Daniel Joseph Berrigan SJ (May 9, 1921 – April 30, 2016) was an American Jesuit priest, anti-war activist, Christian pacifist, playwright, poet, and author.

Daniel Berrigan
Father Daniel Berrigan speaking at a Witness Against Torture event held on December 18, 2008, in the Lower East Side (New York City).
Berrigan in 2008
Daniel Joseph Berrigan

(1921-05-09)May 9, 1921
DiedApril 30, 2016(2016-04-30) (aged 94)
  • Jesuit priest
  • peace activist
  • university educator
  • playwright
  • poet
  • author
Known for
RelativesPhilip Berrigan (brother)

Berrigan's protests against the Vietnam War earned him both scorn and admiration, especially regarding his association with the Catonsville Nine.[1][2] He was arrested multiple times, sentenced to prison for three years for destruction of government property, and was listed on the Federal Bureau of Investigation's "most wanted list" after flight to avoid imprisonment (the first-ever priest on the list)[3] and was sentenced to prison for destruction of government property.[4]

For the rest of his life, Berrigan remained one of the United States' leading anti-war activists.[5] In 1980, he co-founded the Plowshares movement, an anti-nuclear protest group, that put him back into the national spotlight.[6] Berrigan was an award-winning and prolific author of some 50 books, a teacher, and a university educator.[4]

Early life edit

Berrigan was born in Virginia, Minnesota, the son of Thomas Berrigan, a second-generation Irish Catholic and active trade union member, and Frieda Berrigan (née Fromhart), who was of German ancestry.[7] He was the fifth of six sons.[4] His youngest brother was fellow peace activist Philip Berrigan.[8]

At age 5, Berrigan's family moved to Syracuse, New York.[9] In 1946, Berrigan earned a bachelor's degree from St. Andrew-on-Hudson, a Jesuit seminary in Hyde Park, New York.[10] In 1952 he received a master's degree from Woodstock College in Baltimore, Maryland.[4]

Berrigan was devoted to the Catholic Church throughout his youth. He joined the Jesuits directly out of high school in 1939 and was ordained to the priesthood on June 19, 1952.[4][11]

Career edit

Berrigan taught at St. Peter's Preparatory School in Jersey City from 1946 to 1949.[12]

In 1954, Berrigan was assigned to teach French and theology at the Jesuit Brooklyn Preparatory School.[13][14][15][a] In 1957 he was appointed professor of New Testament studies at Le Moyne College in Syracuse, New York. The same year, he won the Lamont Prize for his book of poems, Time Without Number. He developed a reputation as a religious radical, working actively against poverty and on changing the relationship between priests and lay people. While at Le Moyne, he founded its International House.[17]

While on a sabbatical from Le Moyne in 1963, Berrigan traveled to Paris and met French Jesuits who criticized the social and political conditions in Indochina. Taking inspiration from this, he and his brother Philip founded the Catholic Peace Fellowship, a group that organized protests against the war in Vietnam.[18]

On October 28, 1965, Berrigan, along with the Rev. Richard John Neuhaus and Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel, founded an organization known as Clergy and Laymen Concerned About Vietnam (CALCAV). The organization, founded at the Church Center for the United Nations, was joined by the likes of Dr. Hans Morgenthau, the Rev. Reinhold Niebuhr, the Rev. William Sloane Coffin, and the Rev. Philip Berrigan, among many others. The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., who delivered his 1967 speech Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence under sponsorship from CALCAV, served as the national co-chairman of the organization.

From 1966 to 1970, Berrigan was the assistant director of the Cornell University United Religious Work (CURW), the umbrella organization for all religious groups on campus, including the Cornell Newman Club (later the Cornell Catholic Community), eventually becoming the group's pastor.[19] Berrigan was the first faculty advisor of Cornell University's first gay rights student group, the Student Homophile League, in 1968.[20]

Berrigan at one time or another held faculty positions or ran programs at Union Theological Seminary, Loyola University New Orleans, Columbia, Cornell, and Yale.[4] His longest tenure was at Fordham (a Jesuit university located in the Bronx), where for a brief time he also served as poet-in-residence.[4][21][22]

Berrigan appeared briefly in the 1986 Warner Bros. film The Mission, playing a Jesuit priest. He also served as a consultant on the film.[23][24]

Activism edit

Vietnam War era edit

But how shall we educate men to goodness, to a sense of one another, to a love of the truth? And more urgently, how shall we do this in a bad time?

— Berrigan, quoted on the cover of Time (January 25, 1971)[25]

Berrigan, his brother and Josephite priest Philip Berrigan, and Trappist monk Thomas Merton founded an interfaith coalition against the Vietnam War and wrote letters to major newspapers arguing for an end to the war. In 1967, Berrigan witnessed the public outcry that followed from the arrest of his brother Philip, for pouring blood on draft records as part of the Baltimore Four.[26] Philip was sentenced to six years in prison for defacing government property. The fallout he had to endure from these many interventions, including his support for prisoners of war and, in 1968, seeing firsthand the conditions on the ground in Vietnam,[27] further radicalized Berrigan, or at least strengthened his determination to resist American military imperialism.[28][29]

Berrigan traveled to Hanoi with Howard Zinn during the Tet Offensive in January 1968 to "receive" three American airmen, the first American prisoners of war released by the North Vietnamese since the US bombing of that nation had begun.[30][31]

In 1968, he signed the Writers and Editors War Tax Protest pledge, vowing to refuse to make tax payments in protest of the Vietnam War.[32] In the same year, he was interviewed in the anti-Vietnam War documentary film In the Year of the Pig, and later that year became involved in radical non-violent protest.

Catonsville Nine edit

The short fuse of the American left is typical of the highs and lows of American emotional life. It is very rare to sustain a movement in recognizable form without a spiritual base.

Daniel Berrigan, on the 40th anniversary of the Catonsville Nine (2008)[18]

Daniel Berrigan and his brother Philip, along with seven other Catholic protesters, used homemade napalm to destroy 378 draft files in the parking lot of the Catonsville, Maryland, draft board on May 17, 1968.[33][34][35] This group, which came to be known as the Catonsville Nine, issued a statement after the incident:

We confront the Roman Catholic Church, other Christian bodies, and the synagogues of America with their silence and cowardice in the face of our country's crimes. We are convinced that the religious bureaucracy in this country is racist, is an accomplice in this war, and is hostile to the poor.[26]

Berrigan was arrested and sentenced to three years in prison,[36] but went into hiding with the help of fellow radicals prior to imprisonment. While on the run, Berrigan was interviewed for Lee Lockwood's documentary The Holy Outlaw. The Federal Bureau of Investigation apprehended him on August 11, 1970, at the home of William Stringfellow and Anthony Towne on Block Island. Berrigan was then imprisoned at the Federal Correctional Institution in Danbury, Connecticut, until his release on February 24, 1972.[37]

In retrospect, the trial of the Catonsville Nine was significant, because it "altered resistance to the Vietnam War, moving activists from street protests to repeated acts of civil disobedience, including the burning of draft cards".[2] As The New York Times noted in its obituary, Berrigan's actions helped "shape the tactics of opposition to the Vietnam War."[4]

Plowshares movement edit

Daniel Berrigan is arrested for civil disobedience outside the US Mission to the UN in 2006

On September 9, 1980, Berrigan, his brother Philip, and six others (the "Plowshares Eight") began the Plowshares movement. They trespassed onto the General Electric nuclear missile facility in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, where they damaged nuclear warhead nose cones and poured blood onto documents and files. They were arrested and charged with over ten different felony and misdemeanor counts.[38] On April 10, 1990, after ten years of appeals, Berrigan's group was re-sentenced and paroled for up to 231/2 months in consideration of time already served in prison.[39] Their legal battle was re-created in Emile de Antonio's 1982 film In the King of Prussia, which starred Martin Sheen and featured appearances by the Plowshares Eight as themselves.[5]

Consistent life ethic edit

I see an 'interlocking directorate' of death that binds the whole culture. That is, an unspoken agreement that we will solve our problems by killing people in various ways; a declaration that certain people are expendable, outside the pale. A decent society should no more have an abortion clinic than The Pentagon." — interview by Lucien Miller, Reflections, vol. 2, no. 4 (Fall 1979)[40]

Berrigan endorsed a consistent life ethic, a morality based on a holistic reverence for life.[41][42][43][44] As a member of the Rochester, New York-area consistent life ethic advocacy group Faith and Resistance Community, he protested via civil disobedience against abortion at a new Planned Parenthood clinic in 1991.[42]

AIDS activism edit

Berrigan said of pastoral care to AIDS patients:

We deal with very many gay Catholics who have felt terribly hurt and misused by the church. There are some people who want to be reconciled with the church and there are others who have great bitterness. So I try to perform whatever human or religious work that seems called for.[45]

Berrigan published Sorrow Built a Bridge: Friendship and AIDS reflecting on his experiences ministering to AIDS patients through the Supportive Care Program at St. Vincent's Hospital and Medical Center in 1989.[46] The Religious Studies Review wrote, "the strength of this volume lies in its capacity to portray sensitively the impact of AIDS on human lives."[47] Speaking about AIDS patients, many of whom were gay, The Charlotte Observer quoted Berrigan saying in 1991, "Both the church and the state are finding ways to kill people with AIDS, and one of the ways is ostracism that pushes people between the cracks of respectability or acceptability and leaves them there to make of life what they will or what they cannot."[48]

Other activism edit

Berrigan and his niece, Frida Berrigan, at the Witness Against Torture event held in NYC's Lower East Side on December 18, 2008

Although much of his later work was devoted to assisting AIDS patients in New York City,[4] Berrigan still held to his activist roots throughout his life. He maintained his opposition to American interventions abroad, from Central America in the 1980s, through the Gulf War in 1991, the Kosovo War, the US invasion of Afghanistan, and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. He was also an opponent of capital punishment, a contributing editor of Sojourners, and a supporter of the Occupy movement.[49][50][51]

P. G. Coy, P. Berryman, D. L. Anderson, and others consider Berrigan to be a Christian anarchist.[52][53][54][55][56]

In media edit

Death edit

Berrigan died in the Bronx, New York City, on April 30, 2016, at Murray-Weigel Infirmary, the Jesuit infirmary at Fordham University.[4] Since 1975,[63] he had lived on the Upper West Side at the West Side Jesuit Community.[64][65]

Daniel Berrigan, Oct. 28, 2006, at the 3rd Annual Staten Island Freedom & Peace Festival

Awards and recognition edit

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ According to Marsh and Brown, it was French and philosophy.[16]

References edit

  1. ^ "Fire and Faith: The Catonsville Nine File". Digital archive. Enoch Pratt Free Library. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  2. ^ a b Chris Hedges (May 20, 2008). "Daniel Berrigan: Forty Years After Catonsville". The Nation. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  3. ^ "Blessed are the peacemakers". The Economist. May 21, 2016. Archived from the original on May 19, 2016. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Lewis, Daniel (April 30, 2016). "Daniel J. Berrigan, Defiant Priest Who Preached Pacifism, Dies at 94". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 21, 2020. Retrieved April 30, 2016.
  5. ^ a b c Goodman, Amy (June 8, 2006). "Holy Outlaw: Lifelong Peace Activist Father Daniel Berrigan Turns 85". Democracy Now!. Archived from the original on December 18, 2019. Retrieved May 1, 2016. Starts at 35:00
  6. ^ "US anti-Vietnam war priest Daniel Berrigan dies aged 94". BBC News. May 2016. Archived from the original on April 21, 2019. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
  7. ^ "Daniel Berrigan – United States Census, 1930". FamilySearch. Archived from the original on May 12, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  8. ^ Lewis, Daniel (December 8, 2002). "Philip Berrigan, Former Priest and Peace Advocate in the Vietnam War Era, Dies at 79". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 14, 2019. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  9. ^ Faison, Carly (2014). "Guide to the Daniel Berrigan Papers". CatholicResearch.net. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  10. ^ "Danial J Berrigan – United States Census, 1940". FamilySearch. Archived from the original on May 9, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  11. ^ Roberts, Tom (April 30, 2016). "Daniel Berrigan, poet, peacemaker, dies at 94". National Catholic Reporter. Archived from the original on October 20, 2019. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  12. ^ Schmidt, Margaret (April 30, 2016). "Peace activist Father Berrigan dies, taught at St. Peter's Prep in '40s". The Jersey Journal. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  13. ^ New York Times Encyclopedic Almanac. New York Times, Book & Educational Division. 1970. p. 31. Archived from the original on February 5, 2020. Retrieved April 23, 2018. Back in New York, Berrigan taught French and theology for three years at the Jesuits' Brooklyn Preparatory School.
  14. ^ Siracusa, J.M. (2012). "Berrigan, Daniel". Encyclopedia of the Kennedys: The People and Events That Shaped America: The People and Events That Shaped America. ABC-CLIO. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-59884-539-6. Archived from the original on May 1, 2016. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  15. ^ Curtis, R. (1974). The Berrigan Brothers: The Story of Daniel and Philip Berrigan. Hawthorn Books. p. 33. Archived from the original on May 3, 2022. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  16. ^ Marsh, J.L.; Brown, A.J. (2012). Faith, Resistance, and the Future: Daniel Berrigan's Challenge to Catholic Social Thought. Fordham University Press Series. Fordham University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8232-3982-5. Archived from the original on March 1, 2021. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  17. ^ "Alumni & College News". www.dolphinsonline.org. Archived from the original on March 4, 2021. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  18. ^ a b "Daniel Berrigan, priest and anti-Vietnam war peace activist, dies". The Guardian. May 2016. Archived from the original on September 7, 2019. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
  19. ^ Aloi, Daniel (April 4, 2006). "From Vietnam to Redbud Woods: Daniel Berrigan launches events commemorating five decades of activism at Cornell". Cornell Chronicle. Archived from the original on August 16, 2007. Retrieved December 1, 2007.
  20. ^ Marston, Brenda (June 6, 2020). "CUGALA Reunion 2020 The First American University". Cornell University. Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  21. ^ "Dissenter Poet in Residence: The Rev. Daniel Berrigan, S.J." Inside Fordham Online. March 2003. Archived from the original on May 3, 2022. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  22. ^ Guerierro, Katherine (November 6, 1997). "Peace activist Daniel Berrigan to teach poetry course". Archived from the original on May 3, 2022. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
  23. ^ a b Raftery, Kay (March 25, 1993). "Father Berrigan Talks About His Film Mission The Jesuit And Noted Peace Activist Discussed His Role In The Making Of A Major Motion Picture". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on June 1, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
  24. ^ a b Berrigan, Daniel (1986). The Mission: A Film Journal (1st ed.). San Francisco: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-250056-4. OCLC 13947262.
  25. ^ "The Nation: The Berrigans: Conspiracy and Conscience". Time. Vol. 97, no. 4. January 25, 1971. p. 18. ISSN 0040-781X. Archived from the original on May 7, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  26. ^ a b Religion and War Resistance in the Plowshares Movement (2008) Sharon Erickson Nepstad, Cambridge University Press, p48 ISBN 978-0-521-71767-0
  27. ^ "Finding Aid for Daniel Berrigan Papers". DePaul University Special Collections and Archives Department. Archived from the original on March 3, 2021. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  28. ^ "Father Daniel Berrigan, Anti-War Activist & Poet, Dies". Democracy Now!. April 30, 2016. Archived from the original on May 1, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  29. ^ "In 2006 Interview, Fr. Dan Berrigan Recalls Confronting Defense Secretary McNamara over Vietnam War". Democracy Now!. Archived from the original on May 3, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
  30. ^ Nancy Zaroulis; Gerald Sullivan (1989). Who Spoke Up? American Protest Against the War in Vietnam 1963–1975. Horizon Book Promotions. ISBN 0-385-17547-7.
  31. ^ Howard Zinn (1994). You Can't Be Neutral on a Moving Train. Beacon Press. pp. 126–38. ISBN 0-8070-7127-7.; new ed. 2002
  32. ^ "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest". New York Post. January 30, 1968.
  33. ^ "The Catonsville Nine original 5/17/68 footage". Waging Non-Violence. May 17, 1968. Archived from the original on May 1, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  34. ^ Olzen, Jake (May 17, 2013). "How the Catonsville Nine survived on film". Waging Non-Violence. Archived from the original on May 4, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  35. ^ United States v. Moylan, 1002 417 F. 2d (Court of Appeals, 4th Circuit 1969).
  36. ^ Berrigan v. Norton, 790 451 F. 2d (Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit 1971).
  37. ^ "Grand jury indicts two for hiding Dan Berrigan". Cornell Daily Sun. Vol. 87, no. 63. Associated Press. December 18, 1970. p. 3. Archived from the original on September 29, 2017. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  38. ^ Com. v. Berrigan, 226 501 A. 2d (Pa: Supreme Court 1985).
  39. ^ "A History of Direct Disarmament Actions - The Ploughshares movement originated in the North American faith". coat.ncf.ca. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  40. ^ Democrats for Life: Pro-Life Politics and the Silenced Majority, Kristen Day, p.61
  41. ^ a b Gibson, David (April 1, 2016). "Daniel Berrigan, anti-war priest, dies at 94". Religion News Service. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
  42. ^ a b Goldman, Ari L. (February 8, 1992). "Religion Notes". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
  43. ^ "Consistent Life Individual Endorsers As of January 9, 2017" (PDF). Consistent Life Network. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
  44. ^ "Fr Daniel Berrigan, anti-war and pro-life campaigner, dies aged 94 – CatholicHerald.co.uk". CatholicHerald.co.uk – Breaking news and opinion from the online edition of Britain's leading Catholic newspaper. Associated Press. May 2, 2016. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
  45. ^ Mullen, Thomas (June 2, 1990). "Jesuit Priest's Varied Causes Include Helping AIDS Victims". Richmond Times-Dispatch – via Access World News.
  46. ^ Berrigan, Daniel (1989). Sorrow Built a Bridge: Friendship and AIDS. Baltimore: Fortkamp Publishing Company.
  47. ^ "Notes on Recent Publications". Religious Studies Review. 17 (2): 150. 1991.
  48. ^ McClain, Kathleen (October 11, 1989). "AIDS Attitudes Appall Activist Daniel Berrigan". The Charlotte Observer (NC) – via Access World News.
  49. ^ Chris Hedges (June 11, 2012). "Daniel Berrigan, America's Street Priest, Stands With Occupy". Archived from the original on June 15, 2012. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  50. ^ Roberts, Tom (January 26, 1996). "Soon 75, Berrigan's is still an edgy God". National Catholic Reporter. 32 (13). ISSN 0027-8939.
  51. ^ Schneider, N. (2013). Thank You, Anarchy: Notes from the Occupy Apocalypse. University of California Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-520-95703-9. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
  52. ^ Coy, P.G. (1988). A Revolution of the Heart: Essays on the Catholic Worker. Temple University Press. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-87722-531-7. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
  53. ^ Labrie, R. (2001). Thomas Merton and the Inclusive Imagination. University of Missouri Press. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-8262-6279-0. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
  54. ^ Berryman, P. (2013). Our Unfinished Business. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-307-83164-4. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
  55. ^ Davis, A.Y. (2016). If They Come in the Morning: Voices of Resistance. Radical Thinkers. Verso Books. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-78478-770-7. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
  56. ^ Anderson, D.L. (2003). The Human Tradition in America Since 1945. Scholarly Resources. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-8420-2943-8. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
  57. ^ "Rebel Priests: The Curious Case of the Berrigans". Time. January 25, 1971. Cover. Archived from the original on July 24, 2019. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  58. ^ "Adrienne Rich experiment". www.sccs.swarthmore.edu. Archived from the original on August 10, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
  59. ^ "Investigation of a Flame (2003)". IMDb. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
  60. ^ Anderson, John (May 4, 1998). "The IRS Plays Tax and Consequences". Newsday. New York, New York. p. B7. Retrieved February 7, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  61. ^ Bush, Vanessa (October 1, 2006). "Kisseloff, Jeff. Generation on Fire: Voices of Protest from the 1960s". Booklist. 103 (3). American Library Association. Archived from the original on May 3, 2022. Retrieved April 12, 2022 – via Gale.
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  63. ^ "Daniel Berrigan Papers (1961–2009)" (Finding aid). Special Collections and Archives, DePaul University. Chicago, Illinois. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  64. ^ Goldman, Ari L. (April 17, 1989). "A Landlord Tries to Evict Jesuit Group". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 2, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  65. ^ Wylie-Kellermann, Bill (September 2016). "Death Shall Have No Dominion: Daniel Berrigan of the Resurrection". CrossCurrents. 66 (3): 312–320. doi:10.1111/cros.12199. S2CID 171433961.
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  68. ^ "OBITUARY: Fr. Daniel Berrigan, S.J., Pax Christi USA Teacher of Peace, passes away at age 94". PAX CHRISTI USA. April 30, 2016. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
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  70. ^ "Honorary Degrees List July 2021" (PDF). wooster.edu. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 3, 2022. Retrieved May 3, 2022.

Further reading edit

  • Coles, Robert (March 22, 1971). "A Dialogue With Radical Priest Daniel Berrigan". Time. Vol. 97, no. 12. p. 28. ISSN 0040-781X.
  • Jim Forest, At Play in the Lions' Den: A Biography and Memoir of Daniel Berrigan (Orbis Books 2017)
  • Francine du Plessix Gray, Divine Disobedience: Profiles in Catholic Radicalism (Knopf, 1970)
  • Daniel Berrigan Papers (finding aid) Special Collections and Archives, DePaul University
  • Murray Polner and Jim O'Grady, Disarmed and Dangerous: The Radical Lives and Times of Daniel and Philip Berrigan, Brothers in Religious Faith & Civil Disobedience (Basic Books, 1997 and Westview Press, 1998)
    • Murray Polner Papers, DePaul University Special Collections and Archives (notes and documents from writing Disarmed and Dangerous: The Radical Lives & Times of Daniel & Philip Berrigan)
  • Daniel Cosacchi and Eric Martin, eds., The Berrigan Letters: Personal Correspondence between Daniel and Philip Berrigan (Orbis Books, 2016)
  • Van Allen, Rodger. “What Really Happened?: Revisiting the 1965 Exiling to Latin America of Daniel Berrigan, S.J.” American Catholic Studies 117, no. 2 (2006): 33–60. http://www.jstor.org/stable/44194888.

External links edit