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Ethnic and religious composition of Austria-Hungary

The ethno-linguistic composition of Austria-Hungary according to the census of 31 December 1910 was as follows:[1]

PopulationEdit

Area Number %
Cisleithania 28,571,934 55.6
Transleithania 20,886,487 40.6
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Austro-Hungarian condominium) 1,931,802 3.8
Total 51,390,223 100.0

LanguagesEdit

 
Ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910

In the Austrian Empire (Cisleithania), the census of 1911 recorded Umgangssprache, everyday language. Jews and those using German in offices often stated German as their Umgangssprache, even when having a different Muttersprache.

In the Kingdom of Hungary (Transleithania), the census was based primarily on mother tongue[2][3], 48.1% of the total population spoke Hungarian as their native language. Not counting autonomous Croatia-Slavonia, more than 54.4% of the inhabitants of the Kingdom of Hungary were native speakers of Hungarian. This included also the Jews (around 5% of the population), as mostly they were Hungarian-speaking (the Yiddish speakers were recorded as German).[4][5]

Language Number %
German 12,006,521 23.36
Hungarian 10,056,315 19.57
Czech 6,442,133 12.54
Serbo-Croatian 5,621,797 10.94
Polish 4,976,804 9.68
Ruthenian 3,997,831 7.78
Romanian 3,224,147 6.27
Slovak 1,967,970 3.83
Slovene 1,255,620 2.44
Italian 768,422 1.50
Other 1,072,663 2.09
Total 51,390,223 100.00

Cisleithanian statesEdit

Land Main language others (if more than 2%)
Bohemia Czech (63.2%) German (36.8%)
Dalmatia Serbo-Croatian (94.6%) Italian (2.8%)
Galicia Polish (58.6%) Ruthenian(40.2%)
Lower Austria German (95.9%) Czech (3.8%)
Upper Austria German (99.7%)
Bukovina Ruthenian (38.4%) Romanian (34.4%), German (21.2%), Polish (4.6%)
Carinthia German (78.6%) Slovenian (20.7%)
Carniola Slovenian (94.4%) German (4.9%)
Salzburg German (99.7%)
Austrian Silesia German (43.9%) Polish (31.7%), Czech (24.3%)
Styria German (70.5%) Slovenian (28.4%)
Moravia Czech (71.8%) German (27.6%)
County of Tyrol German (57.3%) Italian (42.1%)
Austrian Littoral Italian (39.6%) Slovenian (29.5%), Serbo-Croatian (18.8%), German (3.1%)
Vorarlberg German (95.4%) Italian (4.4%)

Transleithanian statesEdit

Land Mother Tongues others (if more than 2%)
Kingdom of Hungary Hungarian (54%) Romanian (16.1%), Slovak (10.5%), German (10.4%), Ruthenian (2.5%), Serbian (2.5%)
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia Croatian (62.5%) Serbian (24.6%), German (5.0%), Hungarian (4.1%)

Historical regionsEdit

Region
Mother Tongues
Hungarian language
Other languages
Transylvania Romanian – 2,819,467 (54%) 1,658,045 (31.7%) German – 550,964 (10.5%)
Slovakia Slovak – 1,688,413 (57.9%) 881,320 (30.2%) German – 198,405 (6.8%)
Vojvodina Serbo-Croatian – 601,770 (39.8%) 425,672 (28.1%) German – 324,017 (21.4%)
Romanian – 75,318 (5.0%)
Slovak – 56,690 (3.7%)
Transcarpathia Ruthenian – 330,010 (54.5%) 185,433 (30.6%) German – 64,257 (10.6%)
Fiume Italian – 24,212 (48.6%) 6,493 (13%) Croatian and Serbian – 13,351 (26.8%)
Slovene - 2,336 (4.7%)
German - 2,315 (4.6%)
Őrvidék German – 217,072 (74.4%) 26,225 (9%) Croatian – 43,633 (15%)
Muravidék Slovene – 74,199 (80.4%) – in 1921 14,065 (15.2%) – in 1921 German – 2,540 (2.8%) – in 1921

The Germans in Croatia were mainly living in the eastern parts of the country where they had been settled along the Drava and Danube rivers, the Military Borders (MilitarGrenze) after the ouster of the Turks in 1687.

ReligionsEdit

 
Map of religions, from Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas
Religions/Confessions in all of Austria-Hungary Austrian
part
Hungarian
part
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Catholics 76.6% 90.9% 61.8% 22.9%
Protestants 8.9% 2.1% 19% 0.3%
Orthodox 8.7% 2.3% 14.3% 43.5%
Jews 4.4% 4.7% 4.9% 0.6%
Muslims 1.3% 0% 0% 32.7%

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Volkszählung vom 31. Dezember 1910, veröffentlicht in: Geographischer Atlas zur Vaterlandskunde an der österreichischen Mittelschulen. K. u. k. Hof-Kartographische Anstalt G. Freytag & Berndt, Wien 1911.
  2. ^ http://mek.oszk.hu/02100/02185/html/171.html
  3. ^ https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/NEDA_1910_01/?pg=21&layout=s
  4. ^ http://www.bibl.u-szeged.hu/porta/szint/tarsad/szocio/studia/studia.htm
  5. ^ A. J. P. Taylor, The Habsburg Monarchy 1809–1918, 1948.

Further readingEdit

  • Steidl, Annemarie et al. From a Multiethnic Empire to a Nation of Nations: Austro-Hungarian Migrants in the US, 1870–1940 (Innsbruck: Studien Verlag, 2017). 354 pp.