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The characteristic quivering abdomen caused by movement of tadpoles within a pregnant female Limnonectes larvaepartus

Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, ovivipary, or aplacental viviparity is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch. This method of reproduction is similar to viviparity, but the embryos have no placental connection with the mother and generally receive their nourishment from a yolk sac. In some species, yolk sac supplies are supplemented, or largely replaced by, uterine secretions or other maternal provisioning. Examples include trophic eggs in the uterus, or even intrauterine cannibalism.

Extreme examples of intrauterine secretions occur in some species of insects; for instance, females of some Glossinidae, Hippoboscidae and other Hippoboscoidea retain one larva at a time in the uterus, where it feeds on intrauterine secretions analogous to "milk". When the young insect has completed its larval metamorphosis, the mother deposits it where it can dig in and pupate without further attention. She then proceeds to raise the next larva in the uterus.

The young of some ovoviviparous amphibians such as Limnonectes larvaepartus, are born as larvae, and undergo further metamorphosis outside the body of the mother. Members of genera Nectophrynoides and Eleutherodactylus bear froglets, not only the hatching, but all the most conspicuous metamorphosis, being completed inside the body of the mother before birth.

Among insects that depend on opportunistic exploitation of transient food sources, such as many Sarcophagidae and other carrion flies, and species such as many Calliphoridae, that rely on fresh dung, and parasitoids such as tachinid flies that depend on entering the host as soon as possible, the embryos commonly develop to the first larval instar inside the mother's reproductive tract, and they hatch just before being laid or almost immediately afterwards.

OvoviviparityEdit

Ovoviviparous animals are similar to viviparous species in which there is internal fertilization and the young ones are born alive, but differ in that there is no placental connection and the unborn young ones are nourished by egg yolk; the mother's body does provide gas exchange (sharks and rays).

In some species, the internally developing embryos rely solely on yolk. This is known as "yolk-sac viviparity" and is regarded as a type of lecithotrophy (no maternal provisioning). Other species exhibit matrotrophy, in which the embryo exhausts its yolk supply early in gestation and mother provides additional nutrition. This additional provisioning may be in the form of unfertilized eggs (intrauterine oophagy), uterine secretions (histotrophy) or it may be delivered through a placenta. The first two of these modes were categorized under histotroph viviparity,[1] or aplacental viviparity.[2]

AmphibiansEdit

The young of ovoviviparous amphibians are sometimes born as larvae, and undergo metamorphosis outside the body of the mother. Modes of reproduction include[3] based on relations between zygote and parents:

  • Ovuliparity: external fertilisation, as in arthropods, many bony fishes, and most amphibians
  • Oviparity: internal fertilisation, where the female lays zygotes as eggs with important vitellus (typically birds)
  • Ovo-viviparity can be thought of as a form of oviparity where the zygotes are retained in the female's body or in the male's body, but there are no trophic interactions between zygote and parents. This is found in Anguis fragilis. In seahorses, zygotes remain in the male's ventral "marsupium". In the frog Rhinoderma darwinii, the zygotes develop in the vocal sac. In the frog Rheobatrachus, zygotes develop in the stomach.[4]

OvolarviparityEdit

Some insects, notably tachinid flies, are ovolarviparous, which means that the embryos develop into the first larval stage (instar) within the eggs while still in the female's oviduct. As a result, the larvae hatch more rapidly, sometimes immediately after egg deposition, and can begin feeding right away. A similar phenomenon is larviparity, in which larvae hatch before the female delivers them, although this may be mistakenly identified in species with very thin and transparent egg membranes.[5][6]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Lodé Thierry T. 2012. Oviparity or viviparity ? That is the question. Reproductive Biology 12: 259-264
  2. ^ Carrier, J.C.; Musick, J.A.; Heithaus, M.R., eds. (2012). Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives. CRC Press. pp. 296–301. ISBN 1439839247.
  3. ^ Lodé, Thierry (2001). Les stratégies de reproduction des animaux (Reproduction strategies in animal kingdom). Eds Dunod Sciences, Paris
  4. ^ Tyler, M. J. (1994). Australian Frogs: A Natural History. Chapter 12, Gastric Brooding Frogs pp;135–140 Reed Books
  5. ^ Capinera, John L. (2008). "Tachinid Flies (Diptera: Tachinidae)". Encyclopedia of entomology (2nd ed.). Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 3678–3679. ISBN 9781402062421.
  6. ^ Wiman, Nik G.; Jones, Vincent P. (2012). "Influence of oviposition strategy of Nemorilla pyste and Nilea erecta (Diptera: Tachinidae) on parasitoid fertility and host mortality" (PDF). Biological Control. 64 (3): 195–202. doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2012.12.008.