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The Erycinae are a subfamily of nonvenomous snakes, commonly called boas, found in Europe, Asia Minor, Africa, Arabia, central and southwestern Asia, India, Sri Lanka, and western North America. Three genera comprising 15 species are currently recognized.[1]

Eryx jaculus.jpg
Javelin sand boa, E. jaculus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Boidae
Subfamily: Erycinae
Bonaparte, 1831
  • Erycina Bonaparte, 1831
  • Erycidae Bonaparte, 1840
  • Erycina — Bonaparte, 1840
  • Erycides
    A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844
  • Charinidae Cope, 1900
  • Erycinae Kuhn, 1967
  • Erycinidae Kuhn, 1967
Common names: Old World sand boas[1]



This is a subfamily of stout-bodied snakes, all of which are competent burrowers. The largest, E. johnii, rarely exceeds 120 cm (47 in) in total length (including tail). Most grow to around 60 cm (24 in) in total length. They have small eyes and hard, small scales to protect their skin from the grit of sand. A great deal of sexual dimorphism exists, with females generally becoming much larger than males.

Distribution and habitatEdit

They are found in south southeastern Europe, Asia Minor, north, central, west and east Africa, Arabia, central and southwestern Asia, India, Sri Lanka, southwestern Canada, the western United States, and northwestern Mexico.[2]

Fossil erycines have been found in rock strata over 50 million years old, and were once widespread in North America. Now, only two species remain in North America, as well as the sand boas in Africa, Asia, and southeastern Europe.


The majority spend much of their time basking below the surface of the sand, with only their eyes or head exposed. When potential prey approaches, they erupt out of the sand, bite, and employ constriction to subdue it.


Their primary diet consists of rodents, but they have also been known to prey on lizards and birds.


Otherwise far removed from their boine relatives, they are generally ovoviviparous, i.e., giving birth to live young. At least three species lay eggs, however: the Calabar python, Charina reinhardtii (once regarded as a python for this reason), the Arabian sand boa, Eryx jayakari, and the West African sand boa, E. muelleri.

Smuggling and poaching in IndiaEdit

The Indian government has failed to protect rare species of sand boa in India. Poaching and smuggling of this creature is very alarming.[3][4][5][6] Most of the smuggled snakes go to the United States, where they are considered very attractive.[7] There is a misconception about their medicinal and aphrodisiacal properties, as well as the belief that keeping this snake as a pet brings wealth and prosperity.[8]


Gongylophis colubrinus, G. conicus and E. johnii are frequently available in the exotic pet trade and are often captive bred. They breed readily, their small size making them an attractive option. They are usually not an aggressive species, though they sometimes have a tendency to bite, and also spend the vast majority of their time hiding; so some keepers may not find them as enjoyable as the more gregarious species. Other species are not commonly available, but are occasionally imported.

Rough-scaled sand boa


Genus[1] Taxon author[1] Species[1] Subsp.*[1] Common name Geographic range[2]
Charina Gray, 1849 2 0 Rosy boas, rubber boas North America from southwestern Canada south through the western United States into northwestern Mexico
EryxT Daudin, 1803 8 2 Old world sand boas Southeastern Europe, northern Africa, the Middle East and southwestern Asia
Gongylophis Wagler, 1830 3 0 Sand boas Africa from Mauritania and Senegal east to Egypt and south to Tanzania, also reported from the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, the Indian Subcontinent from eastern Pakistan, eastern India and Bangladesh south as far as northwestern Sri Lanka

* Not including the nominate subspecies.
T Type genus.[2]

See alsoEdit


Further readingEdit

  • Bonaparte, Carlo Luciano. 1831. Saggio di una distribuzione metodica degli animali vertebrati. Rome: Antonio Boulzaler. 144 pp. (Subfamily "Erycina [sic]", p. 67). (in Italian).
  • Goin CJ, Goin OB, Zug GR. 1978. Introduction to Herpetology, Third Edition. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company. xi + 378 pp. ISBN 0-7167-0020-4. (Subfamily Erycinae, p. 319).

External linksEdit

  • The Sand Boa Page at Accessed 16 July 2008.people believes that by keeping sand boas they got wealth by black magic and supernatural powers and senses.but there is no scientific evidence of this thought many superstitious are related with sand boas.government should try effectively for awareness about such superstitions and related thought and believes by awareness of science to control smuggling of sand boas.sand boas are friends of farmers as they move earth layers by movements which is beneficial for farmers.