Electric motorcycles and scooters
Electric motorcycles and scooters are plug-in electric vehicles with two or three wheels. The electricity is stored on board in a rechargeable battery, which drives one or more electric motors. Electric scooters (as distinct from motorcycles) have a step-through frame.
- 1 History
- 2 Current manufacturers
- 3 Power source
- 4 Electric vs. gasoline machines
- 5 Sales and adoption
- 6 Government promotion and incentives
- 7 Motorsports
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
|1895||Earliest known electric motorcycle patent.|
|1911||Popular Mechanics article introduces an electric motorcycle.|
|1919||Ransomes, Sims & Jefferies make an electric motorcycle prototype.|
|1936||Socovel electric motorcycle company founded.|
|1946||Marketeer company founded, based on an electric motorcycle made by Merle Williams.|
|1967||Karl Kordesch makes an hydrazine fuel cell motorcycle|
|1974||Mike Corbin's motorcycle Quick Silver sets electric motorcycle speed record of 165.387 mph (266.165 km/h)|
|1996||First mass-produced electric scooter, Peugeot Scoot'Elec, released|
|2011||Chip Yates sets Guinness record of fastest electric motorcycle with 316.899 km/h (196.912 mph)|
|2013||First FIM eRoad Racing World Cup|
1895 to 1950Edit
The early history of electric motorcycles is somewhat unclear. On 19 September 1895, a patent application for an "electrical bicycle" was filed by Ogden Bolton Jr. of Canton Ohio. On 8 November of the same year, another patent application for an "electric bicycle" was filed by Hosea W. Libbey of Boston.
At the Stanley Cycle Show in 1896 in London, England, bicycle manufacturer Humber exhibited an electric tandem bicycle. Powered by a bank of storage batteries, the motor was placed in front of the rear wheel. Speed control was by a resistance placed across the handlebars. This electric bicycle was mainly intended for racetrack use.
The October 1911 issue of Popular Mechanics mentioned the introduction of an electric motorcycle. It claimed to have a range of 75 miles (121 km) to 100 miles (160 km) per charge. The motorcycle had a three-speed controller, with speeds of 4 miles (6.4 km), 15 miles (24 km) and 35 miles (56 km) per hour.
In 1919, Ransomes, Sims & Jefferies made a prototype electric motorcycle in which the batteries were fitted under the seat of the sidecar. Even though the vehicle was registered for road use, it never went past the trial stage.
In 1936, the Limelette brothers founded an electric motorcycle company called Socovel (Société pour l’étude et la Construction de Vehicules Electriques or Company for research and manufacture of electric vehicles) in Brussels. They continued production during the German occupation with their permission. Due to fuel rationing, they found some degree of success. But after the war, they switched to conventional models. The electric models remained available until 1948.
During the World War II, compelled by fuel rationing in the United States, Merle Williams of Long Beach, California invented a two-wheeled electric motorcycle that towed a single wheeled trailer. Due to the popularity of the vehicle, Williams started making more such vehicles in his garage. In 1946, it led to the formation of the Marketeer Company (current-day ParCar Corp.).
1950 to 1980Edit
In 1967, Karl Kordesch, working for Union Carbide, made a fuel cell/Nickel–cadmium battery hybrid electric motorcycle. It was later replaced with a hydrazine fuel cell, giving it a range of 200 miles (320 km) per gallon and a top speed of 25 mph (40 km/h).
In 1974, Auranthic Corp., a small manufacturer in California, produced a small motorcycle called the Charger. It had a 30 mph (48 km/h) and a 50 miles (80 km) range on a full charge.
In the early 1970s, Mike Corbin built a street-legal commuter electric motorcycle called the Corbin Electric. Later in 1974, Corbin, riding a motorcycle called the Quick Silver, set the electric motorcycle speed world record at 165.387 mph (266.165 km/h). The motorcycle used a 24 volt electric starter motor from a Douglas A-4B fighter plane. In 1975, Corbin built a battery-powered prototype street motorcycle called the City Bike. This motorcycle used a battery manufactured by Yardney Electric.
In June 1975, the first Annual Alternative Vehicle Regatta was held at Mt. Washington, New Hampshire. The event was created and promoted by Charles McArthur, an environmentalist. On June 17, Corbin's motorcycle completed the 8 miles (13 km) uphill course in 26 minutes.
1980 to 2000Edit
In 1988, Ed Rannberg, who founded Eyeball Engineering, tested his electric drag motorcycle in Bonneville. In 1992, the January issue of Cycle World carried an article about Ed Rannberg's bike called the KawaSHOCKI. It could complete a quarter mile (0.25 miles (400 m)) in 11–12 seconds.
In 1995, Electric Motorbike Inc. was founded by Scott Cronk and Rick Whisman in Santa Rosa, California. In 1996, EMB Lectra was built by Electric Motorbike Inc., which used a variable reluctance motor. It had a top speed of about 45 mph (72 km/h) and a range of 35 miles (56 km). About a 100 of these were built.
2000 to presentEdit
On 26 August 2000, Killacycle established a drag racing record of completing a quarter mile (400 m) in 9.450 seconds on the Woodburn track in Oregon. Killacycle used lead acid batteries at a speed of 152.07 mph (244.73 km/h). Later, Killacycle using A123 Systems Li-ion nano-phosphate cells set a new quarter mile record of 7.824 seconds breaking the 8 seconds barrier at 168 miles per hour (270 km/h) in Phoenix, Arizona at the All Harley Drag Racing Association (AHDRA) 2007, on 10 November 2007.
On 14 June 2009, the first electric Time Trial Xtreme Grand Prix (TTXGP) all electric street motorcycle race took place on the Isle of Man in which 13 machines took part. Rob Barber riding a motorcycle built by Team Agni won the race. He completed the 37.73 miles (60.72 km) course in 25 minutes 53.5 seconds, an average speed of 87.434 miles per hour (140.711 km/h).
In 2010, ElectroCat, made by Eva Håkansson, set the record time for an electric motorcycle to climb Pikes Peak. The motorcycle, ridden by John Scollon, completed the 12 miles (19 km) course in 16 minutes 55.849 seconds. ElectroCat uses batteries manufactured by A123 Systems.
On 26 June 2011, Chip Yates broke ElectroCat's previous record at Pikes Peak. He completed the course in 12 minutes 50.094 seconds. On 30 August 2011, Yates riding his prototype SWIGZ.COM electric superbike established the official Guinness record of the fastest electric motorcycle. The motorcycle clocked a speed of 316.899 km/h (196.912 mph) at Bonneville.
In 2012, Paul Ernst Thede set an SCTA record run of 216.8 miles per hour at Bonnevile Salt Flats, Utah. This did not qualify as a Guinness World record as it wasn't timed by the FIM timing association.
In 2012 Electro Force cycles made their debut as a commuter cycle for commuters to ride to work or for enjoyment. These cycle were built by Jennifer Northern of Issaquah WA. She became the first woman to develop and manufacture an electric vehicle in the US. The speeds reached up to 60 mph in 6 seconds, programmable with regenerative braking or on the throttle. Their range was up to 100 miles while maintaining 65 mph in all weather and hills. It was the first of their kind built by a woman in the US.
On 30 June 2013, Carlin Dunne riding a Lightning Motorcycle-built electric bike beat conventional motorcycles at Pikes Peak. He clocked a 10 minutes 00.694 seconds at the 12.42 miles (19.99 km) course.
Vectrix in 2006 introduced the first commercially available high performance electric scooter, the VX-1. Following insolvency and initial bankruptcy reorganization, the Gold Peak battery group purchased the company in 2009. Vectrix expanded product lines, offering the VX-2 and the three wheeled VX-3. But Vectrix ceased operations in January 2014 and filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy liquidation, with its remaining assets auctioned off the following June.
VinFast from Vietnam introduced 2 models of electric scooter on Nov. 20, 2018 in Hanoi, with 4 model: VinFast Klara A1 (Lithium-ion battery), VinFast Klara A2 (Lead–acid battery), VinFast Ludo and VinFast Impes.
Electric motorcycle manufacturers include Čezeta, Victory Motorcycles, Mahindra, Zero Motorcycles, Lightning Motorcycle, Energica Motor Company, Johammer, Evoke Motorcycles, Yo, Gogoro, Current Motor Company, KTM, Bajaj Auto and Ampere Vehicles.
- Yamaha plans to enter the market shortly[when?] with at least two models.
- Spanish company Bultaco entered the electric motorcycle market in 2015.
- Harley-Davidson introduced the Harley-Davidson LiveWire its first prototype electric motorcycle in June 2014..
- Z Electric Vehicle is a US based commercial production supplier of electric scooters for worldwide markets.
- The BMW C Evolution electric scooter was released in Germany in May 2014.
- Honda participated in European lease demonstration and driving tests for its electric scooter in 2012 but has not yet announced its availability for sale.
- Terra Motors, a Japanese electric vehicle maker, will begin selling electric scooters in India by 2015.
- Electro Force Cycles Issaquah, WA Developed and Manufactured in the US.2010-2019 </ref>
- Gogoro announced a swappable battery electric scooter at CES 2015.
- KTM produces the all electric off road bikes in the Freeride E-series.
- AVERA, an India based electric scooter manufacturing company, offering two models of scooters by the end of December 2018.
- Piaggio released an electric Vespa, the Vespa Elettrica, in 2019 with a 2 kW battery and a range of 100 km (62 mi). There will be an hybrid option as well with 200 km. Piaggio started production on September 2018 and it was released at the beginning of 2019.
- Zapp unveiled its first electric scooter in 2018 and sales of the scooter begin November 2019
- Tacita Motorcycles, based in Italy, announced in mid 2019 plans for open a U.S. operation in Miami, Florida. It makes street and off-road bikes, unusual with their 5-speed manual transmission.
- Bajaj Auto unveiled its first electric scooter on 17-Oct-2019 named Bajaj Chetak. The sale of the scooter is planned to start in January 2020.
Alternative types of batteries are available. Z Electric Vehicle has pioneered use of a lead/sodium silicate battery (a variation on the classic lead acid battery invented in 1859, still prevalent in automobiles) that compares favorably with lithium batteries in size, weight, and energy capacity, at considerably less cost.
EGen says its lithium-iron phosphate batteries are up to two-thirds lighter than lead acid batteries and offer the best battery performance for electric vehicles.
In 2017, the first vehicle in the US to use the new Lithium Titanium Oxide (LTO) battery non-flammable battery technology is a scooter called The Expresso. This new technology charges a battery in less than 10 minutes and withstands 25,000 charges (the equivalent of 70 years of daily charges). The technology, created by Altairnano, is currently being used in China where over 10,000 urban buses run on these fast charge batteries.
All electric scooters and motorcycles provide for recharging by plugging into ordinary wall outlets,usually taking about eight hours to recharge (i.e. overnight). Some manufacturers have designed in, included, or offer as an accessory, the high-power CHAdeMO level 2 charger, which can charge the batteries up to 95% in an hour.
Manufacturers like Zero Motorcycles and recent entrants to the scooter market Gogoro and Unu have designed machines that allow quick battery swapping, for apartment dwellers who do not have a garage outlet, or for an instant recharge on the go.
Honda has developed an experimental internal combustion/electric hybrid scooter. Yamaha has also developed a hybrid concept motorcycle called Gen-Ryu. It uses a 600cc engine and an additional electric motor. Piaggio MP3 Hybrid uses a 125cc engine and an additional 2.4 kW motor.
There are several experimental prototypes using fuel cell technology. ENV developed by Intelligent Energy is a hydrogen fuel cell prototype. The motorcycle has a range of 100 miles (160 km) and can reach a top speed of 50 mph (80 km/h). Suzuki has also developed a concept hydrogen fuel cell scooter based on the Suzuki Burgman. Yamaha has created a hydrogen fuel cell prototype called FC-AQEL, which is considered equivalent to a 125cc vehicle. Honda has also developed a hydrogen fuel cell scooter which uses the Honda FC Stack.
Electric vs. gasoline machinesEdit
Electric and gasoline powered motorcycles and scooters of the same size and weight are roughly comparable in performance. In August 2013 Road and Track evaluated a high-end electric motorcycle as faster and better handling than any conventionally powered bike. Electric machines have better 0 to 60 acceleration, since they develop full torque immediately, and without a clutch the torque is instantly available.
Electric motorcycles and scooters suffer considerable disadvantage in range, since batteries cannot store as much energy as a tank of gas. Anything over 130 miles (210 km) on a single charge is considered an exceptionally long range. As a result, while electric machines excel as daily commuters traveling a fixed distance round trip, on the open road riders experience inhibiting range anxiety. Also electric power trades off range against speed. For instance the current longest range electric scooter, the ZEV 10 LRC, travels 220 km (140 mi) at 89 km/h (55 mph), but according to the manufacturer the range drops to about 129 km (80 mi) at 112 km/h (70 mph). A BBC news blog reported that an Austrian bike, the Johammer J1, is capable of travelling 200 km (124 miles) on a single charge.
Electric scooters and motorcycles need very little maintenance. As Wired magazine's transportation editor Damon Lavrinc reported after an experiment of trying to go six months using nothing but a Zero electric motorcycle: "[w]ith only a battery, a motor, and a black box (i.e. the controller) to keep you moving, electric motorcycles are a breeze to maintain compared to a conventional motorcycle, what with all the lubricating and adjusting and tuning you have to do. You basically just worry about consumables: brake pads, tires, maybe a brake fluid flush. That’s about it." Electric scooters and motorcycles equipped with regenerative braking typically have longer brake pad life because a significant portion of braking duty can be performed with the electric motor instead of the mechanical friction brakes.
At between one and two cents per mile (depending on electric rates), electric machines enjoy an enormous fuel cost advantage. Three months and 2,800 km (1,700 mi) of commuting on an electric motorcycle cost Lavrinc less than $30 for electricity; on a BMW gasoline bike a single trip of 650 km (400 mi) cost nearly the same. In Australia, UBCO battery Electric Motorbike running cost is 88¢ per 100 km
Even with special equipment, charging a battery takes significantly longer than filling a gas tank, which can make electric vehicles less flexible than their gasoline counterparts. With the maximum number of accessory chargers, it takes over an hour to charge a Zero S ZF6.5's 6.5kWh battery to 95% capacity. This refuel time also increases with battery capacity; the Zero S ZF13.0 (which has a 13.0kWh battery) takes over 2 hours to charge to 95% capacity using the maximum number of accessory chargers. While this may not pose an issue to commuting in an electric vehicle with overnight charging, it will likely impact taking long road trips that require refueling during the journey.
Electric vehicles are far quieter than gas powered ones, so silent they may sneak up on unwary pedestrians. Some are equipped to emit artificial noise. Popular Mechanics called the comparative quiet of electric motorcycles the greatest difference between them and their gas counterparts, and a safety bonus because the rider can hear danger approaching. Whether a loud motorcycle is more noticeable and thus more safe than a quiet one is contested. At high speed the whine of an electric motorcycle is said to sound "like a spaceship."
Sales and adoptionEdit
China leads the world in electric scooter sales, comprising 9.4 million of the total 12 million sold worldwide in 2013. There were only 31,338 electric scooter sales outside the Asia-Pacific region including Europe. The US market is comparatively small, with an estimated 2,000 sold in 2012.
While steadily becoming more practical, high prices and a limited range suited best for commuting have been impediments to electric motorcycles and scooters increasing their market share. In the US at least, cheaper motorcycles that can refuel in minutes at any gas station better suit weekend riders, the predominant users. According to a market report published in 2013, the sales of electric motorcycles and scooters in expected to rise over 10-fold by 2018 in North America, to about 36,000 by 2018.
In India, high costs and power grid problems have contributed to slow sales. In states like Tamil Nadu, where power supply of rationed electricity was reduced, a corresponding drop in sales has been observed by electric scooter manufacturers like Ampere and Hero Electric.
Government promotion and incentivesEdit
In January 2013, the Indian government announced a plan to provide subsidies for hybrid and electric vehicles. The plan will have subsidies up to ₹ 150000 (Approximately US$2200) for cars and 50000 on two wheelers. India aims to have seven million electric vehicles on the road by 2020.
The premier of the Republic of China (Taiwan) Liu Chao-shiuan said in 2008 that the government-financed Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) will help domestic manufacturers mass-produce 100,000 electric motorcycles in four years.
Pikes Peak International Hill Climb (PPIHC)Edit
The Pikes Peak International Hill Climb began in 1916 and is the second oldest motor sports race in America. The PPIHC is a long-standing tradition in the Colorado Springs and Pikes Peak Regions. The race takes place on a 12.42 mile course beginning at 9,390 feet with 156 turns and ending at the 14,110 foot summit of Pikes Peak. One of the main obstacles of the race is the increasingly thin air that slows reflexes, diminishes muscle strength and reduces the power of internal combustion engines by 30 percent as competitors advance up the peak. The electric motorcycle division has an advantage with the all-electric motorcycles because they do not experience power loss with increased elevation and thinner air.
TTXGP was conceived by Azhar Hussain. The first race was held on 30 June 2009 on the Isle of Man in which 13 teams took part. The event was endorsed by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM). In May 2010, TTXGP started a world championship series. It went on to organize several races in US, Europe and Australia. In 2010, TT Zero replaced the TTXGP event in the Isle of Man TT race. Neither TTXGP nor Azhar Hussain were involved in the event. The event followed FIM rules.
FIM eRoad Racing World CupEdit
On 18 November 2010, Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) announced an ePower International Series for electric motorcycles, causing a split between TTXGP promoters and FIM. FIM, unlike TTXGP, was unable to gather many teams of the series. In March 2011, TTXGP announced it would again collaborate with FIM.
In 2013, TTXGP and FIM collaborated to organize the FIM eRoad Racing World Cup with races in US, Europe and a final race in Asia.
In 2013, FIM announced an all-electric event, called E-MX, which was held in Belgium during Clean Week 2020 on 2 May. MiniMoto SX Energy Crisiscross is a regular event where electric off-road motorcycles are allowed to compete against conventional motorcycles.
After the TTXGP concluded its 2013 race season, it pulled out of the US, and Arthur Kowitz, who had participated in the FIM eRoad Racing World Cup founded eMotoRacing to fill the void. eMotoRacing kicked off its first season in 2014, running in conjunction with AHRMA which gave access to ten high-profile tracks around the US. In addition to its regular race season, eMotoRacing held its first annual "Varsity Challenge" on July 11–13, 2014 at the New Jersey Motorsports Park, urging engineering teams from universities to race custom-built electric motorcycles. At the start of its third season in 2016, AHRMA announced it had adopted eMotoRacing's "eSuperSport" class as a permanent addition to their roadracing lineup.
MotoE World CupEdit
MotoE World Cup is set to start in 2019. The series is sanctioned by the FIM and will support MotoGP at five of the European circuits with future plans for the series to grow worldwide. The series will be using a spec Energica EgoGP motorcycle with each of the seven MotoGP independent teams running two bikes while four Moto2 and Moto3 teams will run one bike for a total of 18 bikes competing.
- "Patent number: 552271". Google Patents. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "Patent number: 596272". Google Patents. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- Partridge, Michael (1976), "Introduction", Motorcycle Pioneers: The Men, the Machines, the Events 1860-1930, David & Charles (Publishers), p. 11, ISBN 978-0668040358
- Popular Mechanics. Hearst Magazines. October 1911. pp. 560–. ISSN 0032-4558. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- "Ransomes, Sims and Jefferies: Motorcycles". Grace's Guide. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- Erwin Tragatsch (1997). Alle Motorräder 1894-1981: Eine Typengeschichte. 2500 Marken aus 30 Ländern. ISBN 978-3-87943-410-7.
- Erwin Tragatsch (1985). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Motorcycles. ISBN 978-0890098684.
- Egon Duchateau; Geert Huylebroeck; Nick Jonkheere; Rick van Eycken; Luc Freson (2008). A-Z der Belgische motoren. ISBN 978-907734-6105.
- "Our History: The First Manufacturer of Industrial and Commercial Electric Vehicles". Columbia ParCar Corp. Archived from the original on 25 February 2004. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "Alkali Fuel Cell History". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Karl Kordesch, PhD" (PDF). Global Energy Systems. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Post 1953 Indian Motocycle History". Archived from the original on 4 July 2007. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- Popular Mechanics. Hearst Magazines. April 1974. p. 83. ISSN 0032-4558. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- Cycle World. April 1992. pp. 108–111. ISSN 0011-4286. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame: Mike Corbin". Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Corbin Yardney Motorcycle on top of Mt. Washington". Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- Louise Ann Noeth (May 2002). Bonneville: The Fastest Place on Earth. MotorBooks International. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-7603-1372-5. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Electric MotorBike Inc: About Us". Electric MotorBike Inc. Archived from the original on 5 December 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Lectra VR24". Green Speed. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Peugeot's incredibly frugal electric E-Vivacity scooter". GizMag. 25 January 2010. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "The Roger Hedlund 150 mph Club". US National Electric Drag Racing Association. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "7.824 @168 MPH !!!!!! at Pomona AHDRA Nov 10th". Killacycle.com. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "24 Hours of Electricross". Zero Motorcycles. 24 March 2009. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "TTXGP: Rob Barber makes history". Isle of Man Today. 14 June 2009. Archived from the original on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Electrocat Conquers Pikes Peak". EVWorld. 5 July 2010. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "SWIGZ.COM Pro Racing's Chip Yates Sets New Pikes Peak Record". EV World. 28 June 2011. Archived from the original on 5 December 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Fastest electric motorcycle (prototype)". Guinness Book of World Records. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Lightning's Electric Motorcycle Dominates Pikes Peak". Wired.com. 1 July 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Lightning electric motorcycle beats gas bikes in Pikes Peak climb". Los Angeles Times. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Vectrix cierra sus puertas". Region Digital.com. January 4, 2014. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-20.
- The Editors (June 10, 2014). "Vectrix Asset Auction Set for June 18". DealerNews.com. Archived from the original on June 16, 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-23.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Klara - My Love | Vinfast e scooter
- Ludo & Impes - Your smart and reliable ally on the road
- Jordan Golson (2014-04-25). "Yamaha's Exquisite Electric Motorcycles Will Soon Hit the Streets". Wired. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- Loz Blain (May 19, 2014). "Bultaco rides again with all-electric motorcycles: The Rapitan and Rapitan Sport". GizMag. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- "Harley-Davidson Takes Electric Motorcycle Market for a Spin". NBC News. June 23, 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-23.
- Chris Peters (May 21, 2012). "ZEV Electric Scooters born of sport bike passion". Powersports Business. Retrieved 2014-01-11.
- Sabine Beikler (14 May 2014). "Elektroroller BMW C Evolution: Spaß für Spritsparer und Idealisten". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Retrieved 2014-06-11.
- "2012 Honda EV-Neo". Top Speed. Retrieved 2014-01-19.
- Rohan Patil (21 January 2014). "Japanese Electric Vehicle Maker Terra Motors set for India Debut at Delhi Auto Expo". Motoroids. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- Taylor Lorenz (January 15, 2015). "Gogoro Launches Smart Electric Plugless Scooter - Business Insider". Businessinsider.com. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- "AVERA News on The Hindu". The Hindu. Retrieved 2018-04-14.
- "City-based firm to launch e-bikes in New Year". The Hindu. Retrieved 2017-10-08.
- Vespa’s first electric scooter is coming with 62 miles of range
- Piaggio Group: Vespa Elettrica to go into production in September | Piaggio Group
- Hughes, Justin. "Can a Cruiser Go Electric? Tacita Thinks So". The Drive. Retrieved 2019-06-17.
- "Tacita Racks Up 75,000 Miles On Its Electric Motorcycle". www.msn.com. Retrieved 2019-06-17.
- Toll, Micah (2019-06-16). "Tacita is entering the USA with their Italian gear-shifting electric motorcycles". Electrek. Retrieved 2019-06-17.
- "Bajaj Chetak electric scooter unveiled; to go on sale from January next year". www.businesstoday.in. Retrieved 2019-10-16.
- "Bajaj is back with Chetak. Electric scooter's price, features, specs". www.livemint.com. Retrieved 2019-10-16.
- Billings, Randy (May 9, 2012). "Z Electric Vehicle Introduces New Model 5000 Scooter". EV World.com. EV World. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
- "eGen Electric Scooters". eGen Electric Scooters. Retrieved 2016-10-03.
- Huang, Peifeng; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ke; Ping, Ping; Sun, Jinhua (14 January 2015). "The combustion behavior of large scale lithium titanate battery". Scientific Reports. 5 (1): 7788. doi:10.1038/srep07788. PMC 4293605. PMID 25586064.
- "Bike – Site". www.expressoscooter.com. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
- "Altair Nanotechnologies, Inc". www.sec.gov. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
- "XALT Energy To Sell LTO Batteries For EV Buses To HK Group In China". insideevs.com. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
- "2013 Zero Motorcycles lineup goes faster and farther, charges with CHAdeMO". AutoBlog. 3 October 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Soak up the summer with the unu electric scooter". Classic Driver. 2 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- Tyler Wells Lynch (February 8, 2015). "This smart electric scooter doesn't need to be charged". Usatoday.com. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- "Honda announces fuel cell, hybrid and electric scooters". Gizmag. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Yamaha unveils hybrid electric motorcycle and limousine scooter". Gizmag. 27 October 2005. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Piaggio MP3 Hybrid review". The Telegraph. 19 September 2009. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Fuel Cell Motorbike to Hit U.S. Streets". National Geographic. 2 August 2005. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Suzuki and Intelligent Energy Debut Fuel Cell Motor Scooter". EV World. 22 October 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Announcing the development of the Yamaha hydrogen fueled "FC-AQEL" fuel cell motorcycle". Yamaha. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- Damon Lavrinc (November 5, 2013). "Zero's New Electric Motorcycle Boasts Insane Torque, Expandable Range". Wired. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
Torque [is] in line with some of the biggest, brashest, and beefiest bikes in the world. But unlike those bruisers and cruisers, the SR tips the scales at a relatively svelte 400 pounds. High grunt and low mass let you hit 60 mph in 3.3 seconds.
- Wes Siler (August 2, 2013). "First Ride: 2014 Mission RS A game-changing electric tour de force". Road and Track. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
- James Parker (March 31, 2011). "Torque in an Electric Motorcycle: Drawing the Line". Motorcyclist.
- Ryan Pei (Feb 6, 2014). "This San Francisco Company Plans To Become The Tesla Of The Motorcycle World". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2014-01-23.
[The Mission electric motorcycle] runs from 0 to 60 mph in just 2.7 seconds. That's better acceleration than any other commercially-available motorcycle ever built.
- Damon Lavrinc (October 10, 2013). "A Current Affair". Wired. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
- Damon Lavrinc (October 10, 2013). "A Current Affair". Wired. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
... more than anything else that set the [gas powered] BMW and [electric] Zero apart was the sense of freedom...
- "Z EV 10 LRC (Long Range Commuter)". Z Electric Vehicle. Archived from the original on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- Matthew Phenix (November 13, 2014). "BBC - Autos - The Johammer J1, Austria's wild one". BBC. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Damon Lavrinc (17 January 2014). "A Current Affair". Wired. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
- "UBCO Off Road, Battery Electric Motorcycle | Battery Electric Tugs, Pushers and Pullers". ev.spacepac.com.au. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
- "Zero S Specs". www.zeromotorcycles.com. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
- Chris Neiger (15 October 2013). "Solving electric cars' quiet problem". BBC Autos. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
[R]ival schools have emerged. The first argues that EVs should remain quiet, void of any added sound. The second believes that these vehicles pose a risk to pedestrians and cyclists because they may creep up, ostensibly unannounced by a gurgling engine.
- Wes Siler (April 20, 2010). "Electric Motorcycles Buyer's Guide". Retrieved 2014-01-21.
[S]ilence is actually a bonus; you can hear danger approaching and you become more a part of your environment.
- Florin Tibu (June 8, 2012). "Most Common Motorcycle Myths Debunked: Part 1". Autoevlution. Archived from the original on January 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
- Elizabeth Stawiki (June 6, 2007). "Loud pipes save lives or risk rights?". MPR News. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
[T]the pipes direct the sound backwards.. . . Seventy-seven percent of all motorcycle accident hazards come from the 11 to 1:00 direction, from in front of the motorcycle rider. And people that are 500 feet in front of you that may turn in front of you that will violate your right of way; they can't hear [the motorcycle noise] because it's pointed the other way
- Derek Mead (March 31, 2011). "The Most Advanced Electric Superbike Sounds Like a Spaceship and Hauls Ass". Motherboard. Archived from the original on February 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
- Wes Siler (August 2, 2013). "First Ride: 2014 Mission RS A game-changing electric tour de force". Road and Track. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
[I]t sounds like a TIE Fighter on an attack run.
- JP Darwin (2 June 2014). "The Electric Scooter Market". CleanRider.com.
- Dexter Ford (13 June 2014). "Electricity Reporting for Duty". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- Dexter Ford (October 11, 2012). "Electric Motorcycles in Search of a Market". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-01-22.
Electric motorcycle makers like to talk about a rider’s daily commuting distance and show how their bike’s limited range is just right. The problem is that most real motorcyclists don’t commute on their bikes. They commute in air-conditioned cars that keep their hair in place, their smartphones in hand and their clothes insect-free
- "Annual Sales of Electric Motorcycles and Scooters in North America Will Multiply Nearly Ten-Fold by 2018, Forecasts Navigant Research". Yahoo Finance. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Grid Problems Curb India's Electric-Vehicle Appetite". The New York Times. 4 January 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Govt plans subsidy to boost electric, hybrid vehicle sales". Live Mint. 4 January 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "More Suds In Electric Motorcycle Racing Soap Opera". Wired.com. 29 January 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Electric Motorcycle Racing Just Got Viable Thanks to FIM Partnership". Wired.com. 5 March 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Electric Motorcycle Racing Hits the Big Time". Wired.com. 23 November 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Signs of Peace In E-Motorcycle Racing Squabble". Wired.com. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Motocross set to become electric competition". Association des Constructeurs Européens de Motocycles. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Brammo to challenge other electrics, gassers in MiniMoto SX Energy Crisiscross 2011". Autoblog. 3 May 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Official eMotoRacing series announcement, first race in February 2014". Retrieved 2016-06-26.
- "College of Engineering student team to debut new electric motorcycle at New Jersey race | www.eng.vt.edu". www.eng.vt.edu. Archived from the original on 2016-07-19. Retrieved 2016-06-26.
- Motorcycle.com. "eMotoRacing eSuperSport Class Permanent Addition To AHRMA - Motorcycle.com News". Retrieved 2016-06-26.
- "FIM Enel MotoE™ World Cup: a new class of competition". motogp.com. Retrieved 2018-02-07.
- "MotoGP reveals electric bike for 2019 MotoE World Cup". autosport.com. Retrieved 2018-02-07.