The Emergencies Act (French: Loi sur les mesures d'urgence) is a statute passed by the Parliament of Canada in 1988 which authorizes the Government of Canada to take extraordinary temporary measures to respond to public welfare emergencies, public order emergencies, international emergencies and war emergencies. The law replaces the War Measures Act passed in 1914. It asserts that any government action continues to be subject to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Canadian Bill of Rights.
Loi sur les mesures d'urgence
|Parliament of Canada|
|Citation||RSC 1985, c 22 (4th Supp)|
|Enacted by||Parliament of Canada|
|Royal assent||July 21, 1988|
|Bill citation||C-77, 33rd Parliament, 2nd session|
|Introduced by||Perrin Beatty, Minister of National Defence|
|First reading||June 26, 1987|
|Second reading||November 2, 1987|
|War Measures Act|
|Status: Current legislation|
Under the Emergencies Act, the Cabinet of Canada can declare a national emergency in response to an urgent and critical situation that cannot be dealt with by any existing law, and either is beyond the capability of a province to deal with it or threatens the sovereignty of Canada. Before declaring a national emergency, the federal cabinet must consult with provincial cabinets. In the case of a public welfare or public order emergency where the effects of the emergency are confined to, or occur principally in, one province, the Emergencies Act cannot be used if the provincial cabinet does not indicate that the situation is beyond the capacity of the province to deal with it. Once an emergency is declared, it is subject to confirmation by the House of Commons and Senate.
Impetus and reform proposalsEdit
The impetus for reform of the War Measures Act came in October 1970 when members of the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) kidnapped Pierre Laporte, the provincial deputy premier, and British diplomat James Cross. These events, called the October Crisis, resulted in Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau invoking the War Measures Act for the first time in Canadian history during peacetime. During the October Crisis, concerns were raised in Parliament about instances of possible abuse of civil rights, and ineffective flow of information from Cabinet to Parliament.
Trudeau responded to the calls for reform during the October Crisis, stating on November 3, 1970, and January 11, 1971, that Parliament would consider creating new emergency legislation; however, new emergency legislation was not introduced while Trudeau was in office. Parliament considered forming a joint committee of the Senate and House of Commons to deliberate new emergency legislation in 1971 and 1977, however both efforts were unsuccessful as agreement could not be reached on whether the mandate of such a committee would include an evaluation of the government's use of the War Measures Act in the October Crisis.
As new information came to light on the activities of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police's (RCMP) actions during the October Crisis, the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Certain Activities of the RCMP (McDonald Commission) was formed in 1977. Among the McDonald Commission's recommendations in its 1981 final report were several changes to Canada's emergency powers. The McDonald Commission recommended the War Measures Act be amended to focus on powers necessary during times of war, invasion or insurrection, while other emergencies would be dealt with by ad hoc legislation. The commission also recommended that the role of Parliament be increased during emergencies, including the requirement that Parliament confirm the state of emergency, renew the state of emergency, and, if not sitting, that it be summoned within seven days to make such a declaration. The commission further called for the information used by the government to declare an emergency be presented to Parliament publicly, with sensitive or classified materials being provided to an appropriate committee or during an in camera session of Parliament (private session). The McDonald Commission also called for: the power to create a new court to hear complaints from individuals whose rights had been infringed; the War Measures Act to state which elements of Canada's Bill of Rights would be notwithstanding during a declaration; and that Article 4 rights under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights never to be overridden.
Despite the McDonald Commission report being completed and released publicly in 1981, it was never tabled in Parliament or fully debated. The Task Force on Canadian Unity, established by the Government of Canada after the sovereigntist Parti Québécois was elected in Quebec in 1976 also called for reform of the War Measures Act, including a declaration of use providing the rationale, greater parliamentary oversight, safeguards for provincial powers, and safeguards for individual liberties.
Despite the calls and proposals for reform of the War Measures Act following the October Crisis, there was no change until the Emergencies Act was passed by Parliament in 1988. The Progressive Conservative Party under Brian Mulroney defeated the reigning Liberal government under John Turner in the 1984 Canadian federal election, and in 1987 the Mulroney government released a white paper on reforming Canada's defence policy. It called for the creation of comprehensive emergency legislation, and the government commissioned a series of studies on emergency and defence topics. The studies considered four options for emergency legislation and recommended that a single comprehensive law be provided with four unique types of emergencies with unique powers, procedures and safeguards.
The Emergencies Act was introduced by Minister of National Defence Perrin Beatty in the second session of the 33rd Canadian Parliament as Bill C-77. Its first reading was on June 26, 1987, and second reading was on November 2, 1987. The bill received royal assent on July 21, 1988, replacing the War Measures Act. Parliament intended it to provide more civil rights protections and less likelihood for abuse of power than the War Measures Act.
A number of amendments were made to Bill C-77 between the second and third readings. The definition of "national emergency" and the situations under which the bill could be invoked was defined more restrictively to limit broad use. The definition which passed second reading was removed, "an urgent and critical situation of a temporary nature that imperils the well-being of Canada as a whole or that is of such proportions or nature as to exceed the capacity or authority of a province to deal with it" and replaced with two possible conditions, one which "seriously endangers the lives, health or safety of Canadians and is of such proportions or nature as to exceed the capacity or authority of a province to deal with it" or a condition which threatens the sovereignty of Canada. The reasoning for the change was the understanding that many emergencies were "urgent", "critical" or "temporary", but not sufficient in gravity for use of the Emergencies Act. Another amendment made after second reading allowed government decisions under a declared emergency to be reviewed by the courts based on whether the actions taken were reasonable.
Under the Emergencies Act, the Governor in Council (i.e., the federal cabinet) may declare that an emergency exists. The emergency must be a "national emergency", which means an "urgent and critical situation of a temporary nature" that either "(a) seriously endangers the lives, health or safety of Canadians and is of such proportions or nature as to exceed the capacity or authority of a province to deal with it, or (b) seriously threatens the ability of the Government of Canada to preserve the sovereignty, security and territorial integrity of Canada and that cannot be effectively dealt with under any other law of Canada".
The Emergencies Act contemplates four distinct types of emergencies: a public welfare emergency, a public order emergency, an international emergency, and a war emergency. It uses a "finely graded set of provisions" to respond to each type. The four categories of emergency are triggered in separate circumstances and a declaration of an emergency under each category gives the government a separate set of powers. Once Cabinet has declared an emergency, it can make orders in council or proclaim regulations pursuant to the declaration.
Under the Emergencies Act, a declaration of an emergency by the Cabinet must be reviewed by Parliament. Any temporary laws made under the act are subject to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Bill of Rights, and must have regard to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
Once a national emergency is declared, a motion for confirmation of a declaration of emergency must be tabled in the Senate and House of Commons within seven days after a declaration of emergency is made by the Governor in Council. If either chamber is prorogued or in recess, its members must be recalled. If both chambers adopt the motion, the declared emergency remains in place for its original duration, subject to renewal (also subject to parliamentary scrutiny). Either chamber may end the emergency declaration by voting against it. Additionally, a Parliamentary Review Committee with representation from each recognized party must be formed. Within 60 days of the expiration of the emergency, the law requires the government to convene a public inquiry and table a report in Parliament within 360 days following the emergency's expiration.
Public welfare emergencyEdit
Part I of the Emergencies Act describes "public welfare emergencies" which result, or may result, in danger to life or property, services or resources, so serious as to be a national emergency. Public welfare emergencies include natural hazards such as fire, flood, drought, storm, or earthquakes; biological hazards including disease affecting humans, animals or plants; and man-made hazards such as accidents or pollution.
Section 7 of the act states a public welfare emergency declaration persists for 90 days, subject to being extended through another proclamation, or ended earlier.
Public order emergencyEdit
Part II of the Emergencies Act describes "public order emergency" results from serious threats to the security of Canada. When defining "threats to the security of Canada", the act references the definition provided in the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act, which includes espionage, sabotage, detrimental foreign influences, activities which support the threat or use of violence for a political, religious or ideological objective; or those activities which threaten to undermine or otherwise destroy, or overthrow the Government of Canada. The Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act notes that "lawful advocacy, protest or dissent" do not constitute "threats to the security of Canada".
Section 18 of the act states a public order emergency declaration persists for 30 days, subject to being extended through another proclamation, or ended earlier.
Part III of the Emergencies Act describes "international emergency", which results from acts of intimidation, coercion, or the real or imminent use of force from one or more other countries against Canada. An international emergency would fall short of an armed conflict which would permit a "war emergency", instead the international emergency was proposed for times of "heightened international tensions" and "rapid deterioration of relations among nations". Peter Rosenthal likened the purpose of an international emergency to events similar to the Cuban Missile Crisis. Under an international emergency, additional powers are provided to the government as it relates to supplies for national defence, including search and seizure as it relates to scarce commodities, hoarding, black market operations and fraud.
Section 29 of the act states a international emergency declaration persists for 60 days, subject to being extended through another proclamation, or ended earlier.
Part IV of the Emergencies Act describes a "war emergency" which results from war or armed conflict involving Canada or an allied nation. While a "war emergency" provides the government with significant authority to make orders or regulation beyond the categorical limits of other emergencies, however, a war emergency does not provide the authority to implement conscription under the act.
Section 39 of the act states a war emergency declaration persists for 120 days, subject to being extended through another proclamation, or ended earlier.
According to the legal scholars Craig Forcese and Leah West, the Emergencies Act provides for "the stiffest government emergency powers of any emergency law in Canada".
The Emergencies Act does not delineate what role the courts may play during an emergency. Forcese and Aaron Freeman suggest that this leaves intact courts' ordinary powers of judicial review in Canadian administrative law and constitutional review under the Charter. Legal scholar Robert Martin argues that the act's requirement that the Governor in Council have "reasonable grounds" to believe that an emergency exists "leaves open the possibility of judicial review of the invocation of emergency powers".
The Emergencies Act has been used once, in response to the Canada convoy protest in 2022. The War Measures Act, which the Emergencies Act replaced, was used on three occasions: during both the First and Second World Wars, and during the 1970 October Crisis.
Proposed use in response to the COVID-19 pandemicEdit
On April 9, 2020, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau sent a letter to the provincial and territorial premiers to consult about invoking the Emergencies Act due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. While consultation with the provinces is a required step before a national emergency can be declared, the Prime Minister's Office said there was no present plan to invoke it and that doing so remained a last resort. On a conference call between Trudeau and the premiers later that day, the premiers communicated their unanimous opposition to invoking the act.
Canada convoy protestEdit
On February 12 and 13, 2022, the weekend before the Emergencies Act was invoked, Deputy Prime Minister Chrystia Freeland, who was also finance minister, met with the CEOs of the largest Canadian banks to discuss how they could help resolve the situation. On February 14, during the Canada convoy protest, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's government declared a public order emergency, invoking the Emergencies Act for the first time.
Under the Emergency Measures Regulations enacted after the declaration of emergency, participation in public assemblies that could result in a breach of peace by disrupting the movements of goods and people, interfering with the operation of critical infrastructure, or by supporting violence, were prohibited. Travel to and within places where these rallies were occurring was restricted, and foreign nationals were barred from coming to Canada to attend them. The regulations also specifically outlawed the bringing of children under the age of 18 to these assembles. Additionally the use, provision, collection, and solicitation of property and funds to support the prohibited assemblies or the people participating in them was banned.
The regulations further empowered the federal government to protect critical infrastructure, Parliament Hill and the parliamentary precinct, official government residences and buildings, war monuments, and any other places that may be designated by the minister of public safety. The federal government was also given the authority to compel the towing and removal of vehicles, structures, and other objects used in blockades. Violations of the regulations was punishable by up to five years' imprisonment, a fine up to $5,000, or both.
Under the Emergency Economic Measures Order, also enacted pursuant to the declaration of emergency, crowdfunding platforms and their payment processors were required to register with the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada (FINTRAC), and report large and suspicious transactions. Cryptocurrencies were also included in the expanded financial regulations. Banks were ordered to freeze personal and corporate bank accounts suspected of being used by people violating the regulations, and were protected from civil liability in enforcing the order. Insurance coverage for trucks being used in blockades was suspended. Furthermore, financial institutions had to determine on a continuing basis whether any persons violating the regulations were using their services and were required to promptly report findings to the RCMP or CSIS (Canadian Security Intelligence Service).
In accordance with the requirements of the Emergencies Act the government introduced a motion for the confirmation of the declaration of emergency on February 17, and debate was planned to continue through the weekend with a vote scheduled to occur on February 21 at 8:00 PM. Though interrupted by police operations against the protesters on February 18, debate otherwise proceeded as planned and the House of Commons voted to confirm use of the act 185 to 151, with the Liberals and New Democratic Party (NDP) in support, and the Conservatives and Bloc Québécois voting against the motion. Immediately after interim Conservative leader Candice Bergen filed a motion to revoke the declaration of emergency under section 59. Debate in the Senate began on February 22, with members required to take an oath of secrecy. A vote was expected as early as that evening but debate proved more contentious than anticipated with several senators challenging the government to disclose the basis for invoking and continuing the state of emergency, even as blockades and protests had been cleared.
The announcement had varied reactions. Several provincial premiers expressed concerns, including the premiers of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Quebec. Doug Ford, the premier of Ontario, the centre of the protest, expressed support for the measure. NDP leader Jagmeet Singh supported the measure, but said that its invocation was "proof of failure of leadership". The Canadian Civil Liberties Association criticized the declaration of emergency, saying that the "high and clear" threshold for invocation – that the situation cannot be resolved through the regular application of existing laws – had not been met, and that normalization of emergency legislation would erode democracy and civil liberties. On February 18, it filed for judicial review of the government's decision to invoke the Emergencies Act, claiming the invocation was unjustified and unconstitutional. The Canadian Constitution Foundation (CCF) announced intent to sue on similar grounds. On February 19, Alberta Premier Jason Kenney also said that the province would file a court challenge to the federal government's use of the law. A few days later, Saskatchewan Premier Scott Moe said that his province was also considering a court challenge. On February 20, Edward Snowden compared the freezing of bank accounts to similar actions by the Chinese and Russian governments, and commended the Canadian Civil Liberties Association for its challenge to the use of the law.
Opinion polling conducted by Maru Public Opinion showed that 66 per cent of Canadians supported the use of the act. Support was highest in British Columbia, Quebec, and Atlantic Canada, with 75 per cent, 72 per cent, and 72 per cent of the populations in those regions supporting the invocation respectively, and with a majority in every province backing the use of the act. A poll by Mainstreet Research, conducted slightly later, on February 16 and 17, measured overall support and opposition at 51 per cent and 44 per cent respectively. Abacus Data found support at 57 per cent and opposition at 30 per cent in poll conducted between February 17 and 22. A poll conducted by Research Co between February 18 and the 20 found that 66 per cent believed the use of the act was justified, against 28 per cent who did not. A poll conducted by Nanos Research on February 23 and 24, after the declaration of emergency had been revoked, found support for the liberals' decision to invoke the act was at 63 per cent, and opposition at 36 per cent.
On February 23, Prime Minister Trudeau announced that the federal government would revoke the emergency declaration. Debate in the Senate was halted after the announcement. Later that day, the governor general signed a proclamation revoking it.
Despite its revocation, the Canadian Civil Liberties Association and the province of Alberta said they would proceed with challenges to the use of the law. In April 2022, in response to disclosure requests in the legal challenge, the Canadian government declined to disclose documents related to the use of the act, citing cabinet confidentiality. The documents included Public Safety Minister Marco Mendicino's submissions on the factual and legal basis for the invocation, records of the alternatives considered and rejected, and a record of the cabinet's decisions (possibly including a tally of the final cabinet vote).
Parliamentary review committeeEdit
Various government officials testified before the committee on April 26, 2022, including Canadian Security Intelligence Service Director David Vigneault, RCMP Commissioner Brenda Lucki, Minister of Public Safety Marco Mendicino, and Minister of Justice David Lametti. Both Mendicino and Lametti invoked cabinet confidentiality in refusing to answer some questions.
On April 25, 2022, Trudeau appointed Justice Paul Rouleau as commissioner of an inquiry into the invocation of the Emergencies Act. The inquiry is independent of the parliamentary review committee. By law, the inquiry must complete its report and submit it to Parliament by February 20, 2023. A government press release said it is hoped investigations will "prevent these events from happening again". Conservatives have said the investigations are too focused on the actions of protesters and their fundraising, and not on justifying the use of the Emergencies Act or determining whether it was appropriate it for it to have been invoked.
- Rosenthal 1991.
- Aiello, Rachel (February 14, 2022). "Trudeau makes history, invokes Emergencies Act to deal with trucker protests". CTV News. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Tunney, Catharine (February 14, 2022). "Federal government invokes Emergencies Act for first time ever in response to protests". CBC News. Archived from the original on February 14, 2022.
- Holthuis 1991, pp. 66–67.
- Holthuis 1991, p. 71.
- Holthuis 1991, p. 68.
- Holthuis 1991, pp. 68–69.
- Holthuis 1991, p. 70.
- Holthuis 1991, p. 73.
- Holthuis 1991, p. 74.
- Holthuis 1991, pp. 74–75.
- Holthuis 1991, p. 76.
- Holthuis 1991, pp. 76–77.
- Holthuis 1991, p. 77.
- Rosenthal 1991, p. 563.
- Holthuis 1993, p. 220 and note 103.
- Rosenthal 1991, p. 565.
- Rosenthal 1991, p. 565 and note 2.
- Rosenthal 1991, p. 563, note 11.
- Holthuis 1993, p. 219.
- Rosenthal 1991, p. 573.
- Rosenthal 1991, p. 573.
- Rosenthal 1991, p. 574.
- Rosenthal 1991, pp. 574–575.
- Rosenthal 1991, pp. 563, 573.
- Emergencies Act, RSC 1985, c 22 (4th Supp), s 3
- Lustgarten, Laurence; Leigh, Ian (1994). In from the Cold: National Security and Parliamentary Democracy. Oxford University Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-19-825234-X. OCLC 30069995.
- Atkey 1991, pp. 46–47.
- Holthuis 1993, p. 221.
- Stacey 2018, p. 873.
- Weinrib 2001, p. 102.
- Forcese & West 2021, chapter 8, PDF pp. 21–22.
- Smith, Denis; Foot, Richard; Yarhi, Eli; McIntosh, Andrew (March 18, 2020). "Emergencies Act". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on April 11, 2020. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- Freeman, Mark; Van Ert, Gib (2004). International Human Rights Law. Irwin Law. pp. 326–327. ISBN 1-55221-094-4. OCLC 55744460.
- Forcese & Freeman 2005, p. 591.
- Holthuis 1991, p. 99.
- O'Malley, Kady (February 14, 2022). "So the PM is going to invoke the Emergencies Act. What's next for Parliament?". iPolitics. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- Forcese & Freeman 2005, p. 587.
- Rosenthal 1991, p. 577.
- Rosenthal 1991, p. 567.
- "Canada trucker protest: What powers will Emergencies Act give Trudeau?". BBC News. February 14, 2022. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- Rosenthal 1991, p. 568.
- Rosenthal 1991, p. 571.
- Emergency Preparedness Canada 1987, p. 19.
- Rosenthal 1991, p. 572.
- Rosenthal 1991, p. 577.
- Forcese & West 2021, chapter 8, PDF p. 16.
- Forcese & Freeman 2005, p. 592.
- Martin 2005, p. 173.
- Studin 2014, p. 60: "As established, it derives from the federal government's rather sweeping emergency powers under the emergency branch of the POGG power in the 1867 Act".
- Tunney, Catharine; Hall, Chris (April 9, 2020). "As supply concerns grow, Ottawa lays the groundwork for never-used Emergencies Act". CBC News. Archived from the original on August 17, 2020. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- Lynn, Josh (April 9, 2020). "In wake of letter sent by feds, Sask. premier doesn't 'see the need' to invoke Canada's Emergencies Act". CTV News. Archived from the original on August 22, 2020. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- Taylor, Stephanie (April 9, 2020). "Saskatchewan premier doesn't see need for Emergencies Act in COVID-19 fight". National Post. Archived from the original on September 24, 2020. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- Tunney, Catharine; Cullen, Catherine; Cochrane, David (April 10, 2020). "Need for Emergencies Act rejected by premiers on call with PM". CBC News. Archived from the original on July 15, 2020. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- Lilley, Brian (April 10, 2020). "Premiers say no to Trudeau on Emergencies Act". Toronto Sun. Archived from the original on April 24, 2020. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
- MacCharles, Tonda; Ballingall, Alex (February 14, 2022). "Justin Trudeau invokes Emergencies Act to stop convoy protests". Toronto Star. ISSN 0319-0781. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
- "Federal Government declares a public order emergency under the Emergencies Act to end disruptions, blockades and the occupation of the city of Ottawa" (Press release). Public Safety Canada. February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
- "Canada Gazette, Part 2, Volume 156, Number 1: Emergency Measures Regulations". Public Services and Procurement Canada. February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
- Tunney, Catharine (February 16, 2022). "Protesters who come to Ottawa risk being tied to 'dangerous criminal activity,' minister says". CBC News. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Rabson, Mia (February 17, 2022). "Trudeau defends Emergencies Act use as a measure of last resort". CP24. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Aiello, Rachel (February 16, 2022). "Emergencies Act: 5 notable new powers enacted by the government". CTV News. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Walsh, Marieke; Fife, Robert; Dickson, Janice (February 14, 2022). "Prime Minister Justin Trudeau invokes Emergencies Act to try to bring an end to the blockades". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on February 14, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- Bradshaw, James; Curry, Bill (February 14, 2022). "Emergencies Act will expand powers of Canadian banks to freeze accounts, halt funds". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- "Canada Gazette, Part 2, Volume 156, Number 1: Emergency Economic Measures Order". Public Services and Procurement Canada. February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
- Turnbull, Sarah (February 14, 2022). "Feds crack down on trucker protest financing, from crowdfund rules to freezing bank accounts". CTV News. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- "Emergencies Act debate: Freeland says banks now freezing protesters' accounts". National Post. February 17, 2022. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
- "Vote Detail - 32 - Members of Parliament - House of Commons of Canada". www.ourcommons.ca.
- Nardi, Christopher (February 18, 2022). "Speaker cancels Emergencies Act debate on Friday due to 'police operation'". National Post.
- Rabson, Mia; Woolf, Marie (February 21, 2022). "House of Commons passes Emergencies Act motion after fractious debate". CTV News. Canadian Press. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
- Levesque, Catherine (February 22, 2022). "Motion to extend Emergencies Act approved in the House of Commons". SALTWIRE.
- Weber, Peter (February 21, 2022). "Canada's Justin Trudeau wins parliamentary approval for emergency powers declaration". The Week.
- Woolf, Marie (February 22, 2022). "MPs, senators on Emergencies Act committee will take secrecy oath: gov't Senate rep". CTV News. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
- Lévesque, Catherine (February 22, 2022). "Senate growing frustrated by pressure to rubber stamp Emergencies Act". National Post.
- Gallant, Jacques (February 22, 2022). "'What emergency exists today?' Senators ask for more details on government's need for special powers". Toronto Star.
- Singh, Jagmeet (February 14, 2022). Use of Emergencies Act 'proof of failure of leadership,' says NDP leader. CBC News. Archived from the original on February 14, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- "CCLA warns normalizing emergency legislation threatens democracy, civil liberties". Global News. Canadian Press. February 15, 2022. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- "Notice of Application, CCLA v Canada" (PDF). Canadian Civil Liberties Association. February 18, 2022. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
- Boisvert, Nick (February 17, 2022). "Civil liberties group files suit over use of Emergencies Act against convoy protests". CBC News. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
- Canadian Constitution Foundation (February 17, 2022). "CCF announces legal challenge to Trudeau's invocation of federal Emergencies Act" (Press release). Canadian Constitution Foundation. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
- Pedersen, Kylee (February 19, 2022). "Kenney says province will challenge federal Emergencies Act in court". CBC News.
- Ellis, Brendan (February 21, 2022). "Legal action against use of Emergencies Act 'under consideration' by Sask. government". CTV News.
- Snowden, Edward [@Snowden] (February 20, 2022). "Governments claiming the authority to *freeze people's bank accounts* because they want to crush a protest movement is tyrannical and obscene" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "The Emergencies Act" (PDF). Maru Public Opinion. February 17, 2022. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- "Two-thirds support Trudeau's use of Emergencies Act against protesters: poll". CityNews. Ottawa. February 17, 2022. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Emmanuel, Rachel (February 20, 2022). "More Canadians strongly oppose Emergencies Act: Mainstreet poll". iPolitics. Retrieved March 1, 2022.
- Anderson, Bruce; Coletto, David (February 24, 2022). "Emergency measures: Government approval holds as Liberals and Conservatives deadlocked". Abacus Data. Retrieved March 1, 2022.
- Canseco, Mario (February 24, 2022). "Canadians Back Reliance on Emergencies Act By 2-to-1 Margin". Research Co. Retrieved March 1, 2022.
- Carbert, Michelle (February 25, 2022). "Nearly half of Canadians say their impressions of Trudeau have worsened over convoy protest response: poll". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
- Boisvert, Nick (February 23, 2022). "Trudeau ends use of Emergencies Act, says 'situation is no longer an emergency'". CBC News. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
- Osman, Laura (February 23, 2022). "Trudeau says Emergencies Act powers can now be revoked as crisis calms". CP24.
- "Alberta to proceed with Emergencies Act challenge despite it being lifted: Kenney". CBC News. The Canadian Press. February 23, 2022. Retrieved February 26, 2022.
- Fine, Sean (April 22, 2022). "Ottawa cites cabinet confidentiality over decision to invoke Emergencies Act, court filing shows". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
- Urback, Robyn (April 27, 2022). "Ottawa can't get away with a 'trust us, we had to' defence of its use of the Emergencies Act". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
- Fraser, David (April 21, 2022). "Inquiry into Emergencies Act set to start soon". CBC News. Retrieved April 21, 2022.
- Wherry, Aaron (March 6, 2022). "The committee reviewing Trudeau's use of the Emergencies Act faces a daunting task". CBC News. Retrieved April 21, 2022.
- Lapointe, Mike (March 28, 2022). "Members of first-ever Emergencies Act review committee get down to work, split on Trudeau's invocation of order as work on witness list begins". The Hill Times. Retrieved April 21, 2022.
- Tunney, Catherine (April 26, 2022). "Ottawa Police Service's control of convoy protest zone created 'challenges,' minister says". CBC News. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- Kirkup, Kristy (April 26, 2022). "Decision to invoke Emergencies Act based on law enforcement advice, says Marco Mendicino". Globe and Mail. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- Kirkup, Kristy; Marhnouj, Safiyah (April 26, 2022). "Decision to invoke Emergencies Act based on law enforcement advice, says Marco Mendicino". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
- Fraser, David (April 25, 2022). "Trudeau calls public inquiry into use of Emergencies Act during convoy protests". CBC News. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
- Atkey, Ronald G. (1991). "Reconciling Freedom of Expression and National Security". University of Toronto Law Journal. 41 (1): 38–59. doi:10.2307/825701. ISSN 0042-0220. JSTOR 825701.
- Emergency Preparedness Canada (1987). Bill C-77: An Act to Provide for Safety and Security in Emergencies: Working Paper (PDF). Ottawa: Emergency Preparedness. OCLC 977659651.
- Forcese, Craig; Freeman, Aaron (2005). The Laws of Government: The Legal Foundations of Canadian Democracy. Irwin Law. pp. 585–596. ISBN 1-55221-105-3. OCLC 60416249.
- Forcese, Craig; West, Leah (2021). "Emergencies". National Security Law (2nd ed.). Irwin Law. ISBN 978-1-55221-611-8. OCLC 1281711237. SSRN 3554318.
- Holthuis, Annemieke E. (1991). The Emergencies Act, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and International Law: The Protection of Human Rights in States of Emergency (L.L.M.). McGill University. OCLC 1265038446.
- Holthuis, Annemieke (1993). "Maxwell Cohen's Perspective on Human Rights in Canada: The Entrenchment of the Charter and the Enactment of the Emergencies Act". In Kaplan, William; McRae, Donald (eds.). Law, Policy and International Justice: Essays in Honour of Maxwell Cohen. McGill–Queen's University Press. pp. 207–242. ISBN 978-0-7735-6427-5. OCLC 243500608.
- Martin, Robert (2005). "Notes on Emergency Powers in Canada". University of New Brunswick Law Journal. 54: 161–177. ISSN 0077-8141.
- Rosenthal, Peter (1991). "The New Emergencies Act: Four Times the War Measures Act". Manitoba Law Journal. 20 (3): 563–599. ISSN 0076-3861. 1991 CanLIIDocs 129.
- Stacey, Jocelyn (2018). "Vulnerability, Canadian Disaster Law, and the Beast". Alberta Law Review. 55 (4): 853–888. doi:10.29173/alr2480. ISSN 1925-8356. S2CID 158539719. 2018 CanLIIDocs 85.
- Studin, Irvin (2014). The Strategic Constitution: Understanding Canadian Power in the World. University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-2716-4. OCLC 870269277.
- Weinrib, Lorraine E. (2001). "Terrorism's Challenge to the Constitutional Order". In Macklem, Patrick; Roach, Kent; Daniels, Ronald J. (eds.). The Security of Freedom: Essays on Canada's Anti-Terrorism Bill. University of Toronto Press. pp. 93–108. ISBN 978-1-4426-8233-7. OCLC 244768716.
- Niemczak, Peter; Rosen, Philip (2001). Emergencies Act. Canada. Library of Parliament. Parliamentary Research Branch.
- Emergencies Act via Department of Justice Canada
- "Full text of Justin Trudeau's Emergencies Act announcement". Toronto Star. February 14, 2022. ISSN 0319-0781.
- Special Temporary Measures for Public Order Emergency, PC 2022-0106, text of 2022 order in council invoking the act
- Proclamation Declaring a Public Order Emergency, SOR/2022-20, published in the Canada Gazette