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The Farewell Pilgrimage (Arabic: ٱلْحَجّ ٱلْوَدَاع‎, romanizedAl-Ḥajj Al-Wadāʿ), 632 CE (10 AH), is the final and only Hajj ('Pilgrimage') in which the Islamic Nabi (Prophet) Muhammad participated. Muslims who accompanied him on this occasion observed every move, act, and gesture of Muhammad, all of which became a precedent to be followed by Muslims all over the world.

Beginning of the journeyEdit

Muhammad lived in Medina for 10 years and had not performed Hajj in full, although he had performed the Umrah on two previous occasions. The revelation of the verse:

And proclaim to the people the Hajj [pilgrimage]; they will come to you on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every distant pass (22:27)

caused him to announce that he would go on the Hajj that year. The people of Medina and surrounding towns gathered in the city to accompany the Islamic Prophet during the Hajj rituals. Before his departure, he appointed Abu Dujana Ansari as governor of Medina during his own absence. On the 25th of Dhu al-Qi'dah, 4 nights before the end of Dhu al-Qi'dah (February 632), he left Medina, accompanied by all his wives.[1]

Wearing IhramEdit

Before arriving in Mecca, Muhammad stayed at Miqat and taught people the manner of wearing Ihram. He first performed ghusl (ritual bath) before putting on Ihram for Hajj. The clothing while in the state of Ihram consisted of two pieces of Yemeni unsewed white cotton, which later on became his shroud. Muhammad then did his noon prayers in the mosque of Shajara. In later Islamic history, Muslims built mosques at the places Muhammad stayed and prayed during this time.[2][3]

Doing ritualsEdit

Circumambulation and prayersEdit

The next day, Muhammad and his companions arrived at the Masjid al-Haram. They entered from the gate of Dar al-Salam, approached the Kaaba and touched the Black Stone. Muhammad then proceeded to the Circumambulation of the Kaaba (Tawaf), after which he once again touched the Black Stone, kissed it, and cried long near it. Finally, he offered two Rakat of prayer behind the Station of Abraham.[3]


After his prayers, Muhammad drank from the Zamzam well, prayed, and then continued to Mounts Al-Safa and Al-Marwah, where he performed Sa'ay (the running back and forth between the hills of Al-Safa and Al-Marwah). Starting from Mount al-Safa since God had mentioned it first in the Quran, Muhammad first turned toward Kaaba, offered a long prayer to God, and then began to jog-trot part of the way. When he arrived at Mount Al-Marwah, he stopped and again prayed before returning to Mount al-Safa.[4]

Mina and ArafatEdit

On the eighth sunset of Dhu al-Hijjah, Muhammad left for Mina and stayed there for a night. Then he passed along on his camel, al Qaswa', till he reached Mount Arafat. As he ascended the mountain, he was surrounded by thousands of pilgrims chanting Talbiyah and Takbir. By Muhammad’s order, a tent was erected for him on the east side of Mount Arafat at a spot called Namirah. He rested until the sun passed the zenith, then he rode on his camel until he reached the valley of Uranah. On the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah he delivered his Farewell Sermon concerning different social rights of Muslims and led Zuhr and Asr prayer. Then he moved to plain of Arafat, stayed there and spent the afternoon in supplication.[5]

Standing at Mash'ar al-Haram and stoning of the devilEdit

Upon the sunset, Muhammad rode towards Mash'ar al-Haram (Muzdalifa) and advised pilgrims that slowly pass the way. Islamic Prophet did his Maghrib and Isha prayer in Mash'ar al-Haram then made a rest. At the dawn, he prayed and supplicated before God, which is so much recommended in Hajj. In the morning, he went towards Mina and straightly to Jamrah of Aqaba and threw seven pebbles at it.[6]


He then went to place of sacrifice and sacrificed 63 (the number of years he remained alive) camels. He gave 37 camels from a hundred camels he had brought with himself from Medina to sacrifice. They ate little from what they sacrificed and gave the rest for charity. Then a barber got his head shaved by his order. He went to Mecca, circumambulated the Kaaba and did Zuhr prayer in Masjid al-Haram. After that he came near the well of Zamzam and drank its water and returned to Mina on the same day and spend days of Tashriq (11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul Hijjah) there, did Stoning of the Devil and exited Mina.[4][6]

Return to MedinaEdit

In an event narrated by both Shi'ite and Sunni sources, on the way back to Medina, Muhammad stopped at Ghadir Khumm near Rabigh on Dhu al-Hijjah 18, to convey the message to the pilgrims before they dispersed. He delivered a long sermon; during a part of the sermon, Muhammad raised Ali's arm and asked the people, "Who has more priority over you than yourself?" The Muslims responded, "Allah and His messenger."[7] Muhammad then said:

Behold! Whosoever I am his Mawla, this Ali is his Mawla. O Allah! Stay firm in supporting those who stay firm in following him, be hostile to those who are hostile to him, help those who help him, and forsake those who forsake him. O people!

In a Shi'ite narration, it is further asserted that Muhammad said:

This Ali is my brother, the executor of my [affairs], the container of my knowledge, my successor over my nation, and over the interpretation the Book of Allah, the mighty and the majestic, and the true inviter to its [implications]. He is the one who acts according to what pleases Him, fights His enemies, causes to adhere to His obedience, and advises against His disobedience. Surely, He is the successor of the Messenger of Allah, the commander of the believers, the guiding Imam, and the killer of the oath breakers, the transgressors, and the apostates. I speak by the authority of Allah. The word with me shall not be changed.[8]

Shi'ites also believe that after the sermon, the last verse of the Quran was revealed,[a] and that after the sermon, the Muslims, including Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman, were either told to pledge allegiance to Ali, or had done so.[9][10][11]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ This day I have perfected your Religion for you: Completed My favor upon you, and have chosen For you Islam as your Religion.


  1. ^ Buhl, F.; Welch, A. T. (1993). "Muḥammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam. 7 (2nd ed.). Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 360–376. ISBN 90-04-09419-9.
  2. ^ Patrick Hughes; Thomas Patrick Hughes (1995). Dictionary of Islam. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-0672-2. Retrieved 2015-10-18.
  3. ^ a b Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal (1 May 1994). The Life of Muhammad. The Other Press. ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7.
  4. ^ a b Hussayini Tehrani, Muhammad Hussayn. Imamology (امام شناسی). Mashhad: Allama Tabatabaie. p. 47. Retrieved 2015-10-18.
  5. ^ Abu Muneer Ismail Davids (2006). Getting the Best Out of Hajj. Darussalam. pp. 315–. ISBN 978-9960-9803-0-0. Retrieved 2015-10-18.
  6. ^ a b IslamKotob. en_TheBiographyoftheProphet. IslamKotob. pp. 154–. GGKEY:DS5PE7D2Z35. Retrieved 2015-10-18.
  7. ^ Majd, Vahid. The Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (saww) at Ghadir Khum. p. 151.
  8. ^ Majd, Vahid. The Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (saww) at Ghadir Khum. pp. 152–154.
  9. ^ "A Shi'ite Encyclopedia". Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  10. ^ Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Volume 4. p. 281.
  11. ^ al-Razi, Fakhr. Tafsir al-Kabir, Volume 12. pp. 49–50.

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