The Diablada, also known as the Danza de los Diablos (English: Dance of the Devils), is an Andean folk dance performed in the Altiplano region of South America, characterized by performers wearing masks and costumes representing the devil and other characters from pre-Columbian theology and mythology.[1][2] combined with Spanish and Christian elements added during the colonial era. Many scholars have concluded that the dance is descended from the Llama llama dance in honor of the Uru god Tiw,[3] and the Aymaran ritual to the demon Anchanchu, both originating in pre-Columbian Bolivia[4][5]

Diablada
A Diablada dance squad passing through the streets during the Oruro Carnival in Bolivia.
GenreFolk dance
InventorPre-Columbian Andean civilizations
Year1500s
OriginAltiplano region, South America

While the dance had been performed in the Andean region as early as the 1500s, its name originated in 1789 in Oruro, Bolivia, where performers dressed like the devil in parades called Diabladas. The first organized Diablada group with defined music and choreography appeared in Bolivia in 1904.[2][6] There is also some evidence of the dance originating among miners in Potosi, Bolivia,[7] while regional dances in Peru and Chile may have also influenced the modern version.

History edit

Pre-Columbian origins edit

 
Depiction of a Collasuyu party in the 17th century book Primer Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno of Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala.

Bolivian historians claim that the Diablada originated in that country, and that Oruro should be named as its place of origin under the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity policy promoted by UNESCO; Bolivia has also claimed that performances of the dance in other countries are cultural appropriation.[8][9] Bolivian historians currently maintain that the Diablada dates back 2000 years to the rituals of the Uru civilization dedicated to the mythological figure Tiw, who protected caves, lakes, and rivers as places of shelter. The dance is believed to have originated as the Llama llama in the ancient settlement of Oruro, which was one of the major centers of the Uru civilization.[10][11] The dance includes references to animals that appear in Uru mythology such as ants, lizards, toads, and snakes.[12][13][14] Bolivian anthropologist Milton Eyzaguirre adds that the ancient cultures of the Bolivian Andes practiced a death cult called cupay, with that term eventually evolving into supay or the devil figure in the modern Diablada.[15]

Due to syncretism caused by Spanish influence in later centuries, Tiw was eventually associated with the devil; Spanish authorities also outlawed several of the ancient traditions but incorporated others into Christian theology.[16] Local and regional Diablada festivals arose during the Spanish colonial period and were eventually consolidated as the Carnaval de Oruro in the modern city of that name.[10]

...The Spanish banned these ceremonies in the seventeenth century, but they continued under the guise of Christian liturgy: the Andean gods were concealed behind Christian icons and the Andean divinities became the Saints. The Ito festival was transformed into a Christian ritual, celebrated on Candlemas (2 February). The traditional llama llama or diablada in worship of the Uru god Tiw became the main dance at the Carnival of Oruro....

— Proclamation of "Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity" to the "Carnival of Oruro", UNESCO 2001

Chilean and Peruvian organizations suggest that since the dance has roots in Andean civilizations that existed before the formation of the current national borders, it should belong equally to the three nations.[17] Some Chilean historians concede that the Diablada originated in Bolivia and was adopted for Chile's Fiesta de La Tirana in 1952, though it is also influenced by a similar 16th Century Chilean tradition called Diablos sueltos.[18]

Some Peruvian historians also concede that the dance originated in Bolivia but was influenced by earlier traditions practiced across the Altiplano region, including some specific to Peru.[19][20] The Peruvian version, Diablada puneña, originated in the late 1500s among the Lupaka people in the Puno region, who in turn were influenced by the Jesuits; with that dance merging with the Bolivian version in the early 1900s.[21][22] Scholars who defend the Diablada's origins in Peru cite Aymaran traditions surrounding the deity Anchanchu that had been documented by 16th Century historian Inca Garcilaso de la Vega.[4][23] There is also a version of the Diablada in Ecuador called the Diablada pillareña.[24]

Spanish influence edit

 
"Struggle of the Diablada" as performed during the Carnival of Oruro.

Some historians have theorized that the modern Diablada exhibits influences from Spanish dance traditions. In her book La danza de los diablos, Julia Elena Fortún proposed a connection with the Catalan entremés called Ball de diables as performed in the Catalonian communities of Penedès and Tarragona. That dance depicts a struggle between Lucifer and the archangel Saint Michael and is first known to have been performed in 1150.[25][26] Catalan scholar Jordi Rius i Mercade has also found similarities between the Ball de diables and several Andean dances including the similarly-themed Baile de Diablos de Cobán in Guatemala and Danza de los diablicos de Túcume in Peru.[25]

Those theories contradict the more common theory that the modern Diablada is most influenced by the Spanish practice of autos sacramentales during which the colonizers introduced Christianity to the natives of the Andes, due to differing conceptions of the devil and his temptations.[27] The autos sacramentales process has been cited as an influence on the emergence of the Diablada puneña in Peru, shortly after the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, as believed by Garcilaso de la Vega.[28] Peruvian scholar Nicomedes Santa Cruz and Bolivian anthropologist Freddy Arancibia Andrade have suggested a similar process, with the dance originating among miners who rebelled against the Spanish at Potosi in 1538 while combining the ancient ritual of Tinku with Christian references.[7][29] Andrade has also proposed a similar process among striking miners in 1904 as the origin of the modern version of the Diablada.[7]

Post-independence period edit

Though the traditions of the Diablada were merged with Christianity during the colonial period, the meanings of the original traditions were revived and reassessed during the Latin American wars of independence. The Altiplano region, particularly around Lake Titicaca, became a center of appreciation for pre-Columbian dance and music.[30] During the Bolivian War of Independence, the main religious festival honoring the Virgin of the Candlemas was replaced by Carnival, which allowed for greater acknowledgement of pre-Christian traditions including the Diablada. The present annual Diablada festival was established in Oruro by 1891.[31]

The first institutionalized Diablada dance squad was the Gran Tradicional y Auténtica Diablada Oruro, founded in Bolivia in 1904 by Pedro Pablo Corrales.[32] That squad established a counterpart called the Los Vaporinos in Peru in 1918.[33] A squad from Bolivia was invited to travel to the Fiesta de la Tirana in Chile in 1956, and that country's first established squad was called Primera Diablada Servidores Virgen del Carmen, centered in Iquique.[34] In 2001, the Carnaval de Oruro was declared one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, along with the Diablada and 19 other dances performed at the festival.[35] In 2004, the Bolivian government awarded high national honors to the Gran Tradicional y Auténtica Diablada Oruro for its 100th anniversary.[36]

Choreography edit

 
Diablada dancers in Puno, Peru.

In its original form, the dance was performed with music by a band of Sikuris, who played the siku. In modern times the dance is accompanied by an orchestra. Dancers often perform on streets and public squares, but the ritual can also be performed at indoor theaters and arenas. The ritual begins with a krewe featuring Lucifer and Satan with several China Supay, or devil women. They are followed by the personified seven deadly sins of pride, greed, lust, anger, gluttony, envy, and sloth. Afterwards, a troop of devils come out. They are all led by Saint Michael, with a blouse, short skirt, sword, and shield. During the dance, angels and demons move continuously. This confrontation between the two sides is eclipsed when Saint Michael appears and defeats the Devil. The choreography has three versions, each consisting of seven moves.[37]

Music edit

 
1862 partiture of a Diablada tune named Déjame by the composer Froilán Zevillano of the Poopó Province in Oruro, Bolivia.

The music associated with the dance has two parts: the first is known as the March and the second one is known as the Devil's Mecapaqueña. Some squads play only one melody or start the Mecapaqueña in the fourth movement "by four".[37] Since the second half of the 20th century, dialogue is omitted so the focus is only on the dance.[38]

Regional variations edit

Diablada Puneña (Peru) edit

 
Diablos from Puno, Peru.

The Diablada Puneña originated in modern Peru with the in the Lupaka people in 1576, when they combined tenets of Christianity from the autos sacramentales with ancient Aymara traditions.[4][23] Some additional influences from the cult of the Virgin Mary were added in the following century.[22] The Peruvian version of the Diablada was quite different from the Ururo-based Bolivian version until the two merged at the Fiesta de la Candelaria in 1965. However, the Peruvian versions continue to feature homegrown figures like Superman, American Indians, ancient Mexicans, and characters from popular films.[39]

The costumes used in the Peruvian Diablata also include influences from Tibet as well as elements from pre-Columbian Peruvian cultures such as Sechin, Chavin, Nazca, and Mochica.[4] Homegrown masks were produced and sold in Peru starting in 1956.[40] Music for the dance was originally performed on the siku,[41] but that was later replaced by percussionists known as Sicu-Morenos.[39]

Fiesta de La Tirana (Chile) edit

In Chile, the Diablada is performed during the Fiesta de La Tirana in the northern region of that country. The festival attracts more than 100,000 visitors annually to the small village of La Tirana.[42] The festival is descended from the celebrations for the Virgin of Carmen that began in 1540.[42]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Kartomi, Margaret J.; Blum, Stephen (1994). Music-cultures in Contact: Convergences and Collisions. p. 63. ISBN 9782884491372.
  2. ^ a b Real Academia Española (2001). "Diccionario de la Lengua Española – Vigésima segunda edición" [Spanish Language Dictionary - 22nd edition] (in Spanish). Madrid, Spain. Retrieved 30 November 2009. Danza típica de la región de Oruro, en Bolivia, llamada así por la careta y el traje de diablo que usan los bailarines (Typical dance from the region of Oruro, in Bolivia, called that way by the mask and devil suit worn by the dancers).
  3. ^ "Bolivia (Plurinational State of) - Information related to Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO. 2001. Retrieved 3 October 2009. The town of Oruro, situated at an altitude of 3,700 metres in the mountains of western Bolivia and once a pre-Columbian ceremonial site, was an important mining area in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Resettled by the Spanish in 1606, it continued to be a sacred site for the Uru people, who would often travel long distances to perform their rituals, especially for the principal Ito festival. The Spanish banned these ceremonies in the seventeenth century, but they continued under the guise of Christian liturgy: the Andean gods were concealed behind Christian icons and the Andean divinities became the Saints. The Ito festival was transformed into a Christian ritual, celebrated on Candlemas (2 February). The traditional llama llama or diablada in worship of the Uru god Tiw became the main dance at the Carnival of Oruro.
  4. ^ a b c d Rubio Zapata, Miguel (Fall 2007). "Diablos Danzantes en Puno, Perú" [Dancing devils in Puno, Peru]. ReVista, Harvard Review of Latin America (in Spanish). VII (1): 66–67. Archived from the original on 1 April 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2009.
  5. ^ Morales Serruto, José (3 August 2009). "La diablada, manzana de la discordia en el altiplano [The ''Diablada'', the bone of contention in the Altiplano]" (Interview) (in Spanish). Puno, Peru: Correo. Retrieved 27 September 2009.[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ http://www.carnavaldeoruroacfo.com/documentos/FORMULARIO%20DE%20CANDIDATURA.pdf Archived 2009-11-04 at the Wayback Machine Compilation of historians, anthropologists, researchers and folklorists about the Carnival of Oruro and La Diablada
  7. ^ a b c Arancibia Andrade, Freddy (20 August 2009). "Investigador afirma que la diablada surgió en Potosí [Investigator affirms that the ''Diablada'' emerged in Potosí]" (Interview) (in Spanish). La Paz, Bolivia. Archived from the original on 4 September 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  8. ^ "Perú dice que la diablada no es exclusiva de Bolivia" [Peru says that the Diablada is not exclusive of Bolivia]. La Prensa (in Spanish). La Paz, Bolivia: Editores Asociados S.A. 14 August 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2009.[dead link]
  9. ^ Echevers Tórrez 2009
  10. ^ a b A.C.F, O. 2001, pp.10-17.
  11. ^ Guaman Poma de Ayala 1615, p.235.
  12. ^ Claure Covarrubias, Javier (January 2009). "El Tío de la mina" [The Uncle of the mine] (in Spanish). Stockholm, Sweden: Arena y Cal, revista literaria y cultural divulgativa. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
  13. ^ Ríos, Edwin (2009). "Mitología andina de los urus" [Andean mythology of the Urus]. Mi Carnaval (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 24 December 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
  14. ^ Ríos, Edwin (2009). "La Diablada originada en Oruro – Bolivia" [The Diablada originated in Oruro – Bolivia]. Mi Carnaval (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 15 August 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
  15. ^ "La diablada orureña se remonta a la época de los Urus precoloniales" [The Diablada of Oruro goes back to the times of the Pre-Columbian Urus]. La Razón (in Spanish). La Paz, Bolivia. 9 August 2009. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
  16. ^ A.C.F, O. 2001, p.3.
  17. ^ Moffett, Matt; Kozak, Robert (21 August 2009). "In This Spat Between Bolivia and Peru, The Details Are in the Devils". The Wall Street Journal. p. A1. Retrieved 4 October 2009.
  18. ^ "Memoria Chilena diabladas" (in Spanish).
  19. ^ Américo Valencia Chacon (3 September 2015). "Candelaria una propuesta frente a una gran responsabilidad" (in Spanish).
  20. ^ Luis Valverde Caldas. "La diablada como danza" (in Spanish).
  21. ^ Cuentas Ormachea 1986, pp. 35–36, 45.
  22. ^ a b Morales Serruto, José (3 August 2009). "La diablada, manzana de la discordia en el altiplano [The ''Diablada'', the bone of contention in the Altiplano]" (Interview) (in Spanish). Puno, Peru: Correo. Retrieved 27 September 2009.[permanent dead link]
  23. ^ a b McFarren, Peter; Choque, Sixto; Gisbert, Teresa (2009) [1993]. McFarren, Peter (ed.). Máscaras de los Andes bolivianos [Masks of the Bolivian Andes] (in Spanish). Indiana, United States: Editorial Quipus. Retrieved 24 October 2009.
  24. ^ "Municipio realiza actualización del avalúo para el bienio 2016-2017". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2010-02-19.
  25. ^ a b Rius I Mercade 2005
  26. ^ Fortún 1961, p. 23.
  27. ^ Fortún 1961, p. 24.
  28. ^ De la Vega, Garcilaso; Serna, Mercedes (2000) [1617]. "XXVIII". Comentarios Reales [Royal Commentaries]. Clásicos Castalia (in Spanish). Vol. 252 (2000 ed.). Madrid, Spain: Editorial Castalia. pp. 226–227. ISBN 84-7039-855-5. OCLC 46420337.
  29. ^ Santa Cruz, 2004, p. 285.
  30. ^ Salles-Reese 1997, pp. 166-167.
  31. ^ Harris 2003, pp. 205-211.
  32. ^ "La diablada orureña se remonta a la época de los Urus precoloniales" [The Diablada of Oruro goes back to the times of the Pre-Columbian Urus]. La Razón (in Spanish). La Paz, Bolivia. 9 August 2009. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
  33. ^ Cuentas Ormachea 1986, pp. 35–36, 45.
  34. ^ "El folclor de Chile y sus tres grandes raíces" [The Chile's folklore and its three great roots] (in Spanish). Memorias Chilenas. 2004. Archived from the original on 11 September 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
  35. ^ "Bolivia (Plurinational State of) - Information related to Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO. 2001. Retrieved 3 October 2009. The town of Oruro, situated at an altitude of 3,700 metres in the mountains of western Bolivia and once a pre-Columbian ceremonial site, was an important mining area in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Resettled by the Spanish in 1606, it continued to be a sacred site for the Uru people, who would often travel long distances to perform their rituals, especially for the principal Ito festival. The Spanish banned these ceremonies in the seventeenth century, but they continued under the guise of Christian liturgy: the Andean gods were concealed behind Christian icons and the Andean divinities became the Saints. The Ito festival was transformed into a Christian ritual, celebrated on Candlemas (2 February). The traditional llama llama or diablada in worship of the Uru god Tiw became the main dance at the Carnival of Oruro.
  36. ^ "La Diablada De Oruro, máscara danza pagana" [The Diablada of Oruro, mask pagan dance] (in Spanish). 2009. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
  37. ^ a b Fortún, Julia Elena (1961). "Actual coreografía del baile de los diablos" [Current choreography of the devils dance]. La danza de los diablos [The dance of the devils] (DOC). Autores bolivianos contemporáneos (in Spanish). Vol. 5. La Paz, Bolivia: Ministerio de Educación y Bellas Artes, Oficialía Mayor de Cultura Nacional. OCLC 3346627.
  38. ^ Gisbert 2002, p. 9.
  39. ^ a b Cuentas Ormachea, Enrique (23 August 2009). "Diablada: coreografía, vestimenta y música" [Diablada: choreography, clothing and music]. Los Andes (in Spanish). Puno, Peru. Retrieved 24 October 2009.
  40. ^ Jiménez Borja, Arturo (1996). Fundación del Banco Continental para el Fomento de la Educación y la Cultura (ed.). Máscaras peruanas [Peruvian masks] (in Spanish). Lima, Peru. Retrieved 24 October 2009.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  41. ^ Museo Nacional de Etnografía y Folklore (Bolivia) (2003). MUSEF (ed.). Serie anales de la reunión anual de etnología [Records of the annual reunion of ethnology series] (in Spanish). Vol. 2. La Paz, Bolivia: MUSEF. Retrieved 24 October 2009.
  42. ^ a b "Danzas ceremoniales del área cultural del Norte" [Ceremonial dances of the northern cultural area] (in Spanish). Chile: Hamaycan. Archived from the original on June 9, 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2010.

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