Earnie Shavers

Earnie Dee Shaver (born August 31, 1944), best known as Earnie Shavers, is an American former professional boxer who competed between 1969 and 1995. A two-time world heavyweight championship challenger, Shavers is known for being one of the hardest punchers in boxing history. He scored 68 knockout wins, including 23 in the first round. He holds a 76.4% overall knockout ratio.

Earnie Shavers
Earnie Shavers by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Shavers in 2017
Statistics
Real nameEarnie Dee Shaver
Nickname(s)
  • The Black Destroyer
  • The Acorn
  • Puncher of the Century
Weight(s)Heavyweight
Height6 ft 0 in (183 cm)
Reach79 in (201 cm)
NationalityAmerican
Born (1944-08-31) August 31, 1944 (age 77)
Garland, Alabama, U.S.
StanceOrthodox
Boxing record
Total fights89
Wins74
Wins by KO68
Losses14
Draws1

Shavers challenged unsuccessfully twice for the heavyweight championship, losing to Muhammad Ali in 1977 and to Larry Holmes in 1979. He hurt Ali in the second round and scored a seventh-round knockdown against Holmes. Shavers defeated former world champions Vicente Rondón, Jimmy Ellis, and Ken Norton, as well as three-time European heavyweight champion Joe Bugner and top heavyweight contender Jimmy Young.

In 2001, Shavers released an autobiography called Welcome to the Big Time. Since retiring from boxing he has attended boxing events as a special guest, autograph signer, and motivational speaker.

Amateur careerEdit

Shavers started boxing at the late age of 22. Before turning professional, he had a short but notable amateur career, winning the 1969 National AAU heavyweight title.[1]

In March 1969, National Golden Gloves director Tony Mange said Shavers "carries a hefty punch".[2] He had nine straight knockout wins before he was himself knocked out by the 230-pound (104 kg) West German Horst Koschemann.[3]

HighlightsEdit

Shavers posted a 20–6 amateur record as a heavyweight and recorded 14 knockouts (with half losses also by knockout.)[4]

Professional careerEdit

Early boutsEdit

Known as the "Black Destroyer", Shavers won 44 of his first 47 fights by knockout; mostly against unremarkable opposition. This included 27 consecutive knockouts, of which 20 were in the first round. He suffered setbacks with losses to Ron Stander and Stan Johnson.

He began to rise to the upper ranks of the heavyweight division after he hired Cleveland-based promoter Don King to be his manager. His wins included a novice Jimmy Young who later became a world championship contender. Stepping up the class of opposition, he came to public prominence with a first-round KO of one time WBA heavyweight champion Jimmy Ellis. His progress was halted when he was KO'd in the first round by Jerry Quarry, which was followed by another loss to a journeyman Bob Stallings. Shavers then had a thunderous match with hard hitting Ron Lyle but was stopped after 6 brutal rounds. He then knocked out hard hitter Howard King and beat powerful prospect Roy Williams in a brutal back and forward battle in which Shavers was nearly knocked out, a match Shavers maintains was one of the toughest of his career.

Fighting championsEdit

Shavers vs AliEdit

Shavers fought Muhammad Ali at Madison Square Garden on September 29, 1977.[5] Coming into the bout, Shavers had a record of 54–5–1, with 52 knockouts. Ali nicknamed Shavers "The Acorn" because of his shaved bald head. The fight was shown in prime time broadcast television by NBC, which rarely did prime time fights (ABC tended to get the Ali fights) and had the judges' scoring announced after each round to help avoid any controversial decision. Ali's cornerman Angelo Dundee asked Baltimore matchmaker Eddie Hrica to watch the broadcast in the dressing room and signal on the scoring. In the second round, Shavers hurt Ali with an overhand right. Ali play-acted that he was seriously hurt, and Shavers hesitated. On the scorecard they exchanged rounds. Ali won the fifth decisively. To win the fight Ali had to survive the last three rounds. Shavers, whose stamina was suspect before the fight, came alive in the 13th round. In the 14th, he battered Ali about the ring. Before the 15th, according to Sports Illustrated boxing writer Pat Putnam, "Ali was on very wobbly legs."

Realizing Ali needed to last three more minutes, Dundee told him, "You don't look so good. You better go out and take this round." In a furious final round, the two men tagged each other, but Ali closed strongly, nearly dropping Shavers in the last 20 seconds. He won a unanimous decision. The next day, Garden matchmaker Teddy Brenner encouraged Ali to retire by stating the Garden would never make another offer to host an Ali fight. Brenner also thought that Shavers deserved the nod against Ali. The fight made the cover of Sports Illustrated, with "ALI'S DESPERATE HOUR" featuring a photograph of Shavers scoring with an overhand right.[6] Ali's fight doctor Ferdie Pacheco also urged Ali to retire after noting the punishment Ali had absorbed against Shavers. Ali later said Shavers was the hardest puncher he ever faced, stating "Earnie hit me so hard, it shook my kinfolk back in Africa" - a quip Ali had previously used to describe other hard-hitting opponents.[7]

Shavers vs NortonEdit

In a mandatory title challenge eliminator he knocked out former champion Ken Norton in the first round, possibly the best win of his career.

Shavers vs HolmesEdit

Shavers then fought for the title against world heavyweight champion Larry Holmes at Caesars Palace in Paradise, NV on September 29, 1979, exactly two years after his defeat by Ali. Shavers knocked Holmes down in round seven but after taking punches in the eleventh round without responding, the referee stopped the fight. Holmes, known for his ability to take a punch, later said that Shavers' blow was the hardest he had ever taken in his career.

Later careerEdit

The Holmes bout was the last big match for Shavers. In 1980, in a wild slugfest he was stopped in the eighth round by durable prospect Randall "Tex" Cobb. Prior to the Cobb fight, Shavers had undergone eye surgery for a detached retina. (Since eye surgery was not nearly as refined then as it is today, the majority of boxers retired for good after that kind of injury. In the words of Duane Ford, a detached retina for a boxer was like an AIDS diagnosis[8]). Shavers had not fully recovered from the surgery when he came back for the Cobb fight. He never again fought for the world title. In 1982 he fought Joe Bugner, also on the comeback trail. Bugner was knocked down in the first, and was stopped by cuts in the second round.

Shavers continued to fight professionally for several years, retiring in 1995 after losing to Brian Yates. Many thought he should have retired after his upset loss to lower contender Bernardo Mercado. Shavers had a similar retinal eye injury as boxer Sugar Ray Leonard.

ComebackEdit

Shavers attempted two abbreviated comebacks–—a fight in 1987, and two in 1995, in the second of which he was KO'd by Brian Yates in round 2. After this loss, Shavers retired for good.

Shavers has been named among the top-10 punchers in boxing history by The Ring and others.[9][10]

Shavers finished his career in 1995 with a record of 74 wins (68 by knockout, 23 inside the first round, with 46 in the first 3 rounds), 14 losses and 1 draw.

Fighting styleEdit

 
Shavers at Celebrity Fight Night in Phoenix, 2017

Shavers was an exceptionally heavy puncher who stalked his opponents, setting them up for his thunderous right, which was responsible for many of his knockouts, although Angelo Dundee in a Sports Illustrated mid-1970s article said "He can get you out of there with any kind of shot", referring to Shavers's ability to inflict damage with a left hook, right cross or right uppercut. Several boxers famous for their tough chins had fallen to Shavers's punches, including Bugner and Ellis who were felled by his uppercut.

Shavers would throw punches against any legal area he could reach, exposed or covered, relying on his tremendous power to wear down his opponents and exploiting any opening. His fighting stance produced a short and powerful image. His chin was his weakness. He could however "box" as well as slug. Notably, he injured his right hand early in a 10-round match against rated craftsman Henry Clark and responded with a strong jabbing performance to beat Clark, himself noted for his jabbing ability, on points.

Video and bookEdit

Shavers published a video of highlights of his career in 1992 titled Earnie D. Shavers, The hardest one-punch hitter, and later an autobiography.

Life after boxingEdit

 
Shavers in 2005

Shavers retired in 1983 after retinal problems were discovered. After retirement, he became an ordained Christian minister and moved to Phoenix, where he preached for many years. He moved to England to pastor a church there in the early 2000s. He has been on the Benny Hinn TV show several times.

During the early 1980s while preparing for the feature film Rocky III, Sylvester Stallone explored the possibility of using a real heavyweight boxer in the role of James "Clubber" Lang by inviting Earnie Shavers to spar with him. Shavers initially refused to hit Stallone with anything other than a soft jab. This frustrated Stallone, who asked Shavers, "C'mon Earnie, show me something real." Earnie responded by punching him once near the liver, forcing an immediate retirement; Stallone later said: "that nearly killed me. I went straight to the men's room and threw up".[11] However, according to Rhonda Young, the film's casting director, the reason why he was eventually not chosen for the part is that his voice was too high-pitched and not menacing enough (Joe Frazier was also considered but, reportedly, couldn't even read the character's lines without stuttering).[12]

Shavers visited Ali several times and he says he, Ali, and George Foreman became very good friends over the years. Foreman, when asked about toughest and hardest punching opponent he ever met in the ring, said:[13]

Foreman: You only meet three genuine punchers throughout your career: Gerry Cooney, Ronnie Lyle and Cleveland Williams, and they hit so hard that it vibrates your body even if you block, it just goes right through you.

Letterman: What about Ernie Shavers?

Foreman: I never fought Earnie Shavers. Thank goodness.

Shavers accepted the invitation of the Full Gospel Business Men's Fellowship International[14] to preach at the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester.

Earnie also worked in Liverpool in the UK, as head of security at Hannah's bar, where he was very much respected. The staff of Hannah's bar say that he does not work there now. Until 2009, he worked at Yates' Wine Lodge in Liverpool "meeting and greeting". On occasion Shavers was a troubleshooting referee in professional wrestling after his retirement.

He is also a Patron of The Shannon Bradshaw Trust,[15] a children's charity based in Warrington, Cheshire, helping children with life-threatening conditions, and their families.

Earnie speaks to pupils at Barr Beacon Language College in Walsall. Earnie also gave a speech 26 February 2008 at The Streetly School in Walsall, which was based upon helping kids make the right decisions in life.

Personal lifeEdit

Shavers was married to Laverne Payne. They had five daughters from their marriage together: Tamara, Cynthia, Catherine, Carla, and Amy. He also has four daughters and a son from other relationships: Catherine, Lisa, Natasha and Latonya, and a son, Earnie, Jr. He has 24 grandchildren and one great-grandchild. He worked at General Motors in Lordstown, Ohio in the late 1960s. Shavers made a guest appearance on the Irish TV programme The Late Late Show hosted by Ron Lyle where the two fighters discussed their previous bout that had happened a month earlier. Shavers was a frequent visitor to the pub "Roddy Bolands" in Dublin. There is a signed picture of Shavers drinking a pint of Guinness on the wall there.

Professional boxing recordEdit

Professional record summary
89 fights 74 wins 14 losses
By knockout 68 7
By decision 6 6
By disqualification 0 1
Draws 1
No. Result Record Opponent Type Round, time Date Location Notes
89 Loss 74–14–1   Brian Yates KO 2 (10), 2:49 Nov 24, 1995   Ho-Chunk Casino, Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin, U.S.
88 Win 74–13–1   Brian Morgan MD 8 Sep 19, 1995   Georgetowne Club, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
87 Win 73–13–1   Larry Sims KO 2 (10), 1:30 May 16, 1987   Technical College Gymnasium, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
86 Loss 72–13–1   George Chaplin DQ 9 (10), 2:41 Mar 1, 1983   Civic Center, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Shavers disqualified for low blows
85 Win 72–12–1   Rahim Muhammad PTS 10 Jan 29, 1983   El Paso, Texas, U.S.
84 Win 71–12–1   Tony Perea KO 7 (10) Nov 5, 1982   El Paso, Texas, U.S.
83 Win 70–12–1   Phil Clinard TKO 2 (8), 1:05 Oct 14, 1982   Duke's Country, Tulsa, Oklahoma, U.S.
82 Win 69–12–1   Chuck Gardner KO 2 (10), 2:07 Sep 5, 1982   Wales, Wisconsin, U.S.
81 Loss 68–12–1   Walter Santemore UD 10 Aug 17, 1982   Blackham Coliseum, Lafayette, Louisiana, U.S.
80 Win 68–11–1   Billy Joe Thomas KO 5 (10) Jun 22, 1982   Astroarena, Houston, Texas, U.S.
79 Loss 67–11–1   James Tillis UD 10 Jun 11, 1982   Caesars Palace, Paradise, Nevada, U.S.
78 Win 67–10–1   Danny Sutton TKO 7 (10) May 15, 1982   USS Yorktown (CV-10), Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.
77 Win 66–10–1   Joe Bugner TKO 2 (10), 2:14 May 8, 1982   Reunion Arena, Dallas, Texas, U.S.
76 Win 65–10–1   Ali Haakim PTS 10 Apr 22, 1982   Grand Traverse Hilton, Traverse City, Michigan, U.S.
75 Win 64–10–1   Jeff Sims KO 5 (10), 1:34 Dec 11, 1981   Queen Elizabeth Sports Centre, Nassau, Bahamas
74 Win 63–10–1   Mike Rodgers KO 2 (10), 1:38 Sep 9, 1981   Civic Center, Lansing, Michigan, U.S.
73 Win 62–10–1   Terry Mims KO 2 (10), 1:35 Jul 29, 1981   Civic Center, Saginaw, Michigan, U.S.
72 Win 61–10–1   Ted Wadkins TKO 2 (10), 1:30 Oct 17, 1980   Auditorium, West Palm Beach, Florida, U.S.
71 Loss 60–10–1   Randall Cobb TKO 8 (10), 2:19 Aug 2, 1980   Joe Louis Arena, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
70 Win 60–9–1   Leroy Boone UD 10 Jun 14, 1980   Riverfront Coliseum, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
69 Loss 59–9–1   Bernardo Mercado TKO 7 (10), 0:41 Mar 8, 1980   The Great Gorge Playboy Club Hotel, Vernon Township, New Jersey, U.S.
68 Loss 59–8–1   Larry Holmes TKO 11 (15), 2:00 Sep 28, 1979   Caesars Palace, Paradise, Nevada, U.S. For WBC heavyweight title
67 Win 59–7–1   Eddie Parotte TKO 3 (10) May 25, 1979   Coliseum, Richfield, Ohio, U.S.
66 Win 58–7–1   Ken Norton KO 1 (12), 1:58 Mar 23, 1979   Las Vegas Hilton, Winchester, Nevada, U.S.
65 Win 57–7–1   Harold Carter KO 3 (10) Dec 4, 1978   Civic Center, Saginaw, Michigan, U.S.
64 Win 56–7–1   John Girowski KO 4 (10), 1:48 Oct 9, 1978   Coliseum, Hampton, Virginia, U.S.
63 Win 55–7–1   Harry Terrell RTD 1 (10), 3:00 Jul 20, 1978   The Dome Civic Center, Virginia Beach, Virginia, U.S.
62 Loss 54–7–1   Larry Holmes UD 12 Mar 25, 1978   Caesars Palace, Paradise, Nevada, U.S.
61 Loss 54–6–1   Muhammad Ali UD 15 Sep 29, 1977   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S. For WBA, WBC, and The Ring heavyweight titles
60 Win 54–5–1   Howard Smith KO 2 (10), 2:18 Apr 16, 1977   The Aladdin, Paradise, Nevada, U.S.
59 Win 53–5–1   Roy Williams KO 10 (10), 2:46 Dec 11, 1976   The Aladdin, Paradise, Nevada, U.S.
58 Win 52–5–1   Henry Clark TKO 2 (10), 2:19 Sep 28, 1976   Yankee Stadium, New York City, New York, U.S.
57 Win 51–5–1   Henry Clark PTS 10 Mar 28, 1976   Pavillon de Paris, Paris, France
56 Win 50–5–1   Tommy Howard KO 3 (10), 2:00 Nov 13, 1975   Howard Johnson's, Monroeville, Pennsylvania, U.S.
55 Loss 49–5–1   Ron Lyle TKO 6 (12), 0:47 Sep 13, 1975   Coliseum, Denver, Colorado, U.S.
54 Win 49–4–1   Oliver Wright TKO 3 (10), 1:55 May 8, 1975   Steelworkers Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
53 Win 48–4–1   Rochell Norris TKO 10 (10), 0:31 Apr 9, 1975   Broome County Veterans Memorial Arena, Binghamton, New York, U.S.
52 Win 47–4–1   Leon Shaw KO 1 (10), 2:55 Feb 11, 1975   Sports Stadium, Orlando, Florida, U.S.
51 Draw 46–4–1   Jimmy Young SD 10 Nov 26, 1974   Capital Centre, Landover, Maryland, U.S.
50 Loss 46–4   Bob Stallings UD 10 Nov 4, 1974   Felt Forum, New York City, New York, U.S.
49 Win 46–3   Roy Wallace KO 1 (10), 2:11 May 16, 1974   Civic Auditorium, San Jose, California, U.S.
48 Loss 45–3   Jerry Quarry TKO 1 (10), 2:21 Dec 14, 1973   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
47 Win 45–2   Jimmy Ellis KO 1 (10), 2:39 Jun 18, 1973   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
46 Win 44–2   Harold Carter KO 1 (10), 2:10 May 12, 1973   Windsor Arena, Windsor, Ontario, Canada
45 Win 43–2   Jimmy Young TKO 3 (10), 2:59 Feb 19, 1973   Spectrum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
44 Win 42–2   Leroy Caldwell KO 2 (10), 2:00 Oct 25, 1972   High School Gym, Newton Falls, Ohio, U.S.
43 Win 41–2   A J Staples TKO 1 (10), 2:12 Sep 19, 1972   Moonlight Gardens Ballroom, Canton, Ohio, U.S.
42 Win 40–2   Vicente Rondón UD 10 Aug 26, 1972   Memorial Auditorium, Canton, Ohio, U.S.
41 Win 39–2   Lou Bailey KO 2 (10), 1:07 May 5, 1972   Armory, Akron, Ohio, U.S.
40 Win 38–2   Bob Felstein TKO 5 (10), 2:38 Apr 22, 1972   Fieldhouse, Struthers, Ohio, U.S.
39 Win 37–2   Charley Polite KO 3 (10), 0:50 Apr 6, 1972   Packard Music Hall, Warren, Ohio, U.S.
38 Win 36–2   Elgie Walters KO 2 (10), 0:20 Feb 15, 1972   Beaumont, Texas, U.S.
37 Win 35–2   Ted Gullick KO 6 (10) Feb 1, 1972   Packard Music Hall, Warren, Ohio, U.S.
36 Win 34–2   Del Morris KO 3 (10), 2:40 Nov 28, 1971   Bryant, South Dakota, U.S.
35 Win 33–2   Cleo Daniels KO 2 (10) Nov 23, 1971   Packard Music Hall, Warren, Ohio, U.S.
34 Win 32–2   Elmo Henderson KO 4 (10), 2:35 Oct 28, 1971   Sahara Tahoe, Stateline, Nevada, U.S.
33 Win 31–2   Charlie Boston KO 2 (10), 1:55 Oct 16, 1971   Dean Chance Gymnasium, Akron, Ohio, U.S.
32 Win 30–2   Pat Duncan KO 5 (10) Sep 28, 1971   Primadonna, Reno, Nevada, U.S. Won vacant Nevada State heavyweight title
31 Win 29–2   Richard Pittman KO 1 (10) Aug 11, 1971   Silver Slipper, Paradise, Nevada, U.S.
30 Win 28–2   Bill McMurray KO 1 (10), 2:56 Jul 13, 1971   Sahara Tahoe, Stateline, Nevada, U.S.
29 Win 27–2   Bill Hardney KO 1 (10), 1:52 Jun 29, 1971   Western Reserve Field, Warren, Ohio, U.S.
28 Win 26–2   Chuck Leslie KO 10 (10), 1:15 Jun 10, 1971   Sahara Tahoe, Stateline, Nevada, U.S.
27 Win 25–2   Willie Johnson TKO 4 (10), 0:33 Apr 24, 1971   Curtis Hixon Hall, Tampa, Florida, U.S.
26 Win 24–2   Mac Harrison KO 2 (10), 1:16 Apr 21, 1971   Dean Chance Gymnasium, Akron, Ohio, U.S.
25 Win 23–2   Young Agabab KO 1 (10) Mar 24, 1971   Silver Slipper, Paradise, Nevada, U.S.
24 Win 22–2   Steve Carter TKO 1 (10) Mar 3, 1971   Silver Slipper, Paradise, Nevada, U.S.
23 Win 21–2   Dick Gosha TKO 5 (10), 2:38 Feb 17, 1971   Armory, Akron, Ohio, U.S.
22 Win 20–2   Johnny Mac KO 3 (10) Feb 3, 1971   Silver Slipper, Paradise, Nevada, U.S.
21 Win 19–2   Nat Shaver KO 1 (6) Jan 15, 1971   Convention Center, Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.
20 Win 18–2   Lee Estes KO 2 (8) Jan 6, 1971   Silver Slipper, Paradise, Nevada, U.S.
19 Win 17–2   Bunky Akins KO 1 (6), 0:59 Dec 7, 1970   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
18 Win 16–2   Johnny Mac TKO 4 (8) Nov 18, 1970   Fitch High School Gym, Austintown, Ohio, U.S.
17 Win 15–2   Johnny Hudgins KO 1 (6), 0:55 Oct 14, 1970   Moonlight Gardens Ballroom, Canton, Ohio, U.S.
16 Win 14–2   Don Branch KO 1 (6) Sep 12, 1970   Cooper Stadium, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.
15 Win 13–2   Jim Daniels KO 1 (10) Aug 29, 1970   Fitch High School Gym, Austintown, Ohio, U.S.
14 Loss 12–2   Ron Stander KO 5 (8), 0:52 May 11, 1970   Civic Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
13 Win 12–1   Frank Smith TKO 4 (6) Apr 14, 1970   Moonlight Gardens Ballroom, Canton, Ohio, U.S.
12 Win 11–1   Ron Asher KO 1 (8), 0:58 Mar 23, 1970   Fitch High School Gym, Austintown, Ohio, U.S.
11 Win 10–1   Art Miller TKO 1 (6), 2:41 Mar 10, 1970   Moonlight Gardens Ballroom, Canton, Ohio, U.S.
10 Win 9–1   Abe Brown TKO 5 (6), 1:35 Jan 27, 1970   Sports Stadium, Orlando, Florida, U.S.
9 Win 8–1   Joe Byrd TKO 3 (6), 1:35 Jan 24, 1970   Memorial Auditorium, Canton, Ohio, U.S.
8 Win 7–1   Abe Brown TKO 1 (6), 1:44 Jan 7, 1970   Armory, Akron, Ohio, U.S.
7 Win 6–1   Gene Idelette TKO 2 (6) Dec 23, 1969   Sports Stadium, Orlando, Florida, U.S.
6 Win 5–1   Chico Froncano KO 1 (4), 2:05 Dec 18, 1969   Memorial Auditorium, Canton, Ohio, U.S.
5 Win 4–1   J. D. McCauley KO 2 (4), 2:18 Dec 4, 1969   Armory, Akron, Ohio, U.S.
4 Win 3–1   Lee Roy KO 3 (6), 2:30 Nov 21, 1969   Municipal Auditorium, Rapid City, South Dakota, U.S.
3 Loss 2–1   Stan Johnson UD 4 Nov 13, 1969   Ice Arena, Seattle, Washington, U.S.
2 Win 2–0   George Holden KO 1 (6), 1:01 Nov 11, 1969   Sports Stadium, Orlando, Florida, U.S.
1 Win 1–0   Silas Howell TKO 1 (4), 2:05 Nov 6, 1969   Armory, Akron, Ohio, U.S.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Earnie Shavers Amateur Record at the BoxingRecords. Last updated : April 12, 2006.
  2. ^ Two Ohio Heavies To Bid for Titles by Paul O’Boynick (of The Star's Soorts Staff,) The Kansas City Times, March 18, 1969, p. 16.
  3. ^ U. S. Boxers Take Germans Tonight by Steve Hoffman, Enquirer Sports Reporter, The Cincinnati Enquirer, June 27, 1969, p. 23.
  4. ^ U.S., German Boxers Meet Here Friday, The Cincinnati Enquirer, June 22, 1969, p. 37.
  5. ^ Mulvaney, Kieran (2011-11-28). "Remembering Ron Lyle". ESPN. Retrieved 2012-03-15.
  6. ^ Keown, Tim (2012-01-17). "70 reasons to celebrate Muhammad Ali". ESPN. Retrieved 2012-01-17.
  7. ^ Bob Westerdale (2007-09-04). "Junior's close Shave with ring legend Ernie". The Star. Retrieved 2008-02-07.
  8. ^ Duane Ford of Nevada State Athletic Commission, on the Sugar Ray Leonard's retirement.
  9. ^ Seekins, Briggs. "Ranking the 10 Most Powerful Punchers in Boxing History". Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  10. ^ "Top Ten Hardest Punchers in Boxing History - The Daily Banter". 15 March 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  11. ^ Romano, Frederick V. (August 27, 2004). The boxing filmography: American features, 1920–2003. McFarland & Company. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-7864-1793-3.
  12. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "Mr. T biography (1999)".
  13. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "George Foreman On Tyson & Hardest Punchers". YouTube. 2011-11-02. Retrieved 2016-10-02.
  14. ^ "Full Gospel Business Men's Fellowship International FGBMFI UK & Ireland empower men for life". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  15. ^ Shannon Bradshaw Trust

External linksEdit

Sporting positions
Amateur boxing titles
Previous:
George Foreman
U.S. heavyweight champion
1969
Next:
Ron Lyle
Regional boxing titles
Inaugural champion Nevada heavyweight champion
September 28, 1971 – October 1978
Vacated
Vacant
Title next held by
Mike Weaver