Duel (1971 film)
Duel is a 1971 television (and later full-length theatrical) thriller film written by Richard Matheson, which is based on his own short story. The film is the first full-length film directing debut of American director, producer, and screenwriter Steven Spielberg.
Promotional poster (re-release version)
by Richard Matheson
|Written by||Richard Matheson|
|Directed by||Steven Spielberg|
|Theme music composer||Billy Goldenberg|
|Country of origin||United States|
|Cinematography||Jack A. Marta|
|Running time||74 minutes (TV broadcast)
89 minutes (Theatrical cut)
|Original release||November 13, 1971|
Duel stars Dennis Weaver who portrays a terrified motorist driving a Plymouth Valiant who is stalked upon remote and lonely California canyon roads by the mostly unseen driver of an unkempt 1955 Peterbilt 281 tanker truck.
David Mann is a middle-aged salesman driving on a business trip. He encounters a tanker truck on a two-lane highway in the California desert, traveling below the speed limit and expelling sooty diesel exhaust. Mann simply passes the truck; however, after a few seconds, the truck rapidly roars past him before driving closely in front of his vehicle. When Mann overtakes and passes the truck a second time, the truck driver angrily blasts his horn. Mann turns to observe the vehicle, before exhaling a breath as he continues to listen to the car radio as the truck recedes into the distance.
Mann then pulls into a gas station, and shortly thereafter, the truck arrives and parks alongside him. Through the space beneath the truck bed, he observes that the driver—having exited his vehicle to check the gas tanks—is wearing jeans and cowboy boots. Mann then phones his wife, who is upset with him after an argument the two had had previous night, as another man had apparently attempted to force himself upon Mann's wife in front of several house guests. The gas station attendant refills Mann's car and mentions to him that it "looks like" the car needs a new radiator hose. Mann thanks the attendant, before stating he will fix the radiator hose at a later date. As he says these words to the attendant, the truck driver impatiently blares his horn, to which the attendant nods his head, before stating, "Be with you in a second."
Having driven from the gas station, the truck soon catches up with Mann's vehicle, before he (Mann) waves the vehicle past him. The driver of the truck accepts this invitation but immediately drives slowly in front of Mann and resists any attempts he soon makes to overtake his truck, after Mann had observed: "I gave you the road, why don't you take it?"
After antagonizing Mann for some time, the driver calmly waves him past. However, when Mann attempts to pass the truck, he almost immediately runs into the path of an oncoming vehicle, which angrily sounds its horn as the two drivers swerve to avoid colliding with each other. Having frantically returned his own vehicle behind the truck, Mann exclaims, "My God!" as he realizes the truck driver has deliberately tried to trick him into a fatal crash. He then exclaims the word, "Jesus!" as he continues to observe the rear of the vehicle. Shortly thereafter, in an act of frustration, he passes the truck using an unpaved turnout next to the highway, and briefly taunts the driver as he triumphantly speeds past the vehicle. Again, the truck slowly recedes into a highway shot of the rear-view mirror of Mann's vehicle as Mann himself calmly continues to drive his vehicle, selecting a country music station upon his car radio as he does so.
Within moments, the truck speeds behind, then tailgates Mann's vehicle at speeds of up to 90 mph, repeatedly sounding its horn and occasionally tapping his (Mann's) vehicle. This behavior forces Mann to increase his speed to avoid either crashing his vehicle himself, or the truck striking his vehicle severely enough to cause an accident. After several minutes of this behavior, in which Mann becomes increasingly distressed, he finally swerves his car off the road and collides with a fence opposite a diner named Chuck's Café, causing himself to suffer slight whiplash in the collision. The truck continues down the road at high speed, as Mann converses with an elderly man to whom he exclaims, "That truck driver tried to kill me!" before entering the diner to compose himself. Though he initially assumes the truck driver's road rage has been satisfied, upon returning from the restroom, he observes the truck parked outside. He then studies the diner patrons and confronts a man wearing similar cowboy boots he had earlier saw on the truck driver. Offended, the driver twice strikes Mann and drives away in a much smaller truck than that which had earlier chased him. The pursuing truck leaves the diner moments later, indicating that its driver had actually never actually entered the establishment. On foot, Mann briefly attempts to chase the truck, before returning to his own vehicle.
Shortly after driving from the diner, Mann stops his car to help a stranded school bus carrying several school children, which has itself overheated, but his own car's front bumper becomes caught underneath the bus's rear bumper as he attempts to push the vehicle. The truck then appears at the end of a nearby tunnel, and slows to a halt as the driver observes the scene. Mann realizes the driver has turned his own vehicle around—likely to return and find him. In response, Mann panics, and attempts to return the several school children present to the bus before he himself attempts to free his own car by frantically jumping on the vehicle's hood while the bus driver puts the car in reverse. He then speeds from the scene as the truck slowly drives towards the bay where he and the stranded bus had been. Slowing his own vehicle to a halt, to Mann's slight chagrin and disbelief, he observes in his rear window that the truck driver had simply ignored his own vehicle and driven to assist the stranded bus and school children by giving the vehicle a push-start as he himself had driven from the scene.
Shortly after leaving the school bus, Mann stops his car at a railroad crossing to allow a passing freight train to cross his path when—unbeknownst to him—the truck arrives behind his vehicle, stops, then immediately attempts to push his car into the path of the passing train. In response, Mann places his own vehicle in reverse as he repeatedly shouts, " Hey, stop!" After the train passes, Mann then frantically crosses the tracks and drives up an embankment out of the path of the truck, which calmly continues to drive ahead. He then slowly drives his vehicle before observing the truck deliberately driving in an extremely slow speed in an evident effort to allow his vehicle to catch his own. In response to this observation, Mann raises his neck, and slows his own vehicle's speed.
Mann then stops at a gas station to call the police and agrees to the operative's offer to both replace his radiator hose and fill his car with gasoline; however, when Mann steps into station's only phone booth to report the truck driver's behavior, the driver of the truck drives into the booth. Although Mann jumps clear of the booth just prior to the truck striking him, several reptile cases at the station are also struck, and he has to remove a tarantula from his trouser leg. Although he asks the sole operative at the station to phone the police, she replies: "With what? That's the only phone [that] I've got!" Immediately, Mann enters his car and speeds away as the truck resumes chasing his vehicle. Around a nearby corner, he rapidly pulls off the road, reversing to hide behind an embankment as the truck speeds past.
After a long wait, Mann again begins to drive his vehicle, but soon finds the truck driver has reversed his own vehicle aside the road with the position of his cab facing both his and Mann's traffic flow, evidently waiting for him; in response, Mann screeches his car to a halt, perpendicular to oncoming traffic, in the middle of the road, before slowly driving his car aside the road to continue observing the truck with an aghast expression upon his face. Mann then briefly attempts to speed past the truck, which, in response, moves across the road, blocking his way. Mann then attempts to seek help from an elderly couple in a car who arrive on the scene, but they hastily reverse from the scene when the truck backs up towards them at speed; Mann himself runs several hundred feet into the nearby desert. The truck driver stops his vehicle directly in front of the Plymouth Valiant, without hitting the vehicle, indicating that he (the truck driver) wants Mann to re-enter his vehicle in order that the chase can continue. When Mann re-enters his vehicle and slowly drives aside the truck, the driver calmly waves him past. After Mann checks the truck driver is not once again attempting for him to drive into the path of an oncoming vehicle, he drives past the truck driver at high speed.
At one point in this second chase, Mann observes a black-and-white car. Thinking that the vehicle is a police car, he skids to a stop, only for him to realize that the vehicle is actually a pest control vehicle. He speeds off as the driver of the pest control vehicle scarpers onto his own vehicle's hood as the chase continues. The truck then chases Mann up a mountain ascent, before the radiator hose of Mann's car falls off, causing the car to quickly overheat. He barely makes the summit before coasting his car downhill in neutral to cool the temperature of his vehicle's engine as the truck gradually bears down on him.
Having regained control of his car, Mann soon skids the vehicle into a cliff. After several frantic attempts to re-start his car as the truck re-enters his field of view, Mann succeeds in switching on his ignition as the truck rapidly approaches his vehicle; he then accelerates his car up a desolate dirt road as the truck closely follows, with the driver—likely triumphantly—blaring his horn and steering his vehicle to follow him. Atop this cliff, Mann quickly turns to face his opponent on a hill overlooking a steep canyon. He then places his briefcase upon the accelerator and steers toward the oncoming truck, jumping from his car at the last moment. The truck driver almost immediately hits the car, which bursts into flames, temporarily obscuring the driver's view. The truck continues to drive for a few moments as the driver lowers the truck's gear before the vehicle plunges over the cliff as the driver sounds his horn.
Above the ensuing wreckage, Mann jumps up and down, laughing with both glee and relief as he observes the wreckage of the truck at the base of the canyon. Physically and mentally exhausted, he then sits at the cliff's edge and throws several stones into the canyon as the sun sets.
The script is adapted by Richard Matheson from his own short story, originally published in Playboy magazine. Matheson got the inspiration for the story when he was tailgated by a trucker while on his way home from a golfing match with friend Jerry Sohl on November 22, 1963, the same day as the John F. Kennedy assassination. After a series of unsuccessful attempts to pitch the idea as an episode for various television series, he decided to write it as a short story instead. In preparation for writing the story, he drove from his home to Ventura and recorded everything he saw on a tape recorder.
The original short story was given to Spielberg by his secretary, who told him that it was being made into a movie of the week and suggested he apply to be the director. Duel was Spielberg's second feature-length directing effort, after his 1971 The Name of the Game NBC television series episode "L.A. 2017".
Much of the movie was filmed in and around the communities of Canyon Country, Agua Dulce, and Acton, California. In particular, sequences were filmed on the Sierra Highway, Agua Dulce Canyon Road, Soledad Canyon Road, and Angeles Forest Highway. Many of the landmarks from Duel still exist today, including the tunnel, the railroad crossing, and Chuck's Café, where Mann stops for a break. The building is still on Sierra Highway and has housed a French restaurant called Le Chene since 1980. The "Snakerama" gas station seen in the film also appears in Spielberg's comedy film 1941 (1979) as an homage to Duel, with actress Lucille Benson again appearing as the proprietor.
Matheson's script made explicit that the unnamed truck driver, the villain of the film, is unseen aside from the shots of his arms and boots that were needed to convey the plot.
Production of the television film was overseen by ABC's director of movies of the week Lillian Gallo. The original made-for-television version was 74 minutes long and its filming was completed in 13 days (three longer than the scheduled 10 days), leaving 10 days for editing prior to broadcast as the ABC Movie of the Week. Following Duel's successful TV airing, Universal released the film overseas in 1972. The TV movie was not long enough for theatrical release, so Universal had Spielberg spend two days filming several new scenes, turning Duel into a 90-minute film. The new scenes were set at the railroad crossing, school bus, and the telephone booth. A longer opening sequence was added with the car backing out of a garage and driving through the city. Expletives were also added, to make the film sound less like a television production.
Spielberg lobbied to have Dennis Weaver in the starring role because he admired Weaver's work in Orson Welles' Touch of Evil. Weaver repeats one of his lines from Touch of Evil, telling the truck driver in the cafe that he has "another think coming." This phrase is commonly misstated as "another thing coming", as Weaver's character did in Touch of Evil.
The car was carefully chosen, a red Plymouth Valiant, although three cars were used in the actual production of the movie. The original release of Duel featured a 1970 model with a 318 V-8 engine and "Plymouth" spelled out in block letters across the hood, as well as trunk lid treatment characteristic of the 1970 model; a 1971 model with a 225 Slant Six was also used. When the film was released in theaters and scenes were added, a 1972 model with a 225 Slant Six was added, with the "Plymouth" name on the hood as one emblem.
Spielberg did not care what kind of car was used in the film, but insisted the final chosen model be red to enable the vehicle to stand out from the general landscape in the wide shots of the desert highway.
Spielberg had what he called an "audition" for the truck, wherein he viewed a series of trucks to choose the one for the film. He selected the older 1955 Peterbilt 281 over the current flat-nosed "cab-over" style of trucks because the long hood of the Peterbilt, its split windshield, and its round headlights gave it more of a "face", adding to its menacing personality. Additionally, Spielberg said that the multiple license plates on the front bumper of the Peterbilt subtly suggested that the truck driver is a serial killer, having "run down other drivers in other states". For each shot, several people were tasked to make it uglier; each successively adding oil, grease, fake dead insects and other blemishes.
The truck had twin rear axles, a CAT 1674 turbocharged engine with a 13-speed transmission, making it capable of hauling loads over 30 tons and top speeds reaching 75–80 mph. During the original filming, the crew only had one truck, so the shots of the truck falling off the cliff had to be completed in one take. For the film's theatrical release, though, two additional trucks were purchased in order to film the additional scenes that were not in the original made-for-television version (the school bus scene and the railroad crossing scene). One of these, a 1964 Peterbilt 351, virtually identical to the original truck except for its air intake, was later destroyed in another movie production. Only one of those trucks has survived, a 1960 Peterbilt 281 that was kept and prepared as a back up truck for the 351 truck, but went unused.
Stock footage of both vehicles was later used in an episode of the television series The Incredible Hulk, titled "Never Give a Trucker an Even Break". Spielberg was not happy about this, but the usage was legal, as the show was produced by Universal and the Duel contract said nothing about reusing the footage in other Universal productions.
The film's original score was composed by Billy Goldenberg, who had previously written the music for Spielberg's segment of the Night Gallery pilot and his Columbo episode "Murder by the Book," and co-scored Spielberg's The Name of the Game episode "L.A. 2017" with Robert Prince. Spielberg and Duel producer George Eckstein told him that because of the short production schedule, he would have to write the music during filming, and Goldenberg visited the production on location at Soledad Canyon to help get an idea of what would be required. Spielberg then had Goldenberg ride in the tanker truck being driven by stunt driver Carey Loftin on several occasions; the experience terrified the composer, although he did eventually get used to it. Goldenberg then composed the score in about a week, for strings, harp, keyboards and heavy use of percussion instruments, with Moog synthesiser effects but eschewing brass and woodwinds. He then worked with the music editors to "pick from all the pieces (they) had and cut it together (with the sound effects and dialogue)." Much of his score was ultimately not used in the finished film. In 2015 Intrada Records released a limited edition album featuring the complete score, plus four radio source music tracks composed by Goldenberg.
Duel was initially shown on American television as an ABC Movie of the Week installment. It was eventually released to cinemas in Europe and Australia; it had a limited cinema release to some venues in the United States, while it was widely praised in the UK. The film's success enabled Spielberg to establish himself as a film director.
The film received many positive reviews and is often considered one of the greatest TV movies ever made. On Rotten Tomatoes the film currently has a score of 87% based on 39 reviews, with an average rating of 7.7 out of 10.).
Interpretations of Duel often focus on the symbolism of Mann and the truck. Some critics follow Spielberg's own interpretation of the story as an indictment against the mechanization of life, both by literal machines and by social regimentation. The theme of gender performativity in Mann's quest to prove his manhood is another interpretation several observers have noted.
- Grand Prize: 1973
- Outstanding Achievement in Film Sound Editing: 1972
- Best Movie Made for TV: 1972
- Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography for Entertainment Programming – For a Special or Feature Length Program Made for Television: 1972
- Best DVD Classic Film Release: 2005
References in other worksEdit
In computer gamesEdit
- In 18 WOS PTTM, the truck appears as a very rare, exclusive mod since its upload in 2006.
- In Euro Truck Simulator 2, the Peterbilt 351 and its interiors (mods, not part of the vanilla game) are based on the truck from the movie. It may come back in American Truck Simulator as both a 281 and as a 351.
- In Grand Theft Auto V, a random encounter is based on the film.
- In Hard Truck: 18 Wheels of Steel, the "Rusty" truck was based on the truck from Duel.
- In Hidden Folks, in the Suburb-level, one of the hidden characters the player is tasked with finding is Driver Dave, who is tailgated by a crazy truck driver on one of the streets.
- The dinosaur roar sound effect that is heard as the truck goes over the cliff is also heard in Jaws (1975), also directed by Spielberg, as the shark's carcass sinks into the ocean. Spielberg has said that this is because he feels there is a "kinship" between Duel and Jaws, as they are both about "these leviathans targeting everyman." He has also said that inserting the sound effect into Jaws was "my way of thanking Duel for giving me a career."
- The anime film Lupin III: The Mystery of Mamo (1978) parodies Duel by depicting a chase scene whereby lead characters Arsène Lupin III, Daisuke Jigen and Goemon Ishikawa XIII, driving in a red Austin Cooper, are pursued by a giant Kenworth W900 sent by the film's villain, Mamo, to eliminate them.
- The truck from Duel is seen in the film Torque (2004) and causes a biker to wipe out shortly after a red 4-door Valiant had driven past the bikers.
- The horror anthology film Nightmares (1983) featured a segment very similar to Duel, though with overt supernatural elements.
- In Fire Down Below (1997), the scene where Taggart is chased and nearly run off the road before luring the truck to ram his truck off of a cliff is directly inspired by Duel.
- The Barcelona-based Spanish filmmaker Enric Folch crowdfunded the documentary film The Devil on Wheels. The documentary centers the development of Duel.
- The film Joy Ride (2001) is heavily influenced by Duel and contains many direct references. In one scene a similar model truck menaces the protagonists, but the driver is revealed to be harmless.
- The film Wrecker (2015), starring Drea Whitburn and Anna Hutchison, is almost a shot for shot remake of Duel.
- The image of the truck pushing the Plymouth over the cliff is seen on the cover of the album Smokin' Taters! by Kentucky-based band Nine Pound Hammer.
- The Swervedriver song "Duel" from their album Mezcal Head was named after the film.
- In David Lee Roth's (1994) music video "She's my Machine", the truck appears several times as a green tanker truck.
- The Mr. Monk book Mr. Monk on the Road features a similar sub-plot in which Adrian Monk, driving a rented RV, is pursued by a truck like that from Duel, which meets a similar end, although the truck driver's motive is known.
- In the third part of JoJo's Bizarre Adventure, Stardust Crusaders, the Wheel of Fortune chapters have various references to the movie, as the protagonists must deal with an assassin controlling a car (which resembles a Plymouth).
- In 2009, writers Stephen King and Joe Hill decided to honor Matheson's classic with an homage prose story titled "Throttle." In time, this was turned into a four-issue miniseries called "Road Rage". IDW Publishing gave both "Duel" and "Throttle" two issues each to find a new audience with their comic book adaptation. "Road Rage" #1 was released to the public on Feb 15th, 2012.
- Stock footage from Duel appears throughout The Incredible Hulk first season episode "Never Give a Trucker an Even Break" (originally airdate on CBS: April 28, 1978). Spielberg was reportedly "not too happy about it," according to Matheson.
- In the Red Dwarf series 8 episode "Only the Good...", Arnold Rimmer claims that a scar on the right side of his neck resulted from a friend's attacking him with the video case from the film Duel.
- The opening scene of the Transformers: Prime episode "Nemesis Prime" pays homage to Duel.
- The one-hour special Tiny Toons' Night Ghoulery features a parody segment of the film named "Fuel" with Calamity Coyote.
- The Bob's Burgers season 4 episode "Christmas in the Car" contains numerous Duel references when Bob is terrorized by a candy-cane shaped truck.
- In the television murder mystery series Murder, She Wrote episode "The Cemetery Vote", Jessica is traveling along a country road as a passenger in a station wagon when they are chased and rammed by a large powerful truck covered in mud with the driver invisible behind a mud-caked windshield.
- It was the movie of the week for the Svengoolie program on November 5, 2016, his first airing of the film.
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- Duel: Special Edition DVD (2005)
- "Le Chene French Cuisine". lechene.com. Retrieved January 9, 2009.
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- Wertheimer, Linda (January 5, 2013). "Another Think Coming? Scrutinizing An Oft-Misused Phrase". NPR. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
- "On starring in the TV movie Duel". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Foundation. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
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- Jackson, Kathi (2007). Steven Spielberg: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 18.
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- Jon Burlingame, pp. 297-298, TV's Biggest Hits: The Story Of Television Themes From "Dragnet" To "Friends", Schirmer Books, 1996, ISBN 0-02-870324-3
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- http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/1006345-duel/ Duel at Rotten Tomatoes
- Gordon, Andrew (1989) Empire of Dreams: The Science Fiction and Fantasy Films of Steven Spielberg
- Moscovitz, Jean-Jacques (2012) Letter from a Psychoanalyst to Steven Spielberg
- "IMDB 1973". Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- "Emmy 1972". Television Academy. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- Golden Globe 1972 Archived November 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Emmy 1972". Television Academy. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- Steven Spielberg: A Biography ISBN 978-0-313-33796-3 p. 107
- Toole, Mike (2012). The Mystery of Mamo (Why Mamo Matters). Discotek Media.
- ""The Devil On Wheels" Doc to Celebrate Steven Spielberg's 'Duel' - Bloody Disgusting!". March 4, 2015.
- "Duel Doc Devil on Wheels Drives to Kickstarter - Dread Central". March 4, 2015.
- "Documentary The Devil on Wheels Pays Tribute to Spielberg's Duel - Dread Central". February 13, 2015.
- Thill, Scott (16 June 2011). "Space-Walking Through Swervedriver's Sci-Fi Sonics". Wired (magazine). Retrieved 4 March 2016.
‘Duel‘ and ‘The Hitcher‘ were both named after the classic car movies, of course.
- "Road Rage #1".
- ""The Incredible Hulk" Never Give a Trucker an Even Break (TV Episode 1978) - Trivia - IMDb". IMDb. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- Bradley, Matthew. Richard Matheson on Screen: A History of the Filmed Works; 2010, page 70.
- "Steven Spielberg and Duel: The Making of a Film Career" by Steven Awalt, Rowman & Littlefield (2014).
- The Complete Spielberg by Ian Freer, Virgin Books (2001).
- Steven Spielberg by James Clarke, Pocket Essentials (2004).
- Steven Spielberg The Collectors Edition by Empire Magazine (2004).
- The Steven Spielberg Story by Tony Crawley, William Morrow (1983).
- Duel by Richard Matheson, Tor Books Terror Stories Series (2003).