Elections in Alabama are authorized under the Alabama State Constitution, which establishes elections for the state level officers, cabinet, and legislature, and the election of county-level officers, including members of school boards.
The office of the Alabama Secretary of State has an Elections Division that oversees the execution of elections under state law?
With the disenfranchisement of blacks at the turn of the 20th century after the Reconstruction era, Alabama Democrats suppressed populist challenges and the state became part of the "Solid South." This constitution was not initially supported by the majority of whites, but Democrats used the call of white supremacy to gain passage. In addition to wanting to affirm white supremacy, the planter and business elite were concerned about voting by lower-class and uneducated whites. Historian J. Morgan Kousser found, "They disfranchised these whites as willingly as they deprived blacks of the vote." After passage, the 1901 constitution's provisions for a grandfather clause, cumulative poll taxes, literacy tests, and increased residency requirements state, county and precinct effectively disenfranchised many poor whites as well, to enable elite control. Glenn Feldman has documented that in total, by 1941 more whites than blacks had been disenfranchised in Alabama under this constitution. The Democratic Party dominated politics in every Southern state. For nearly 100 years, local and state elections in Alabama were decided in the Democratic Party primary, with generally only token Republican challengers running in the General Election. Republicans ran a token candidate in every Alabama gubernatorial election except for 1930 and 1962. Their highest vote total between disenfranchisement and 1966 was the 21.28% of the vote they gained in 1922. Alabama was unusual among Deep South states in even having a token Republican running in the gubernatorial election. In nearby states like Georgia, South Carolina, Louisiana and Mississippi, Republicans did not field a gubernatorial candidate until the 1960s.
Demographic changes and developments in the 1986 Democratic primary election led to the election of the first Republican governor by majority-white voters in more than a century. This was the beginning of what is now Republican political dominance in the state. One million voters cast ballots in the 1986 Democratic primary. The then-incumbent lieutenant governor, Bill Baxley, lost the Democratic nomination for governor by approximately 8,000 votes to then fellow Democratic Attorney General Charles Graddick.
The state Democratic party's five-member election contest committee invalidated the primary election result, claiming that thousands of Republicans had "illegally" voted in the Democratic primary for Graddick. As a result, they removed Graddick from the ballot. The Democratic Party placed Baxley's name on the ballot as the Democratic candidate instead of Graddick. The voters of the state revolted at what they perceived as disenfranchisement of their right to vote and elected the Republican challenger, Guy Hunt, as governor. Hunt was nominated in a statewide Republican primary that had 28,000 participants, compared to >1,000,000 in the Democratic primary. That November, Hunt became the first Republican governor elected in Alabama since Reconstruction, winning 57 percent of the vote statewide against Baxley.
Since 1986, Republicans have won six of the seven gubernatorial elections and become increasingly competitive in Alabama politics at many levels. They currently control two seats of Alabama's U.S. Senate delegation and six out of seven of the state's U.S. Representative delegation. And all 9 seats on the Supreme Court of Alabama are held by Republicans.
Two Republican lieutenant governors have been elected since Reconstruction, Steve Windom and Kay Ivey, the current governor. Windom served as lieutenant governor under Democratic Gov. Don Siegelman. Before 2011, the last time that Alabama had a governor and lieutenant governor of the same party was the period between 1983 and 1987 when George Wallace was serving his fourth term as governor and Bill Baxley was serving as lieutenant governor; both were Democrats.
As of 2012Edit
Republicans held all nine seats on the Alabama Supreme Court and all ten seats on the state appellate courts. Until 1994, no Republicans held any of the state court seats. In the 1994 general election, the then-incumbent Chief Justice of Alabama, Ernest C. Hornsby, refused to leave office after losing the election by precisely 262 votes to Republican Perry O. Hooper Sr.. Hornsby sued Alabama and defiantly remained in office for nearly a year before finally giving up the seat after losing a long court battle that included a decision by the very Supreme Court of which he himself was the Chief Justice. This ultimately led to a collapse of support for Democrats at the ballot box in the next three or four election cycles. The Democrats lost the last of the nineteen court seats in August 2011 with the resignation of the last Democrat on the bench.
Republicans hold all seven of the statewide elected executive branch offices. Republicans hold six of the eight elected seats on the Alabama State Board of Education. In 2010, Republicans took large majorities of both chambers of the state legislature, giving them control of that body for the first time in 136 years. Democrats lost their last remaining statewide office in November 2012 with the re-election defeat of the president of the Alabama Public Service Commission, thus giving Republicans all three of its seats.
In the late 20th century, Alabama maintained its extensive system of at-large voting for most county and municipal offices, including County Commissioners, Boards of Education, Tax Assessors, Tax Collectors, etc. As a result, in majority-white jurisdictions, black minorities, even when significant in proportion and then able to register and vote, were generally unable to elect any candidates of their choice in such elections. These practices were challenged by plaintiffs under Dillard v. Crenshaw County (1986). The federal district judge found that the state's broad use of at-large elections had a racially discriminatory purpose and violated Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The state's use of a "place system", which precluded single-shot voting, was found specifically to have been adopted to "impede the ability of African-American voters to elect" candidates of their choice.
Following the court ruling on the state's use of this system, the plaintiffs expanded their dilution claims in Dillard in an omnibus application to "include the at-large election systems to include other county commissions, county school boards, and municipal councils across the state." The amended complaint covered nearly "200 units of local government", challenging at-large systems in local jurisdictions in which blacks were at least 10 percent of the population. Most of the affected jurisdictions settled these cases by adopting single-member district systems (SMDs), which has resulted in the election of more blacks to local offices, generally in proportion to their part of the jurisdiction's population; this has resulted in more Democrats being elected to office. Limited voting schemes were adopted by 21 municipalities in negotiation with the plaintiffs, and another six jurisdictions adopted cumulative voting arrangements. As a result, total representation by black candidates has increased in local elections for municipal and county government, as well as county school boards. Elections have been held since 1988 under these alternative systems.
As of the early 21st century, local elections in most rural counties, many of which are black dominated, are generally decided in the Democratic primary, and local elections in metropolitan and suburban counties, which are generally white majority, are decided in the Republican primary, although there are exceptions.
Alabama's 67 County Sheriffs are elected in partisan elections, and Democrats until 2016 retained the majority of those posts. The current split as of April 2017 is 32 Democrats, 34 Republicans, and 1 Independent (Fayette). Most Democrat sheriffs have been elected in rural counties. The majority of Republican sheriffs have been elected in more urban/suburban and heavily populated counties, which tend to be majority white. Just two of 19 Alabama counties with a population of over 75,000 (Limestone and Montgomery) have a Democratic sheriff; and seventeen of 48 Alabama counties with a population of under 75,000 have Republican sheriffs (Autauga, Bibb, Blount, Cherokee, Chilton, Clarke, Cleburne, Crenshaw, Coffee, Coosa, Covington, Dale, Geneva, Jackson, Tallapoosa, Walker, and Winston). The state has one female sheriff (Morgan) and ten black sheriffs (Bullock, Greene, Hale, Lowndes, Macon, Marengo, Montgomery, Perry, Sumter, and Wilcox).
In addition, Alabama, considered a "ruby-red" state (frequently supporting the GOP), elected Doug Jones, the Democratic candidate, as opposed to Roy Moore for the US Senator seat on 12 December 2017.
|2020||62.03% 1,441,170||36.57% 849,624||Donald Trump|
|2016||62.08% 1,318,255||34.36% 729,547||Donald Trump|
|2012||60.55% 1,255,925||38.36% 795,696||Mitt Romney|
|2008||60.32% 1,266,546||38.80% 813,479||John McCain|
|2004||62.46% 1,176,394||36.84% 693,933||George W. Bush|
|2000||56.47% 944,409||41.59% 695,602||George W. Bush|
|1996||50.12% 769,044||43.16% 662,165||Bob Dole|
|1992||47.65% 804,283||40.88% 690,080||George H. W. Bush|
|1988||59.17% 815,576||39.86% 549,506||George H. W. Bush|
|1984||60.54% 872,849||38.28% 551,899||Ronald Reagan|
|1980||48.75% 654,192||47.45% 636,730||Ronald Reagan|
|1976||42.61% 504,070||55.73% 659,170||Jimmy Carter|
|1972||72.43% 728,701||25.54% 256,923||Richard Nixon|
|1968*||13.99% 146,923||18.72% 196,579||George Wallace (I)|
|1964||69.45% 479,085||30.55% 210,732||Barry Goldwater|
|1960||42.16% 237,981||56.39% 318,303||John F. Kennedy|
|*State won by George Wallace|
of the American Independent Party,
at 65.86%, or 691,425 votes
From 1876 through 1956, Alabama supported only Democratic presidential candidates, by large margins. There were only two exceptions; the 1928 elections in which the Democrats won by a much smaller margin than normal due to Anti-Catholic prejudices against the Democratic candidate Al Smith, and the 1948 election when Alabama, along with Mississippi, Louisiana, and South Carolina, voted for Strom Thurmond of the pro-segregation States Rights Democratic Party. In 1960, the Democrats won with John F. Kennedy on the ballot. However, six of the state's 11 Democratic electors were members of the unpledged elector movement, and gave their electoral votes as a protest to Harry Byrd.
In 1964, the state swung over dramatically to support Republican Barry Goldwater, who carried the state with an unheard-of 69 percent of the vote, carrying all but five counties. He was the first Republican to carry the state since 1872. Like much of the Deep South, Alabama's voters turned violently on President Lyndon Johnson in the wake of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
In the 1968 presidential election, Alabama supported native son and American Independent Party candidate George Wallace over both Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey. Wallace was the official Democratic candidate in Alabama, while Humphrey was the National Democratic nominee. In 1976, Democratic candidate Jimmy Carter from Georgia carried the state, the region, and the nation, but Democratic control of the region slipped after that.
Alabama does not register voters by party, but in recent statewide elections, Republican turnout in statewide primaries has consistently exceeded that for the Democrats. Alabama is now considered as a Republican stronghold at both the federal and state level, although Democrats still retain a slim majority in many local offices (sheriffs, county commissioners, etc.). The state has voted Republican in every presidential election since 1980, and Democrats have not seriously contested the state since. Republicans have also done increasingly well in Senate and House elections; they have held a majority of the state's congressional delegation and both Senate seats since 1997. In 2012, Democrats lost the only remaining statewide office the party still held giving Republicans control of all 10 state constitutional offices. The GOP also has won all 19 statewide court seats. In 2010, Republicans won large majorities in both chambers of the Alabama Legislature ending 136 years of Democratic rule; see Dixiecrat.
In 2004, George W. Bush won Alabama's nine electoral votes by a margin of 25 percentage points with 62.5% of the vote, mostly white voters. The 11 counties that voted Democratic were Black Belt counties, where African Americans are the majority racial group.
The state's two U.S. senators are Republican Richard C. Shelby and Democrat Doug Jones. Richard Shelby was first elected in 1986 as a Democrat and switched parties after a Republican wave the 1994 midterm elections. Doug Jones was elected in a special election in 2017 to replace U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions, defeating former Alabama Supreme Court Chief Justice Roy Moore.
In the U.S. House of Representatives, the state is represented by seven members, six Republicans (Bradley Byrne, Mike D. Rogers, Robert Aderholt, Morris J. Brooks, Martha Roby, and Gary Palmer) and one Democrat (Terri Sewell).
Summary of electionsEdit
The following table displays, by color, the parties of elected officials in the U.S. state of Alabama from 1817 to the current year. As such, it may indicate the political party strength at any given time. The officers listed include:
- Lieutenant governor
- Secretary of State
- Attorney general
- Comptroller of Public Accounts/State Auditor[a]
- State treasurer
- Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries
The table also indicates the historical party composition in the:
- State Senate
- State House of Representatives
- State delegation to the U.S. Senate
- State delegation to the U.S. House of Representatives
For years in which a presidential election was held, the table indicates which party's nominees received the state's electoral votes.
- With the adoption of the state Constitution of 1819, the auditor became the comptroller of public accounts elected annually by a joint vote of both houses of the General Assembly. The Constitution of 1868 changed the title of the office to auditor and established a process by which the officeholder would be chosen by the electors of the state every four years.
- Governor of Alabama Territory appointed by President James Monroe.
- Treasurer of Alabama Territory.
- Delegate from Alabama Territory.
- Secretary of Alabama Territory.
- Died in office.
- As president of the state senate, filled unexpired term.
- Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
- Resigned following appointment to the Circuit Court bench.
- Appointed to fill a vacancy.
- Democrat who opposed party leaders and ran as an independent.
- Arrested by Union forces soon after the American Civil War ended in May 1865; was released a few weeks later.
- Initially appointed to fill vacancy, later elected in his own right.
- Provisional governor appointed by the Union occupation; between Watts's arrest and Parsons' appointment, Alabama had no governor, instead being under direct rule of General George Henry Thomas.
- The United States Congress stripped Patton of most of his authority in March 1867, after which time the state was effectively under the control of Major General Wager Swayne.
- Military governor appointed during Reconstruction; though Patton was still officially governor, he was mostly a figurehead. The term start date given is the date of the first of the Reconstruction Acts, which placed Alabama into the Third Military District; all references only say "March 1867."
- Robert Lindsay was sworn into office on November 26, 1870, but William H. Smith refused to leave his seat for two weeks, claiming Lindsay was fraudulently elected, finally leaving office on December 8, 1870, when a court so ordered.
- Initial returns showed a 19-14 Democratic majority, but was overturned in a series of contests through March 1873.
- Initial returns showed a 54-46 Democratic majority, but was overturned in a series of contests through March 1873.
- Position of lieutenant governor was eliminated in 1875, effective at the end of the then-present term in November 1876, and was reestablished upon the adoption of the Alabama Constitution in 1901.
- Position of lieutenant governor was eliminated in 1875, effective at the end of the then-present term in November 1876, and was reestablished upon the adoption of the Alabama Constitution in 1901.
- Acting governor for 26 days. Jelks was president of the state Senate when William J. Samford was out of state at the start of his term seeking medical treatment.
- As president of the state Senate, filled unexpired term and was subsequently elected in his or her own right.
- Gubernatorial terms were increased from two to four years during Jelks' governorship; his first term was filling out Samford's two-year term, and he was subsequently elected in 1902 for a four-year term.
- Acting governor from April 25, 1904 until March 5, 1905 while Jelks was out of state for medical treatment.
- Acting governor for two days—July 10 and 11, 1924—while Brandon was out of state for 21 days as a delegate to the 1924 Democratic National Convention.
- Wallace left the state for 20 days for medical treatment; as lieutenant governor, Brewer became acting governor on July 25, 1967. Wallace returned to the state later that day.
- As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term.
- Acting governor for 32 days, from June 5 until July 7, 1972. Beasley was lieutenant governor when Wallace spent 52 days in Maryland for medical treatment following an assassination attempt while campaigning for president of the United States.
- Removed from office upon being convicted of illegally using campaign and inaugural funds to pay personal debts; he was later pardoned by the state parole board based on innocence.
- Sens. John Amari, Frank "Butch" Ellis, and John Rice switched parties from Democratic to Republican.
- Resigned to accept U.S. Senate seat.
- Switched parties from Democratic to Republican in December 1994.
- Reps. H. Mac Gipson and Ronald "Ron" Johnson switch parties from Democratic to Republican.
- Resigned to become United States Attorney General.
- Sens. Chip Bailey and Steve Windom switched parties from Democratic to Republican before the 1998 session.
- Reps. Gerald Allen, Steve Flowers, and Tim Parker Jr. switch parties from Democrat to Republican.
- Bennett ran as a Democrat in 1994 and as a Republican in 1998. He might have switched parties between those elections.
- Sen. Jeff Enfinger switched parties from Republican to Democratic.
- A Republican won a special election, flipping a seat from the Democrats.
- Rep. Blaine Galliher switched parties from Democratic to Republican.
- Rep. Johnny Ford switched parties from Democratic to Republican right after the election, becoming the first black Republican legislator in Alabama in over a century. He resigned in 2004 and was succeeded by Democrat Pebblin Warren before the 2005 session. At the same time, Republican Nick Williams succeed longtime Democratic Rep. Jeff Dolbare in a special election, leaving the overall House partisan composition unchanged.
- Democratic Rep. Jack Venable died, and was succeeded by Republican Barry Mask, flipping the seat from Democratic to Republican.
- Sen. Jimmy Holley switched parties from Democratic to Republican.
- Paul Sanford succeeded Parker Griffith after he resigned to take a Congressional seat, flipping a seat from Democratic to Republican. Sen. Harri Anne Smith was thrown out by the Republicans and became an Independent at around the same time after crossing party lines to endorse Democrat Bobby Bright in his successful run for Congress.
- Sen. Jim Preuitt switched parties from Democratic to Republican in the lead-up to the general election.
- Democratic Reps. Sue Schmitz and Lea Fite resigned and died, and were succeeded in special elections by Republicans Phil Williams and K. L. Brown, respectively, before the 2010 session.
- Rep. Parker Griffith switched parties from Democratic to Republican.
- Resigned per the terms of a plea deal after being convicted of using state resources to facilitate and conceal an extramarital affair with a former staffer.
- Four representatives, Alan Boothe, Steve Hurst, Mike Millican, and Lesley Vance, switched parties from Democratic to Republican right after the election. Between the 2011 and 2012 sessions Rep. Daniel Boman switched parties from Republican to Democratic, and Rep. Alan Harper switched parties from Democratic to Republican, leaving the partisan composition of the House overall the same.
- Sen. Jerry Fielding switched parties from Democratic to Republican.
- Rep. Richard Laird switched parties from Democratic to Independent, and caucused with the Republicans.
- Rep. Charles Newton switched parties from Democratic to Republican.
- Winner of the special election to fill the remainder of Jeff Sessions's term
- Joseph H. Taylor, "Populism and Disfranchisement in Alabama", The Journal of Negro History Vol. 34, No. 4 (Oct., 1949), pp. 410-427(subscription required)
- J. Morgan Kousser.The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One-Party South, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974
- Glenn Feldman, The Disfranchisement Myth: Poor Whites and Suffrage Restriction in Alabama, Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004, pp. 135–136
- Stovall, Cotter, & Fisher, Alabama Political Almanac, p. 260, 1995
- "Sue Bell Cobb considering running for governor". The Birmingham News. al.com. 2009-05-02. Retrieved 2009-08-07.
- "Commissioners". Psc.state.al.us. Archived from the original on 2009-07-18. Retrieved 2009-08-07.
- Special (2008-11-05). "Lucy Baxley wins Alabama Public Service Commission presidency, but recount possible". Birmingham News via al.com. Archived from the original on 2009-08-02. Retrieved 2009-08-07.
- Jeff Amy, Press-Register. "Public Service Commission: Twinkle Cavanaugh, Terry Dunn join GOP sweep". al.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
- Georgia Anne Persons, editor, Race and Representation, Transaction Publishers, 1997, p. 185
- "2006 Gubernatorial Democratic Primary Election Results - Alabama". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2009-08-07.
- "2006 Gubernatorial Republican Primary Election Results - Alabama". Uselectionatlas.org. 2007-02-15. Retrieved 2009-08-07.
- "Alabama Sheriffs Association". Retrieved 2017-04-02.
- "1968 Presidential General Election Results – Alabama". Uselectionatlas.org. 1968-11-05. Retrieved 2009-08-07.
- "Birmingham state senator switches to Republicans". The Gadsden Times. 1989-02-08. Retrieved 2017-04-20.
- Stevenson, Tommy (2002-01-06). "After 12 years, Parker won't seek 4th term". The Tuscaloosa News. Retrieved 2017-04-20.
- Strope, Leigh (2000-05-14). "Democrats warm to idea of Republicans jumping ship". Tuscaloosa News. Retrieved 2017-04-20.
- Beyerle, Dana (2001-09-07). "Galliher makes party switch official". The Gadsden Times. Retrieved 2017-04-20.
- [dead link]
- Beyerle, Dana (2005-02-15). "New Republican PAC files finance report after deadline". The Tuscaloosa News. Retrieved 2017-04-20.
- Yoshinaka, Antoine (2016). Crossing the Aisle: Party Switching by U.S. Legislators in the Postwar Era. p. 88. ISBN 9781107115897. Retrieved 2017-04-20.
- "Mask's win a sign of things to come". Shelby County Reporter. 2006-03-07. Retrieved 2017-04-20.
- Cook, Jim (2008-01-11). "Jimmy Holley switches to Republican party". Dothan Eagle. Retrieved 2017-04-20.
- Lyman, Brian (2014-02-07). "Charles Newton, longtime Democratic representative, switches to GOP". Montgomery Advertiser. Retrieved 2017-04-20.