq war in the 1980s. However, at the height of the Iraq War, Indonesia was forced to temporarily closed its embassy in Baghdad in 2003, and reopen it in June 2011.[9]

In 2003, Indonesian Government and people protested against a U.S.-led military campaign against Baghdad. Over 50,000 Indonesian people crowded the streets of the Indonesian capital, Jakarta on Sunday, 9 February 2003, to protest the United States' threat of military action against Iraq.[10] After the war ended and Indonesia reopen its embassy in 2011, relations between the two countries have developed at a fast pace. Iraq invited Indonesia's companies to participate in the reconstruction of Iraq.[11] Traditionally Indonesia sees Iraq as the source of energy, such as oil and gas. On the other hand, Iraqi people are familiar with Indonesian exported products such as tires, soaps, spices, furniture, coal, clothing, palm oil, shoes, paper, automobiles, rubber and electronic goods.

  Iran See Iran–Iraq relations

In 1988 Iraq's main foreign policy issue was the war with Iran. This war had begun in September 1980, when Saddam Hussein sent Iraqi forces across the Shatt al Arab into southwestern Iran. Although the reasons for Saddam Husayn's decision to invade Iran were complicated, the leaders of the Baath Party had long resented Iranian hegemony in the Persian Gulf region and had especially resented the perceived Iranian interference in Iraq's internal affairs both before and after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Their objectives were to halt any potential foreign assistance to the Shias and to the Kurdish opponents of the regime and to end Iranian domination of the area. The Baathists believed a weakened Iran would be incapable of posing a security threat and could not undermine Iraq's efforts to exercise the regional influence that had been blocked by non-Arab Iran since the mid-1960s. By early 1982, the Iraqi occupation forces were on the defensive and were being forced to retreat from some of their forward lines. In June 1982, Saddam Hussein ordered most of the Iraqi units to withdraw from Iranian territory; after that time, the Ba'athist government tried to obtain a cease-fire based on a return of all armed personnel to the international borders that prevailed as of 21 September 1979.

Iran did not accept Iraq's offer to negotiate an end to the war. Similarly, it rejected a July 1982 United Nations (UN) Security Council resolution calling for an immediate cease-fire. Subsequently, Iranian forces invaded Iraq by crossing the Shatt al Arab in the south and by capturing some mountain passes in the north. To discourage Iran's offensive, the Iraqi air force initiated bombing raids over several Iranian cities and towns. The air raids brought Iranian retaliation, which included the aerial bombing of Baghdad. Although Iraq eventually pushed back and contained the Iranian advances, it was not able to force Iranian troops completely out of Iraqi territory. The perceived threat to Iraq in the summer of 1982 thus was serious enough to force Saddam Hussein to request the Nonaligned Movement to change the venue of its scheduled September meeting from Baghdad to India; nevertheless, since the fall of 1982, the ground conflict has generally been a stalemated war of attrition—although Iran made small but demoralizing territorial advances as a result of its massive offensives in the reed marshes north of Basra in 1984 and in 1985, in Al Faw Peninsula in early 1986, and in the outskirts of Basra during January and February 1987. In addition, as of early 1988 the government had lost control of several mountainous districts in Kurdistan where, since 1983, dissident Kurds have cooperated militarily with Iran.

Saddam Hussein's government has maintained consistently since the summer of 1982 that Iraq wants a negotiated end to the war based upon the status quo ante. Iran's stated conditions for ceasing hostilities, namely the removal of Saddam Hussein and the Baath from power, however, have been unacceptable. The main objective of the regime became the extrication of the country from the war with as little additional damage as possible. To further this goal, Iraq has used various diplomatic, economic, and military strategies; none of these had been successful in bringing about a cease-fire as of early 1988.

Although the war was a heavy burden on Iran and Iraq politically, economically, and socially, the most profound consequence of the war's prolongation on Iraq, was its impact on the patterns of Iraq's foreign relations. Whereas trends toward a moderation of the Baath Party's ideological approach to foreign affairs were evident before 1980, the war helped to accelerate these trends. Two of the most dramatic changes were in Iraq's relationships with the Soviet Union and with the United States. During the course of the war Iraq moved away from the close friendship with the Soviet Union that had persisted throughout the 1970s, and it initiated a rapprochement with the United States. Iraq also sought to ally itself with Kuwait and with Saudi Arabia, two neighboring countries with which there had been considerable friction during much of the 1970s. The alignment with these countries was accompanied by a more moderate Iraqi approach to other Arab countries, such as Egypt and Jordan, which previously Iraq had perceived as hostile.

Iraqi–Iranian relations have remained cool since the end of the Iran–Iraq War in 1988. Outstanding issues from that war, including prisoner of war exchanges and support of armed opposition parties operating in each other's territory, remain to be solved.

Relations appear to have improved since March 2008, when Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad made a two-day visit to Iraq.

  Israel See Iraq–Israel relations

Iraq participated in the Arab–Israeli wars of 1948, 1967 and 1973, and traditionally has opposed all attempts to reach a peaceful settlement between Israel and the Arab States. Israel attacked Iraq's nuclear research reactor under construction near Baghdad in July 1981. During the Iran–Iraq war, Iraq moderated its anti-Israel stance considerably. In August 1982 President Hussein stated to a visiting U.S. Congressman that "a secure state is necessary for both Israel and the Palestinians." Iraq did not oppose then President Reagan's 1 September 1982 Arab-Israeli peace initiative, and it supported the moderate Arab position at the Fez summit that same month. Iraq repeatedly stated that it would support whatever settlement is found acceptable by the Palestinians.


Japan has an embassy in Baghdad. Iraq has an embassy in Tokyo

  Jordan See Iraq–Jordan relations

Iraq's relations with Jordan have improved significantly since 1980, when Jordan declared its support for Iraq at the outset of the Iran–Iraq War. Jordan's support for Iraq during the Persian Gulf War resulted in a further improvement of ties. Relations have cooled since the current King of Jordan took office in 2000, but remain good. King Abdullah of Jordan has become the first Arab leader to visit Iraq since the fall of Saddam Hussein in 2003, a landmark step towards reducing Baghdad's isolation among its Arab neighbours. Jordan is one of a small number of Arab countries to have named ambassadors to Iraq.[12]

  Kuwait See Iraq–Kuwait relations

After the Iran–Iraq War ended, Kuwait declined an Iraqi request to forgive its US$65 billion debt. An economic rivalry between the two countries ensued after Kuwait increased its oil production by 40 percent. Iraq interpreted Kuwait's decision to increase its oil production as an act of aggression. The tense relations between Iraq and Kuwait were further aggravated months later when Iraq accused Kuwait for slant-drilling across the border into Iraq's Rumaila field[13] On August 1990, Iraq invades Kuwait and was shortly annexed as a province.

The invasion of Kuwait in 1990 resulted in its government-in-exile, the US, Saudi Arabia, and most Persian Gulf states to sever relations with Baghdad and joining the United Nations coalition that drove Iraqi forces out of Kuwait during the Persian Gulf War.

In August 2019, Iraq sent a protest letter to the United Nations regarding the geographical changes that the Government of Kuwait has made in the maritime area that lies beyond marker 162 in Khor Abdullah by upraising a shoal, which is designated as Fisht al-Aych.[14][15]

In March 2021, Iraq announced that it has so far paid $50 billion in war reparations to Kuwait while Iraq’s dues now amount to only $2.5 billion.[16]

  Lebanon See Iraq–Lebanon relations

Iraq and Lebanon have maintained diplomatic relations with each other since 1943. Both countries have refused to recognize Israel and have supported the Palestinians.

Throughout history, Iraq's relations with Lebanon have been relatively close, both politically and culturally. During the regime of Saddam Hussein, the leader of the Ba'ath Party had strong relations with Bachir, and Amine Gemayel; relations grew even stronger when Iraqi officials verbally lashed out against Israel's actions in the 2006 War.

  North Korea 9 July 1968 See Iraq–North Korea relations

Diplomatic relations started on 9 July 1968, but were cut on 10 October 1980 after Iran–Iraq War. DPRK and Iraq re-established relations on 29 September 2008.

Iraq had an embassy in Pyongyang and DPRK had an embassy in Baghdad between 1970 and 1980.[17]

  Oman 1976

Iraq and Oman relations date back to the Sumerians, who used to call the eastern edge of the Arabian Peninsula region as Magan.[18] Oman closed its embassy in Iraq after Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990. On May 12, 2019, Oman announced to reopen its embassy in Baghdad.[19]

  Pakistan 1947 See Iraq–Pakistan relations

Diplomatic relations started in 1947. Iraq and Pakistan have had close, friendly, and cooperative relations since the latter's independence in 1947. Issues such as Iraqi support for Pakistan in its 1971 war with India (Indo-Iraqi relations), and Pakistani support for Iraq against Iran in the Iran-Iraq War have forged relations between the two. Relations soured during the Gulf War when Pakistan contributed troops for the UN Coalition, seeing it as a betrayal due to Iraq's constant support for Pakistan in their previous wars with India. In 2002, Saddam Hussein visited India and said he gave his unwavering support to India over the Kashmir dispute. In 2003, Pakistan rejected US's request to send troops for the invasion which have helped soothed relations between the two.

  Philippines See Iraq–Philippines relations

The Philippines and Iraq formally established diplomatic relations on January 12, 1975, with the opening of the Iraqi Embassy in Manila. This was followed by the opening of the Philippine Embassy in Baghdad on September 9, 1980. Due to security concerns, the Philippines moved its embassy to Amman in Jordan in 2004 while Iraq closed its embassy in Manila in September 2003. The Philippine Embassy returned to its chancery in Baghdad in November 2011.

  Saudi Arabia See Iraq–Saudi Arabia relations

Saudi leaders were relieved when Iraq was defeated, but they recognized that relations with Baghdad had been damaged. Consequently, postwar Saudi policy focused on ways to contain potential Iraqi threats to the kingdom and the region. One element of Riyadh's containment policy included support for Iraqi opposition forces that advocated the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's government. In the past, backing for such groups had been discreet, but in early 1992 the Saudis invited several Iraqi opposition leaders to Riyadh to attend a well-publicised conference. To further demonstrate Saudi dissatisfaction with the regime in Baghdad, Crown Prince Abdallah permitted the media to videotape his meeting with some of the opponents of Saddam Hussein.

  Singapore 27 December 1977

Diplomatic relations between both countries were established on 27 December 1977.[20] The Embassy of Iraq in Indonesia also handles Singapore.[21]

  South Korea
  • Iraq has an embassy in Seoul.
  • South Korea has an embassy in Baghdad.
  Sri Lanka See Sri Lanka–Iraq relations

Iraq was the largest buyer of Sri Lankan tea during the reign of Saddam Hussein. Ties between Sri Lanka and Iraq were disrupted during the Iraq War. However, in 2018 Iraq re-emerged as the largest buyer of Sri Lankan Tea.[24]

  Syria See Iraq–Syria relations

The political states of Iraq and Syria were formed by the United Kingdom and France following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I. Iraq and Syria are united by historical, social, political, cultural and economic relations, but share a long foreign drawn border. The land known as Mesopotamia is Iraq and eastern Syria and is called such by its inhabitants. Political relations between Iraq and Syria have in the past seen difficulties, however, new diplomatic relations described by both sides as "Historic" were established in November 2006, beginning an era of close cooperation and political friendship between Iraq and Syria.[25]

  Turkey 1932 See Iraq–Turkey relations

In 1988 Iraq maintained cordial relations with Turkey, its non-Arab neighbor to the north. Turkey served as an important transshipment point for both Iraqi oil exports and its commodity imports. A pipeline transported oil from the northern oil fields of Iraq through Turkey to the Mediterranean Sea. Trucks carrying a variety of European manufactured goods used Turkish highways to bring imports into Iraq. There was also trade between Turkey and Iraq, the former selling Iraq small arms, produce, and textiles. In addition, Iraq and Turkey have cooperated in suppressing Kurdish guerrilla activities in their common border area.[26]

  Vietnam See Iraq–Vietnam relations
  Yemen See Iraq–Yemen relations

Relations between Yemen’s former president, Ali Abdullah Saleh, and Iraq’s former president, Saddam Hussein, were very close, as Saleh supported Iraq in the Gulf War.[27]

  • Iraq has an embassy in Sana’a.
  • Yemen has an embassy in Baghdad.


In September 2005, a joint political declaration between the European Union and Iraq was signed which forms the basis of regular political dialogue. A Trade and Cooperation Agreement between the EU and Iraq is in the process of being negotiated and will probably be concluded during 2008.

July 2005 saw the introduction of EUJUST LEX, the European Union's rule of law operation intended to train Iraqi police and legal officials in human rights along with other issues. Over 1,400 Iraqis have already taken part in training courses.[28]

Country Formal relations began Notes
  Bulgaria See Bulgaria–Iraq relations
  Czech Republic 1993
  Denmark See Denmark–Iraq relations

Denmark has an embassy in Baghdad and a trade office in Basra, Iraq has an embassy in Copenhagen.

On 21 March 2003, the Danish Parliament made a fateful decision to support U.S. military action in Iraq and, in fact, contribute naval assets to the war. In 2006, the Iraqi Transport Minister Salam al-Malki announced freezing all economic relations with Danish and Norwegian companies in protest against insulting cartoons published in the countries' newspapers.[31] With a total Iraqi population in Denmark numbering around 12,000, there are organizations such as the Iraqi-Danish Culture Days, which is currently organized in the capital of Copenhagen.[32]

  Finland See Finland–Iraq relations
  • Finland has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Helsinki.
  France See France–Iraq relations

Before Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1991, France enjoyed friendly relations with former Iraqi president Saddam Hussein, however the relationship turned sour once Iraq entered Kuwaiti soil and soon France cut off ties with Iraq. Following thirteen years, France resumed relations with Iraq in 2003. Iraq has an embassy in Paris and France has an embassy and a representative office in Baghdad.

  Germany See Germany–Iraq relations
  • Germany has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Berlin.
  Greece See Greece-Iraq relations

Relations of the Greek and Iraqi peoples are deeply rooted in history, both have developed cultures that have influenced the course of humanity. They date as far back as when Alexander the Great ruled Mesopotamia (which name is of Greek origin, meaning "the land between two rivers") and eventually died in Babylon, Iraq. Greece firmly and consistently supports the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iraq. Greece traditionally maintained good and friendly relations with Iraq due to strong historical and cultural bonds, dating back to ancient times.

  • Greece has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Athens.
   Holy See
  • Holy See has a nunciature in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Rome to the Holy See.
  Hungary See Hungary–Iraq relations
  Italy See Iraq–Italy relations
  • Iraq has an embassy in Rome.
  • Italy has an embassy in Baghdad and a consulate-general in Basra.
  • Iraq has an embassy in The Hague.[34]
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Baghdad and a consulate-general in Erbil.[35]
  Poland See Iraq–Poland relations
  • Iraq has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Baghdad.
  Romania See Iraq–Romania relations
  • Iraq has an embassy in Bucharest.[36]
  • Romania has an embassy in Baghdad and a consulate in Erbil.[37]
  Russia 9 September 1944 See Iraq–Russia relations
  Slovenia 2005,[39]
  • In 2005, Slovenian and Iraqi ambassadors to the United Nations, Roman Kirn and Samir Sumaidaie, signed an agreement at the United Nations Headquarters in New York.
  • Slovenia is the first European country to establish diplomatic relations with Iraq since the appointment of the new Iraqi government.[39]
  • Prior to this agreement, Slovenia was already assisting Iraq through NATO and other international organizations.
  • Slovenia did not make efforts to establish relations during the reign of former Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein.
  Spain See Iraq–Spain relations
  • Iraq has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Baghdad.
  Sweden See Iraq–Sweden relations
  Switzerland 1936 In November 2000 Switzerland opened a diplomatic liaison office in Baghdad to safeguard its interests. Bilateral relations became closer after the Iraq war in 2003. Today Iraq has an embassy in Bern and Switzerland has a representative office in Baghdad.
  Ukraine 16 December 1992 See Iraq–Ukraine relations
  • In May 2001 in Baghdad the Embassy of Ukraine in Iraq re-opened.[40]
  United Kingdom 1920 See Iraq–United Kingdom relations

Ties between London and Baghdad are slowly progressing, but relations between the two nations are somewhat uncertain seeing as many Iraqis remember the colonial oppression either they or their ancestors faced at the hands of the British Empire. In other words, relations between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Iraq are close, the two countries aim to increase economic relations through trade and renewing Iraq's infrastructure. In 2013 Stephen Green, Baron Green of Hurstpierpoint, British Minister for Trade and Investment visited Iraq. Iraqi Airways resumed flights to London in 2013, this comes after a 23-year hiatus.


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  • Australia has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.
  New Zealand
  • Iraq is accredited to New Zealand from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • New Zealand has an embassy in Baghdad.

Member of international organizationsEdit

Iraq belongs to the following international organizations: Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, Arab League, Arab Monetary Fund, Council of Arab Economic Unity, Customs Cooperation Council, Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, G-77, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Monetary Fund, International Maritime Organization, Interpol, International Organization for Standardization, International Telecommunication Union, Non-Aligned Movement, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, United Nations, Universal Postal Union, World Health Organization and World Bank, MENAFATF.

Ministry of Foreign AffairsEdit

Iraq's relations with other countries and with international organizations are supervised by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1988 the minister of foreign affairs was Tariq Aziz, who was an influential leader of the Ba'ath Party and had served in that post since 1983.[41] Aziz, Saddam Hussein, and the other members of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) formulated Iraq's foreign policy, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs bureaucracy implemented RCC directives. The Baath maintained control over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and over all Iraqi diplomatic missions abroad.

Since the overthrow of Saddam Hussein in 2003, Hoshyar Zebari was first appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Iraqi Governing Council in Baghdad on 3 September 2003. On 28 June 2004, he was reappointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs by the Iraqi Interim Government, under Prime Minister Ayad Allawi. On 3 May 2005 he was sworn in as Minister of Foreign Affairs by the Iraqi Transitional Government, under Prime Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari. On 20 May 2006, he was delegated in for the fourth consecutive time as Foreign Minister in the government of Nouri Al-Maliki.

International disputesEdit

Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt al-Arab waterway; in November 1994, Iraq formally accepted the United Nations-demarcated border with Kuwait which had been spelled out in Security Council Resolutions 687 (1991), 773 (1992), and 883 (1993); this formally ends earlier claims to Kuwait and to Bubiyan and Warbah islands although the government continues periodic rhetorical challenges; dispute over water development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Ruysdael, Salomon (2004). Speeches of Deception: Selected Speeches of Saddam Hussein. iUniverse. p. 328. ISBN 0595270395.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Shinn, David H. (2015). "Foreign Relations" (PDF). In Berry, LaVerle (ed.). Sudan: a country study (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. pp. 275–296. ISBN 978-0-8444-0750-0. Though published in 2015, this work covers events in the whole of Sudan (including present-day South Sudan) until the 2011 secession of South Sudan.
  3. ^ "Diplomatic relations – Belize" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 December 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
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  14. ^ Iraq (9 August 2019). "Letter dated 7 August 2019 from the Permanent Representative of Iraq to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General". Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 23 December 2021. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
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  18. ^ "Envoy speak: Oman-Iraq relations flourish in new era". Times of Oman. 13 April 2014. Archived from the original on 13 May 2019. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
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External linksEdit