Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea

The Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea, also known as the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland, DFRF, or the Fatherland Front, formed on 22 July 1946,[1] is a North Korean popular front led by the Workers' Party of Korea (WPK). It was initially called the North Korean Fatherland United Democratic Front.[2]

Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea

조국통일민주주의전선
Choguk T'ongil Minju Chuŭi Chŏnsŏn
Supreme LeaderKim Jong-un
President and Secretary GeneralPak Myong-chol
FounderKim Il-sung
Founded22 July 1946
HeadquartersPyongyang
IdeologyJuche
Songun
Supreme People's Assembly
687 / 687
Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea
Chosŏn'gŭl
조국통일민주주의전선
Hancha
Revised RomanizationJoguk tong(-)il minju juui jeonseon
McCune–ReischauerChoguk t'ongil minju chuŭi chŏnsŏn

Initially 72 parties and social organizations,[3] from both the North and the South, comprised the front.[4] Today it has 24 members.[3] The three political parties of North Korea—the WPK, the Korean Social Democratic Party, and the Chondoist Chongu Party—all participate in the front.[5] The four most important mass organizations—the Kimilsungist-Kimjongilist Youth League, Socialist Women's Union of Korea, General Federation of Trade Unions of Korea, and Union of Agricultural Workers of Korea—are also members.[6][7] The Korean Children's Union is also a member organization.[8]

All candidates for elective office must be members of the front, and are elected by it; mass meetings are held to decide which candidates will be nominated and their names can go on the ballot paper only with the approval of the meeting.[9] In practice, however, the minor parties and mass organizations in the front are completely subservient to the WPK.[10] The WPK is thus able to predetermine the composition of the Supreme People's Assembly (SPA).

There is an ostensible South Korean counterpart for the DFRF, known as the Anti-Imperialist National Democratic Front, which operates in North Korea.

The current President and Secretary General of the Central Committee of the DFRF is Pak Myong-chol.[11] Other people on its presidium include Ri Kil-song and Kim Wan-su.[12]

MembersEdit

Political partiesEdit

Name
(abbreviation)
Emblem Ideology Foundation Seats in the SPA (2014) Ref
Workers' Party of Korea
조선로동당
Chosŏn Rodongdang
  Juche
Songun
29 July 1946
607 / 687
[13][14]
Korean Social Democratic Party
조선사회민주당
Chosŏn Sahoe Minjudang
  Social democracy (de jure) 3 November 1945
50 / 687
[15][14]
Chondoist Chongu Party
천도교청우당
Ch'ŏndogyo Ch'ŏngudang
  Chondoist interests 18 February 1946
22 / 687
[16][14]
Chongryon[a]
총련
  Zainichi interests 30 March 1950
6 / 687
[17]
  1. ^ Chongryon is not a political party but sends members to the Supreme People's Assembly to represent the organisation as part of the Democratic Front.[citation needed]

Other organizationsEdit

Organization Emblem Korean name Foundation Ref
Kimilsungist-Kimjongilist Youth League   김일성-김정일주의청년동맹 17 January 1946 [18]
Socialist Women's Union of Korea   조선사회주의녀성동맹 18 November 1945 [19]
General Federation of Trade Unions of Korea   조선직업총동맹 30 November 1945 [20]
Union of Agricultural Workers of Korea   조선농업근로자동맹 31 January 1946 [20]
Korean Children's Union   조선소년단 6 June 1946 [21]
Korean Journalists' Union 조선기자동맹 10 February 1946 [22][23]
Korean Federation of Literature and Arts 조선문학예술총동맹 25 March 1946 [22][24]
Korean Christian Federation 조선그리스도교연맹 28 November 1946 [25][26]
Korean Catholic Association [ko] 조선카톨릭교협회 30 June 1988 [27][28]
Korea Buddhist Federation 조선불교도련맹 26 December 1945 [27][29]
Chosun Cheondogyo Central Guidance Committee 조선천도교중앙지도위원회 1 February 1946 [27][30]

Electoral historyEdit

Supreme People's Assembly electionsEdit

Election % Seats +/– Position Government
1948 98.49%
572 / 572
  572   1st Sole legal coalition
1957 99.92%
215 / 215
  357   1st Sole legal coalition
1962 100%
383 / 383
  168   1st Sole legal coalition
1967 100%
457 / 457
  74   1st Sole legal coalition
1972 100%
541 / 541
  84   1st Sole legal coalition
1977 100%
579 / 579
  38   1st Sole legal coalition
1982 100%
615 / 615
  36   1st Sole legal coalition
1986 100%
655 / 655
  40   1st Sole legal coalition
1990 100%
687 / 687
  32   1st Sole legal coalition
1998 100%
687 / 687
    1st Sole legal coalition
2003 100%
687 / 687
    1st Sole legal coalition
2009 100%
687 / 687
    1st Sole legal coalition
2014 100%
687 / 687
    1st Sole legal coalition
2019 100%
687 / 687
    1st Sole legal coalition

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland". Naenara.kp. 2004. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008.
  2. ^ Andrei N. Lankov (2001). "The Demise of Non-Communist Parties in North Korea (1945–1960)". jhu.edu. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  3. ^ a b 조국통일민주주의전선(조국전선) - 개요. nk.chosun.com (in Korean). 30 October 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  4. ^ "Korea". The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (3rd ed.). 1970–1979. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  5. ^ "Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland". An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Marxism, Socialism and Communism: Economic, Philosophical, Political and Sociological Theories, Concepts, Institutions and Practices. Macmillan International Higher Education. 1981. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-349-05806-8.
  6. ^ Scalapino, Robert A.; Chun-yŏp Kim (1983). North Korea Today: Strategic and Domestic Issues. Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, Center for Korean Studies. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-912966-55-7.
  7. ^ Lansford, Tom (2015). Political Handbook of the World 2015. Singapore: CQ Press. p. 3330. ISBN 978-1-4833-7155-9.
  8. ^ "Korea, Democratic People's Republic of (DPRK) - Organizations". Retrieved 31 August 2006.
  9. ^ "The Parliamentary System of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea" (PDF). Constitutional and Parliamentary Information. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2006. Retrieved 1 October 2006.
  10. ^ Savada, Andrea Matles. "Mass Organizations." North Korea: A country study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1993.
  11. ^ "Vietnam's Party, State delegation visits DPRK". Nhân Dân. NDO/VNA. 10 September 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  12. ^ "National Foundation Day Marked". KCNA Watch. Uriminzokkiri. 5 October 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  13. ^ Lanʹkov, Andreĭ Nikolaevich (2002). From Stalin to Kim Il Song: The Formation of North Korea, 1945-1960. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-85065-563-3.
  14. ^ a b c "IPU PARLINE Database: Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Choe Go In Min Hoe Ui". Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  15. ^ North Korea Handbook 2002, p. 1128.
  16. ^ Tertitskiy, Fyodor (26 November 2014). "Being a minor party in the North: In a totalitarian regime, what do N. Korea's other political blocs do?". NK News. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  17. ^ "No re-entry for Chongryon execs who go to Kim's funeral". Asahi Shimbun. December 23, 2011. Archived from the original on June 23, 2013.
  18. ^ North Korea Handbook 2002, p. 391.
  19. ^ North Korea Handbook 2002, p. 390.
  20. ^ a b North Korea Handbook 2002, p. 389.
  21. ^ North Korea Handbook 2002, p. 929.
  22. ^ a b 조국통일민주주의전선(祖國統一民主主義戰線). Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). Archived from the original on 22 August 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  23. ^ Lent, John A. (1982). Newspapers in Asia: Contemporary Trends and Problems. Hong Kong: Heinemann Asia. p. 127. ISBN 978-962-225-079-6.
  24. ^ North Korea Handbook 2002, p. 1121.
  25. ^ 조국통일민주주의전선. North Korea Information Portal (in Korean). Ministry of Unification. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  26. ^ Hoare, James (2012). Historical Dictionary of Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. p. xxix. ISBN 978-0-8108-6151-0.
  27. ^ a b c <통일부 수탁과제 최종보고서> 북한개요 개정판 (in Korean). 통일부. 24 December 2008. p. 49. Retrieved 31 January 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  28. ^ Kwon Oh-guk (2013). "script-ko:조선카톨릭협회(朝鮮카톨릭協會)". Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  29. ^ Ryu Gil-jae (2009). 조선불교도연맹(朝鮮佛敎徒聯盟). encykorea.aks.ac.kr (in Korean). Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  30. ^ Kwon Oh-guk (2013). 조선천도교중앙지도위원회(朝鮮天道敎中央指導委員會). Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). Retrieved 31 January 2021.

Works citedEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Kim Il-sung (1981). "On the Formation of the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland: Report Delivered at the Sixth Meeting of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of North Korea, June 11, 1949". Works. 5. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. OCLC 311616915.