Dai (Sixteen Kingdoms)

Dai, also formerly spelled Tai, was a state of the Xianbei clan of Tuoba, during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. It existed from AD 310 to 376,[1] with its capital at Shengle (盛樂) (near modern Horinger County of Hohhot, Inner Mongolia).


China in 350 CE. Dai is visible at the top of the map.
China in 350 CE. Dai is visible at the top of the map.
StatusVassal of Jin Dynasty, Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin
• 310–316
Tuoba Yilu
• 338–376
Tuoba Shiyijian
• Established
• Status upgraded from dukedom to principality
• Disestablished
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Jin Dynasty (265–420)
Former Qin
Today part ofChina
Traditional Chinese代國
Simplified Chinese代国
Literal meaningState of Dai
Kingdom of Dai

The name "Dai" originated when Tuoba Yilu was appointed Duke of Dai (代公) by the Western Jin in 310 AD, as a reward for helping Liu Kun (劉琨), the Governor of Bingzhou (并州), fight against the Xiongnu state of Han Zhao. The fief was later promoted from a duchy to a principality. Dai was conquered in 376 by the Former Qin state, and its descendants later established the Northern Wei Dynasty in the 4th century.

Chieftains of Tuoba Clan 219–377 (as Princes of Dai 315–377)Edit

Posthumous name Personal name Period of Reign Other
Shenyuan Tuoba Liwei 219–277 Temple Name: Shizu 始祖
Zhang Tuoba Xilu 277–286
Ping Tuoba Chuo 286–293
Si Tuoba Fu 293–294
Zhao Tuoba Luguan 294–307
Huan Tuoba Yituo 295–305
Mu Tuoba Yilu 295–316
Tuoba Pugen 316
Tuoba[note 1] 316
Pingwen Tuoba Yulü 316–321
Hui Tuoba Heru 321–325
Yang Tuoba Hena 325–329 and 335–337
Lie Tuoba Yihuai 329–335 and 337–338
Zhaocheng Tuoba Shiyijian 338–377 Era name: Jianguo 建國

Tuoba clan family treeEdit


  1. ^ No known given name survives.


  1. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 57. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.

See alsoEdit