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Dominick Edward Blake, PC QC (October 13, 1833 – March 1, 1912), known as Edward Blake, was the second Premier of Ontario, Canada, from 1871 to 1872 and leader of the Liberal Party of Canada from 1880 to 1887.[2] He is one of only three federal permanent Liberal leaders never to become Prime Minister of Canada, the others being Stéphane Dion and the latter's immediate successor Michael Ignatieff. He may be said to have served in the national politics of what developed as the affairs of three nationalities: Canadian, British, and Irish. Blake was also the founder, in 1856, of the Canadian law firm now known as Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP.


Edward Blake
DENT(1881) 2.507 EDWARD BLAKE.jpg
Blake in 1881
2nd Premier of Ontario
In office
December 20, 1871 – October 25, 1872
MonarchVictoria
Lieutenant GovernorWilliam Pearce Howland
Preceded byJohn Sandfield Macdonald
Succeeded byOliver Mowat
Leader of the Opposition
In office
May 4, 1880 – June 2, 1887
MonarchVictoria
Prime MinisterSir John A. Macdonald
Preceded byAlexander Mackenzie
Succeeded byWilfrid Laurier
Member of Parliament (United Kingdom)
for South Longford
In office
July 1892 – 1907
Preceded byJames Gubbins Fitzgerald
Succeeded byJohn Phillips
Personal details
Born
Dominick Edward Blake

(1833-10-13)October 13, 1833
Adelaide Township, Upper Canada
DiedMarch 1, 1912(1912-03-01) (aged 78)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Resting placeSaint James Cemetery, Toronto
Political party
Other political
affiliations
Irish Parliamentary Party
(Anti-Parnellite)[1]
Spouse(s)Margaret Cronyn
Relations
Signature

Contents

Early yearsEdit

Blake was born in 1833, in Adelaide Township, Middlesex County, Upper Canada, the son of William Hume Blake and Catherine Honoria Hume, and was educated at Upper Canada College.[3]

In 1856, after Blake was called to the bar, he entered into partnership with Stephen M. Jarvis in Toronto to practice law. When his brother Samuel Hume Blake joined soon thereafter, it was Blake & Blake and today the firm is known as Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP.[4]

As a consequence of the ruling of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in Long v The Bishop of Cape Town,[5] Blake offered a legal opinion to Benjamin Cronyn (then Bishop of the Anglican Diocese of Huron) on the legality of the convening of a Provincial Synod of the various Dioceses of the Ecclesiastical Province of Canada by Francis Fulford (then Bishop of Montreal and Metropolitan of Canada). He determined that the concurrence of all of the Dioceses of the Ecclesiastical Province would be required prior to the creation of the Provincial Synod, and therefore no such Synod could legally be convened until the entity first existed. This opinion was read into the Minutes of the seventh session of the Synod of the Diocese of Huron which convened in June 1864.[6]

Political careerEdit

 
Blake in the 1870s
 
Blake in 1894, as British MP

CanadaEdit

Blake was recruited into active politics by George Brown, became leader of the Ontario Liberal Party in 1868 and premier in 1871, but left provincial politics to run in the 1872 federal election, in which he was re-elected. The "dual mandate" rule that allowed a politician to sit simultaneously in a provincial and federal house had been abolished, and Blake chose to abandon his career in provincial politics. He played a major role in exposing the government of Sir John A. Macdonald's complicity in the Pacific Scandal forcing the government's resignation. Blake was offered the prime ministership, but turned it down due to ill health.

When the Liberals won the subsequent 1874 federal election, Blake joined the cabinet of Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie and served as Minister of Justice and President of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada.

From 1876 to 1900, he was the chancellor of the University of Toronto.

The Liberals were defeated in the 1878 election, and Blake succeeded Mackenzie as party leader in 1880. He failed to defeat Macdonald's Conservatives in the 1882 or 1887 elections. Blake resigned as Liberal leader in 1887, recruiting Wilfrid Laurier as his successor, and left the House of Commons of Canada in 1891.

IrelandEdit

In the 1892 election, Blake entered the British House of Commons as an Irish Nationalist Member of Parliament (MP) for the constituency of South Longford in the midlands of Ireland. In 1895, he was appointed to the Royal Commission on the Financial Relations between Great Britain and Ireland, which reported in 1896.[7] He continued to serve as MP until 1907 when he resigned following a stroke and retired to Canada.

Contributions to Canadian federalismEdit

He is perhaps best remembered for the arguments he made to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in favour of the Provinces in interpreting the British North America Act. In 1888 he argued the case of St. Catherines Milling v. The Queen, where the federal government was claiming the right to issue timber licenses. This speech was quoted in its entirety in the 1960 report of the Quebec Royal Commission of Inquiry on Constitutional Problems, which influenced many Quebecers including René Lévesque:

He won the case and the Privy Council consistently afterwards took the side of the provinces.

FamilyEdit

 
Mrs Margaret Blake wife of Edward Blake

Edward Blake married Margaret Cronyn, the daughter of Benjamin Cronyn and Margaret Ann (Bickerstaff), in 1856. She was born in 1835 and was educated at London, Ontario and in Toronto. Mrs. Blake practiced benevolent and other useful work. She was a member of the Toronto Ladies' Educational Association and served as the Honorary President of the Canadian Branch of the McAll Association in Toronto. She also frequently accompanied her husband on his political tours. The couple had seven children, four of whom survived them.[9] Their daughter Sophia Hume Blake married George M. Wrong and was the mother of Hume Wrong.

The personal and family papers of Edward Blake [10] can be found at the Archives of Ontario, and the majority of these records were received on indefinite loan from the University of Toronto Library in June 1952.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Reception to Edward Blake, M.P." (PDF). The New York Times. February 9, 1894. Retrieved 2009-02-08.
  2. ^ "Blake, Edward, 1833–1912". Archives of Ontario. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  3. ^   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Blake, Edward" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 35.
  4. ^ "Annual Review 2005/06: Making History" (PDF). Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-28.
  5. ^ The Rev William Long v The Right Rev Robert Gray, Lord Bishop of Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope (1863) 1 Moo NS 411, 15 ER 756 (13 February 1863), PC (UK)
  6. ^ "Seventh Session (1864)". Proceedings [afterw.] Journal of the synod (of the Church of England). First (-fortieth, forty-second - forty-fourth, sixty-seventh, seventy-first, seventy-third - seventy-sixth, eightieth) session. Diocese of Huron. 1868. p. 93.
  7. ^ Final Report of Her Majesty's Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Financial Relations between Great Britain and Ireland. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1896.
  8. ^ Edward Blake (1888). The St. Catharine's Milling and Lumber Company v. the Queen: Argument of Mr. Blake, of counsel for Ontario. Toronto: Press of the Budget. p. 6.
  9. ^ Morgan, Henry James, ed. (1903). Types of Canadian Women and of Women who are or have been Connected with Canada. Toronto: Williams Briggs. p. 29.
  10. ^ Edward Blake family fonds, Fonds: F 2. Archives of Ontario.

External linksEdit

Party political offices
Preceded by
Archibald McKellar
Leader of the Ontario Liberal Party
1868–1872
Succeeded by
Oliver Mowat
Preceded by
Alexander Mackenzie
Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada
1880–1887
Succeeded by
Wilfrid Laurier
Political offices
Preceded by
none
Leader of the Opposition in the
Ontario Legislature

1869–1871
Succeeded by
Matthew Crooks Cameron
Preceded by
John Sandfield Macdonald
Premier of Ontario
1871–1872
Succeeded by
Oliver Mowat
Preceded by
Télesphore Fournier
Minister of Justice
1875–1877
Succeeded by
T. A. R. Laflamme
Preceded by
Joseph Édouard Cauchon
President of the Privy Council
1877–1878
Succeeded by
John O'Connor
Preceded by
Alexander Mackenzie
Leader of the Opposition
1880–1887
Succeeded by
Wilfrid Laurier
Parliament of Canada
Preceded by
none
MP for Durham West, ON
1867–1872
Succeeded by
Edmund Burke Wood
Preceded by
none
MPP For Durham West
1867–1872
Succeeded by
John McLeod
Preceded by
none
MPP For Bruce South
1867–1872
Succeeded by
Rupert Wells
Preceded by
Francis Hurdon
MP for Bruce South, ON
1872–1878
Succeeded by
Alexander Shaw
Preceded by
Harvey William Burk
MP for Durham West, ON
1879–1891
Succeeded by
Robert Beith
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
James Gubbins Fitzgerald
Member of Parliament for South Longford
18921906
Succeeded by
John Phillips
Academic offices
Preceded by
Joseph Curran Morrison
Chancellor of the University of Toronto
1876–1900
Succeeded by
William Ralph Meredith