Duke Eugen of Württemberg (1788–1857)
Duke Eugen of Württemberg (German: Herzog Friedrich Eugen Carl Paul Ludwig von Württemberg; 8 January 1788 – 16 September 1857) was a German prince and a General of Infantry in the Imperial Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars.
|Duke Eugen of Württemberg|
Portrait by George Dawe
|Born||8 January 1788|
Oels, Kingdom of Prussia
|Died||8 January 1857 (aged 69)|
Bad Carlsruhe, Kingdom of Prussia
|Spouse||Princess Mathilde of Waldeck and Pyrmont|
Princess Helene of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
|Issue||Marie, Landgravine of Hesse-Philippsthal|
Duke William Alexander
Agnes, Princess Reuss Younger Line
|House||House of Württemberg|
|Father||Duke Eugen of Württemberg|
|Mother||Princess Luise of Stolberg-Gedern|
Early life and familyEdit
Duke Eugen was born at Oels, Lower Silesia, Kingdom of Prussia (now Oleśnica, Poland). He was the first child of Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern (1764–1834) and her husband Duke Eugen of Württemberg (1758–1822), who was brother of Empress Maria Feodorovna the consort of Paul I of Russia and son of Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg and Margravine Sophia Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt. Louise was a daughter of Prince Christian Karl of Stolberg-Gedern and Countess Eleanore of Reuss-Lobenstein. Another of Eugen and Louise's children was the explorer Duke Paul Wilhelm of Württemberg.
From 1776 he lived in Russia. As a child, Eugen followed his aunt to the Tsar's court. After his cadet years in St. Petersburg, he began a brilliant career in the Imperial Russian Army. The murder of his uncle Paul I in 1801 interrupted the first military service. His further education took place in Silesia by Ludwig von Wolzogen.
After a few years his military career reactivated and by 1805 he was already major-general. He participated in the campaigns from 1806 to 1807 in East Prussia against France and 1810 in part of Turkey. He accompanied his father Eugen, who was commander of Prussian Reserve, in 1806. He joined staff of Russian General Bennigsen. In 1812, he was a division commander (4th div of II Corps) under Barclay de Tolly. During the French invasion of Russia he fought at the Battles of Borodino and Krasnoi. At the War of the Sixth Coalition he fought in five major battles. In the battle of Lutzen, Eugen's corps was heavily engaged and suffered many casualties recapturing villages from the French. In the battle of Bautzen, Eugen's men, acting as the Russian rearguard, slowed the French advance by defending positions on hills and behind a village. The slow advance of the French infuriated Napoleon himself, who took over the command of the advance guard personally-but he did no better. In the battle of Dresden, the heavily outnumbered Eugen held off the forces of the French general Vandamme for a day before retreating. In the battle of Kulm, Eugen suffered over 3,000 casualties in his victorious rematch with Vandamme. And in the battle of Leipzig, most of Eugen's artillery was destroyed by the French. Despite this, and despite the losses at Kulm only a few weeks before, Eugen's infantry made a heroic, tenacious stand. Two-thirds of his troops and all of his regimental commanders became casualties.
He was interested in music. He was acquainted with Carl Maria von Weber, who was his father's music director of 1806–1807. He also composed several operas, and many songs, including "The Ghost Bride".
Marriage and issueEdit
On 21 January 1817, in Arolsen, he married Princess Mathilde of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1801–1825), daughter of George I, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont and Princess Augusta of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. They had three children:
- Duchess Marie of Württemberg (25 March 1818 – 10 April 1888), married in 1845 to Charles II, Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal, had issue.
- Duke Eugen of Württemberg (25 December 1820 – 8 January 1875), married in 1843 to Princess Mathilde of Schaumburg-Lippe, had issue.
- Duke William Alexander of Württemberg (13 April 1825 – 15 April 1825)
On his first wife's death, Eugen married secondly in 1827 to Princess Helene of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1807–1880), daughter of Charles Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Countess Amalie of Solms-Baruth. They had four children
- Duke William of Württemberg (20 July 1828 – 5 November 1896)
- Duchess Alexandrine Mathilde of Württemberg (16 December 1829 – 2 September 1913)
- Duke Nicholas of Württemberg (1 March 1833 – 22 February 1903), married in 1868 his niece Duchess Wilhelmine of Württemberg, no issue.
- Duchess Agnes of Württemberg (13 October 1835 – 10 July 1886), married in 1858 to Heinrich XIV, Prince Reuss Younger Line, had issue.
|Ancestors of Duke Eugen of Württemberg (1788–1857)|
Notes and sourcesEdit
- The Encyclopedia Americana: a library of universal knowledge, Volume 10, Encyclopedia Americana Corp., 1918
- The Royal House of Stuart, London, 1969, 1971, 1976, Addington, A. C., Reference: page 222