Europe of Nations and Freedom
Europe of Nations and Freedom (ENF; French: Europe des nations et des libertés, ENL) was a political group in the European Parliament launched on 15 June 2015. The group was the smallest within the European Parliament during the eighth European Parliament term at just 37 members. The largest faction in the group was the French National Rally with 17 MEPs. Twenty-eight members were part of the Movement for a Europe of Nations and Freedom (MENF), with the remaining nine MEPs being their ideological allies. The ENF was the parliamentary group of the Movement for a Europe of Nations and Freedom although some MEPs were without any European affiliations.
|Europe of Nations and Freedom|
|European Parliament group|
|Political position||Right-wing to|
|European parties||Movement for a Europe of Nations and Freedom|
|From||15 June 2015|
|To||13 June 2019|
|Succeeded by||Identity and Democracy|
|Chaired by||Nicolas Bay|
Marcel de Graaff
Following the 2014 European elections on 22–25 May 2014, the European Alliance for Freedom (EAF), comprising right-wing and far-right parties from across Europe, aimed to form a stable parliamentary group in the European Parliament prior to the start of the 8th term. A previous attempt to form a far-right group in the European parliament during the 6th term was the short-lived Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty (ITS) group in 2007.
On 28 May 2014, it was announced at a press conference in Brussels that the alliance led by Marine Le Pen of the French National Front (FN) and Geert Wilders of the Dutch Party for Freedom (PVV), including Northern League (LN) leader Matteo Salvini, were in negotiations to form a parliamentary group. On 24 June 2014, it was announced that the Le Pen/Wilders alliance had failed to gather the requisite 25 MEPs from seven EU member nations, thus starting the parliamentary term as Non-Inscrits members. Later in 2014, the EAF was succeeded by the Movement for a Europe of Nations and Freedom (MENL), without the participation of the PVV.
On 15 June 2015, Marine Le Pen announced that a new group in the European Parliament would be launched the following day, set to comprise MEPs from the FN, PVV, LN, the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ), Flemish Interest (VB), the Polish Congress of the New Right (KNP) and former UK Independence Party member Janice Atkinson. Together with the availability of the excluded UKIP MEP, the creation of the group with representation from seven different member states was made possible by the recent side-lining of two historical but controversial figures of the far-right: Jean-Marie Le Pen was suspended by his own National Front, while Janusz Korwin-Mikke's departure from the KNP allowed Marine Le Pen and Wilders to accept the two remaining members of the party in their group, something they had rejected during the discussions held in June 2014. Among the FN delegation, Bruno Gollnisch chose not to join in solidarity with former president Jean-Marie Le Pen, while Aymeric Chauprade, on a trip to Fiji, joined a few days later. One of the four seats won by the PVV was vacant at the time of the group's creation until 8 September 2015, when Auke Zijlstra replaced Hans Jansen, who had died on 5 May 2015.
In July 2015, the European Parliament decided the group would earn €3 million per year from EU funds. By adding up all the grants for the group as well as for the linked political party and think tank, the funds will amount to €17.5 million for the next four years of their mandate.
Reviewing votes in the EU Parliament on resolutions critical of Russia or measures not in the Kremlin's interests (e.g., the Ukraine-EU Association Agreement), Hungary's Political Capital Institute found that future members of the ENF voted "no" in 93% of cases.[relevant? ]
The first convention of the ENL took place on 28 & 29 January 2016 in Milan with all the leaders of ENL's member parties along with Freedom and Direct Democracy (SPD) leader Tomio Okamura, whose party is not a member of the ENL as it has no MEPs. During this convention, each leader made a speech followed by a press conference the next day.
During the Alternative for Germany (AfD) party convention on 30 April 2016, it was announced that Marcus Pretzell MEP would join the ENL group. The AfD's other MEP Beatrix von Storch joined the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy (EFDD) group in March 2016, both MEPs having been expelled from the ECR group.
On 2 October 2017, 3 MEPs left the Front National and joined the EFDD group two days later.
On 2 March 2018, Romanian MEP Laurențiu Rebega left the group.
Member parties before being dissolvedEdit
|Country||#||National Party||MEP||EU party|
2 / 18
|Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ)
Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs
2 / 18
1 / 21
|Flemish Interest (VB)
15 / 74
|National Rally (RN)
(Had replaced Édouard Ferrand, who died on 1 February 2018)
(Had replaced Louis Aliot, who was elected MP in France on 18 June 2017)
(Joined the group on 19 June 2017, replacing Marine Le Pen, who was elected MP in France on 18 June 2017)
|Philippe Loiseau |
(Had replaced Jeanne Pothain, who resigned before sitting)
1 / 96
|The Blue Party (BP)
Die blaue Partei (elected as AfD)
(Joined the group on 1 May 2016)
6 / 73
|Northern League (LN)
(Had replaced on 7 July 2016 Gianluca Buonanno, who died on 5 June 2016)
(Had replaced on 17 April 2018 Lorenzo Fontana who had become Minister for Family and Disability in Conte government, previously he had replaced on 11 July 2014 Flavio Tosi, who resigned to remain mayor of Verona)
(Elected as M5S, joined the group on 11 January 2017)
|Danilo Oscar Lancini|
(Had replaced Matteo Salvini, who was elected Senator in Italy on 4 March 2018)
4 / 26
|Party for Freedom (PVV)
Partij voor de Vrijheid
|Marcel de Graaff||None|
(Joined the group on 13 June 2017, replacing Vicky Maeijer, who was elected MP in the Netherlands on 15 March 2017)
(Joined the group on 8 September 2015, replacing Hans Jansen, who died on 5 May 2015)
2 / 51
|Congress of the New Right (KNP)
Kongres Nowej Prawicy
|Member state||Party||MEPs||From||To||Moved to|
|France||Former National Front
Now The Free French
|Aymeric Chauprade||24 June 2015||9 November 2015||Non-Inscrits|
|Former National Front
Now The Patriots
|Mireille d'Ornano||15 June 2015||2 October 2017||EFDD|
|Former National Front
Now Debout la France
|Bernard Monot||24 June 2015||31 May 2018||EFDD|
|Former National Front
Now Debout la France
|Sylvie Goddyn||15 June 2015||19 October 2018||EFDD|
|Romania||Independent (elected as Conservative)||Laurențiu Rebega||15 July 2015||2 March 2018||Non-Inscrits|
|United Kingdom||Brexit Party (elected as UKIP)||Jane Collins||16 January 2019||15 April 2019||EFDD|
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